Taxon: Chrysobalanus icaco Family: Chrysobalanaceae



Yüklə 119.5 Kb.
PDF просмотр
tarix21.08.2017
ölçüsü119.5 Kb.

Taxon:

Chrysobalanus icaco

Family:

Chrysobalanaceae

Common Name

Synonym:

Coco plum

icaco

icacier


prune colon

Chrysobalanus icaco var. pellocarpus (G.F.W

Chrysobalanus interior Small

Chrysobalanus pellocarpus G.F.W. Mey.

 Chrysobalanus savannarum Britt.



Assessor:

Chuck Chimera



Data Entry Person: Chuck Chimera

WRA Score

12

H(HPWRA) 



Designation:

Questionaire :

current 20090513



Status:

Assessor Approved



101

n

y=-3, n=0

Is the species highly domesticated?

102

y=1, n=-1

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

103

y=1, n=-1

Does the species have weedy races?

201

High

(0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-

high)  (See Appendix 2)

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) - If island is primarily wet habitat, then 

substitute "wet tropical" for "tropical or subtropical"

202

High

(0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-

high)  (See Appendix 2)

Quality of climate match data

203

n

y=1, n=0

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

204

y

y=1, n=0

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

205

y

y=-2, ?=-1, n=0

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?

301

y

y = 1*multiplier (see 

Appendix 2), n= question 

205

Naturalized beyond native range

302

n

n=0, y = 1*multiplier (see 

Appendix 2)

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed

303

n

n=0, y = 2*multiplier (see 

Appendix 2)

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed

304

y

n=0, y = 2*multiplier (see 

Appendix 2)

Environmental weed

305

n

n=0, y = 1*multiplier (see 

Appendix 2)

Congeneric weed

401

n

y=1, n=0

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

402

n

y=1, n=0

Allelopathic

403

n

y=1, n=0

Parasitic

404

y=1, n=-1

Unpalatable to grazing animals

405

n

y=1, n=0

Toxic to animals

406

n

y=1, n=0

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

407

n

y=1, n=0

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

408

y

y=1, n=0

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

409

y=1, n=0

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

Page 1 of 8

Print Date:

3/28/2011



Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)

410

y

y=1, n=0

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

411

n

y=1, n=0

Climbing or smothering growth habit

412

y

y=1, n=0

Forms dense thickets

501

n

y=5, n=0

Aquatic

502

n

y=1, n=0

Grass

503

n

y=1, n=0

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

504

n

y=1, n=0

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

601

n

y=1, n=0

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

602

y

y=1, n=-1

Produces viable seed

603

y=1, n=-1

Hybridizes naturally

604

y

y=1, n=-1

Self-compatible or apomictic

605

n

y=-1, n=0

Requires specialist pollinators

606

y

y=1, n=-1

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

607

1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 

4+ years = -1

Minimum generative time (years)

701

n

y=1, n=-1

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked 

areas)

702

y

y=1, n=-1

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

703

n

y=1, n=-1

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

704

n

y=1, n=-1

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

705

y

y=1, n=-1

Propagules water dispersed

706

y

y=1, n=-1

Propagules bird dispersed

707

n

y=1, n=-1

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

708

y

y=1, n=-1

Propagules survive passage through the gut

801

n

y=1, n=-1

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

802

y=1, n=-1

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

803

y=-1, n=1

Well controlled by herbicides

804

y=1, n=-1

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

805

y=-1, n=1

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

WRA Score

12

H(HPWRA) 



Designation:

Page 2 of 8

Print Date:

3/28/2011



Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)

Supporting Data:

101


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

No evidence

102


2009. WRA Specialist. Personal Communication.  NA

103


2009. WRA Specialist. Personal Communication.  NA

201


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Coco-plum has an unusual distribution in that it is found naturally on both sides 

of the Atlantic - in tropical and subtropical America and in western tropical Africa. 

In the Americas, its range extends from southern Florida and the Bahamas 

through the West Indies and from Mexico and Central America to southern Brazil."

202

2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 



Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Coco-plum has an unusual distribution in that it is found naturally on both sides 

of the Atlantic - in tropical and subtropical America and in western tropical Africa. 

In the Americas, its range extends from southern Florida and the Bahamas 

through the West Indies and from Mexico and Central America to southern Brazil."

203


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"In its native range coco-plum is a coastal plant often found on beach dunes or in 

scrub or thickets, and it also grows inland along watercourses, usually on sandy, 

nutrient-poor soils."

203


2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"Ecology.—Coco-plum is a coastal species. It commonly grows as single plants 



or thickets on dunes and rocky headlands."

204


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Coco-plum has an unusual distribution in that it is found naturally on both sides 

of the Atlantic - in tropical and subtropical America and in western tropical Africa. 

In the Americas, its range extends from southern Florida and the Bahamas 

through the West Indies and from Mexico and Central America to southern Brazil."

205

2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 



Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"It has been widely introduced in the tropics and is now naturalized at least in 

eastern Africa, Vietnam, the Seychelles, Fiji, the Society Islands, and Hawaii."

301


2000. Meyer, J-Y./Malet, J-P.. Forestry and 

agroforestry alien trees as invasive plants in the 

Pacific Islands. FAO Workshop Data Collection 

for the Pacific Region. 4-8 September 2000 Apia, 

Samoa. 

"First introduced to the botanical garden of Papeari on the island of Tahiti in 



1922, now highly invasive on the Temehani plateaus in the island of Raiatea 

between 425 and 560 m elevation (Meyer 1998). Also spreading on Fatu Hiva 

(Marquesas Islands) where it has been planted along a trail between 600 and 660 

m elevation (Meyer, unpublished data, February 2000). Commonly planted in the 

town of Papeete and along roadsides in Tahiti as an ornamental. In Fiji, it was 

presumably introduced as an ornamental, “growing in the Suva botanical gardens 

in 1948 and had been abundantly naturalized in Southeastern Viti Levu prior to 

that date” (A. C. Smith 1985, p. 44), now common along roadsides near sea 

level, on the upper edges of beaches and in thickets on the inner margin of 

mangrove swamps."

301

2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 



Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"It has been widely introduced in the tropics and is now naturalized at least in 

eastern Africa, Vietnam, the Seychelles, Fiji, the Society Islands, and Hawaii."

302


2000. Meyer, J-Y.. Preliminary review of the 

invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP 

Member Countries). Invasive species in the 

Pacific: A technical review and draft regional 

strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment 

Programme, Samoa 

"Among the 30 and more potential invasive plants in the Pacific islands (i.e. 

known to be highly invasive elsewhere), sometimes locally naturalised but not yet 

perceived to be widespread and dominant (Table 3), are the rubber vine 

Cryptostegia grandiflora, the coco plum Chrysobalanus icaco, the quinine tree 

Cinchona pubescens,…"

Page 3 of 8

Print Date:

3/28/2011



Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)

302

2004. Kueffer, C./Vos, P.. Case Studies on the 

Status of invasive Woody Plant Species in the 

Western Indian Ocean: 5. Seychelles. Forest 

Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-5E. 

FAO Forestry Dept., Rome, Italy 

"Exotic shrubs, e.g. Chrysobalanus icaco, and the grass Panicum maximum are 

particularly linked with reduced habitat quality and the leaf litter of exotic trees 

supported fewer vertebrates (e.g. McCulloch 1994; Komdeur 1995). This effect 

has been further demonstrated by Njoroge (2002) and Wagner (2002). 

Comparisons of invertebrate abundance between islands indicate that food 

availability is higher in the restored forests on Cousin and Aride than on 

Frégate...In 1996, several projects were started by the Forestry Section of the 

Ministry of Environment to restore and manage habitats by removing invasive 

woody plants such as Cinnamomum verum, Chrysobalanus icaco and Syzygium 

jambos. Clearing both with and without follow-up replanting of native species 

have been assessed...Of the total woody plant species present on the granitic 

islands, about three-quarters are exotic. Nowadays, 13 of them are considered as 

highly invasive (Cinnamomum verum, Paraserianthes falcataria, Psidium 

cattleianum, Syzygium jambos, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alstonia macrophylla

Chrysobalanus icaco, Leucaena leucocephala, Cocos nucifera, Adenanthera 

pavonina, Tabebuia pallida, Lantana camara and Carica papaya)."

302

2009. WRA Specialist. Personal Communication.  A weed of degraded areas that has negative environmental impacts. See 3.04.



303

2007. Randall, R.P.. Global Compendium of 

Weeds - Index [Online Database]. 

http://www.hear.org/gcw/

No evidence

304


2000. Meyer, J-Y.. Preliminary review of the 

invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP 

Member Countries). Invasive species in the 

Pacific: A technical review and draft regional 

strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment 

Programme, Samoa 

"Among the 30 and more potential invasive plants in the Pacific islands (i.e. 

known to be highly invasive elsewhere), sometimes locally naturalised but not yet 

perceived to be widespread and dominant (Table 3), are the rubber vine 

Cryptostegia grandiflora, the coco plum Chrysobalanus icaco, the quinine tree 

Cinchona pubescens…"

304


2004. Kueffer, C./Vos, P.. Case Studies on the 

Status of invasive Woody Plant Species in the 

Western Indian Ocean: 5. Seychelles. Forest 

Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-5E. 

FAO Forestry Dept., Rome, Italy 

"Exotic shrubs, e.g. Chrysobalanus icaco, and the grass Panicum maximum are 

particularly linked with reduced habitat quality and the leaf litter of exotic trees 

supported fewer vertebrates (e.g. McCulloch 1994; Komdeur 1995). This effect 

has been further demonstrated by Njoroge (2002) and Wagner (2002). 

Comparisons of invertebrate abundance between islands indicate that food 

availability is higher in the restored forests on Cousin and Aride than on 

Frégate...In 1996, several projects were started by the Forestry Section of the 

Ministry of Environment to restore and manage habitats by removing invasive 

woody plants such as Cinnamomum verum, Chrysobalanus icaco and Syzygium 

jambos. Clearing both with and without follow-up replanting of native species 

have been assessed...Of the total woody plant species present on the granitic 

islands, about three-quarters are exotic. Nowadays, 13 of them are considered as 

highly invasive (Cinnamomum verum, Paraserianthes falcataria, Psidium 

cattleianum, Syzygium jambos, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alstonia macrophylla, 

Chrysobalanus icaco, Leucaena leucocephala, Cocos nucifera, Adenanthera 

pavonina1, Tabebuia pallida, Lantana camara and Carica papaya)."

304


2006. Chenje, M./Mohamed-Katerere, J.. 

Chapter 10. Invasive Alien Species. Pp 331-349 

in Africa Environment Outlook 2: Our 

Environment, Our Wealth.  United Nations 

Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya 

"Chrysobalanus icaco was originally introduced to prevent erosion on steep 

slopes. Dense thickets of this species have now become established on many 

steep erosion slopes. It is difficult to get rid of this species once it has become 

established. It also invades areas where the indigenous forest had been cleared." 

[Seychelles]

305

2007. Randall, R.P.. Global Compendium of 



Weeds - Index [Online Database]. 

http://www.hear.org/gcw/

No evidence

401


1965. Neal, M.C. In Gardens of Hawaii. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Shrub 1-3 m or bushy tree 2-6(-10) m high; leaves elliptical to obovate, rounded 

and often emarginate at tip, 3-10 cm long, 2.5 7 cm broad; cymes axillary and 

terminal, pubescent, 3-6 cm long; sepals (4-) 5; petals (4-) 5, white, about 5 mm 

long, perigynous; carpel solitary, protogynous; drupe green turning brownish-

purple and then black, subglobose to obovoid, 1.5-3 cm in diameter, angled when 

dry."  (Adams, 1972)"An evergreen shrub 3 to 5 feet high, rarely a tree to 30 feet 

high, with thin, scaly, brown gray bark  It is grown ornamentally for its attractive 

leaves, which are alternate, rounded, shiny, think, to 3 inches long, and for its 

sweet, rather tasteless and dry fruits, which are sometimes preserved.  The fruit 

is round, white to purple-black, an inch or more in diameter, and contains a 

ridged stone.  Flowers are small, white, and clustered"

402


2004. Kueffer, C./Vos, P.. Case Studies on the 

Status of invasive Woody Plant Species in the 

Western Indian Ocean: 5. Seychelles. Forest 

Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-5E. 

FAO Forestry Dept., Rome, Italy 

No evidence

Page 4 of 8

Print Date:

3/28/2011

Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)


403

2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Dense shrub or treelet 5-25' tall." [no evidence]

404

2009. WRA Specialist. Personal Communication.  Unknown [most references only refer to palatability of fruit]



405

2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"The fruits are edible raw and can be made into preserves. Coco-plum seeds, 



which have a high oil content, are also edible. The wood is light brown, hard, and 

heavy (specific gravity 0.8) and is used for fuel and rustic construction (Little and 

others 1974). Various parts of the plant have been used in folk medicine. The 

species is known to have hypoglycemic effects (Costa 1977). It is a honey plant 

and furnishes food for wildlife. Coco-plum is used in the Eastern and Western 

Hemispheres as an ornamental. Another important benefit from the species is for 

dune and soil stabilization." [no evidence]

406


2009. Brown, S.H.. Chrysobalanus icaco. 

University of Florida, IFAS Extension, 

Gainesville, FL 

http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/GardenPubsAZ/Cocopl

um_Chrysobalanus_icaco.pdf

"Potential Pests: Sri Lanka weevil, Lobate lac scale (in some counties); wooly 

whiteflies, rarely seen"

407


2009. Brown, S.H.. Chrysobalanus icaco. 

University of Florida, IFAS Extension, 

Gainesville, FL 

http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/GardenPubsAZ/Cocopl

um_Chrysobalanus_icaco.pdf

"Human hazards: None"

407

2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 



United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"The fruits are edible raw and can be made into preserves. Coco-plum seeds, 



which have a high oil content, are also edible. The wood is light brown, hard, and 

heavy (specific gravity 0.8) and is used for fuel and rustic construction (Little and 

others 1974). Various parts of the plant have been used in folk medicine. The 

species is known to have hypoglycemic effects (Costa 1977). It is a honey plant 

and furnishes food for wildlife. Coco-plum is used in the Eastern and Western 

Hemispheres as an ornamental. Another important benefit from the species is for 

dune and soil stabilization." [no evidence]

408


2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"Ecology.—Coco-plum is a coastal species. It commonly grows as single plants 



or thickets on dunes and rocky headlands."

408


2009. Nevill, J.. Mainstreaming Prevention and 

Control Measures for Invasive Alien Species into 

Trade, Transport and Travel across the 

Production Landscape. National IAS Baseline 

Report. GOS - UNDP - GEF,  

"In Seychelles it has invaded inselberg and mid-altitude forest habitats and the 

thickets have also been associated with enhanced fire risk due to the dry material 

that the thickets constitute and retain."

409

2004. Kueffer, C./Vos, P.. Case Studies on the 



Status of invasive Woody Plant Species in the 

Western Indian Ocean: 5. Seychelles. Forest 

Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-5E. 

FAO Forestry Dept., Rome, Italy 

"Predominantly in open areas but can survive shade, becomes dominant through 

seed and vegetative reproduction."

409

2009. Gann, G.D./Abdo, M.E./Gann, J.W./Gann, 



Sr., G.D./Woodmansee, S.W./Bradley, 

K.A./Grahl, E./Hines, K.N.. Natives For Your 

Neighborhood - Coco-plum. The Institute for 

Regional Conservation, Miami, FL 

http://www.regionalconservation.org

"Light Requirements:  Full sun"

410

2009. Brown, S.H.. Chrysobalanus icaco. 



University of Florida, IFAS Extension, 

Gainesville, FL 

http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/GardenPubsAZ/Cocopl

um_Chrysobalanus_icaco.pdf

"Soil: Wide;  Nutritional Requirements: Low"

410


2009. Dave's Garden. PlantFiles: Cocoplum - 

Chrysobalanus icaco. 

http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/67612/

"Soil pH requirements: 5.6 to 6.0 (acidic) 6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic) 6.6 to 7.5 

(neutral) "

Page 5 of 8

Print Date:

3/28/2011



Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)

410

2009. Gann, G.D./Abdo, M.E./Gann, J.W./Gann, 

Sr., G.D./Woodmansee, S.W./Bradley, 

K.A./Grahl, E./Hines, K.N.. Natives For Your 

Neighborhood - Coco-plum. The Institute for 

Regional Conservation, Miami, FL 

http://www.regionalconservation.org

"Soils: Seasonally inundated to moist, well-drained to poorly-drained sandy, 

limestone, or organic freshwater soils, with humusy top layer."

411


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Dense shrub or treelet 5-25' tall." [not climbing or smothering]

412


1985. Smith, A.C.. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A New 

Flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes Only). Volume 3. 

National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, HI 

"infrequently cultivated but often locally abundantly naturalized along roadsides 

near sea level, on the upper edge of beaches, and in thickets on the inner margin 

of mangrove swamps" [Fiji]

412

2004. Kueffer, C./Vos, P.. Case Studies on the 



Status of invasive Woody Plant Species in the 

Western Indian Ocean: 5. Seychelles. Forest 

Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-5E. 

FAO Forestry Dept., Rome, Italy 

"Thicket-forming shrubs such as Clidemia hirta, Chrysobalanus icaco and 

Syzygium jambos, Lantana camara in some lowland forests, Dicranopteris 

linearis and creepers all stop regeneration of trees in forest gaps and change the 

forest structure considerably."

412

2006. Chenje, M./Mohamed-Katerere, J.. 



Chapter 10. Invasive Alien Species. Pp 331-349 

in Africa Environment Outlook 2: Our 

Environment, Our Wealth.  United Nations 

Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya 

"Chrysobalanus icaco was originally introduced to prevent erosion on steep 

slopes. Dense thickets of this species have now become established on many 

steep erosion slopes. It is difficult to get rid of this species once it has become 

established. It also invades areas where the indigenous forest had been cleared." 

[Seychelles]

412


2009. Nevill, J.. Mainstreaming Prevention and 

Control Measures for Invasive Alien Species into 

Trade, Transport and Travel across the 

Production Landscape. National IAS Baseline 

Report. GOS - UNDP - GEF,  

"Chrysobalanus icaco can form dense stands and become invasive. This shrub 

grows up to elevations of about 500 metres and can from dense thickets of 

matted stems from 50cm to 3m in height. These thickets exclude other 

vegetation types and prevent natural vegetation succession/regeneration."

501


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

Terrestrial

502


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

Chrysobalanceae

503


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

Chrysobalanceae [not a nitrogen fixing woody plant]

504


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

Dense shrub or treelet 5-25' tall. [not a geophyte]

601


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

No evidence

602


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Coco-plum is propagated by seed or stem cuttings."

603


2009. WRA Specialist. Personal Communication.  Unknown

604


1940. East, E.M.. The distribution of self-sterility 

in the flowering plants.  Proceedings of the 

American Philosophical Society. 82: 449-518.

"Concerning the Chrysobalanoideae, I have only one record- self-fertility in 

Chrysobalanus icaco L. "

605


2008. Janick, J./Paull, R.E.. The encyclopedia of 

fruit & nuts. Cabi Publishing, Wallingford, UK 

"Bees may be the pollinator as the flowers are a good source of honey."

606


2004. Kueffer, C./Vos, P.. Case Studies on the 

Status of invasive Woody Plant Species in the 

Western Indian Ocean: 5. Seychelles. Forest 

Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-5E. 

FAO Forestry Dept., Rome, Italy 

"Predominantly in open areas but can survive shade, becomes dominant through 

seed and vegetative reproduction"

Page 6 of 8

Print Date:

3/28/2011



Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)

607

2009. Brown, S.H.. Chrysobalanus icaco. 

University of Florida, IFAS Extension, 

Gainesville, FL 

http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/GardenPubsAZ/Cocopl

um_Chrysobalanus_icaco.pdf

"Growth Rate: Moderate to fast"

607


2009. Gann, G.D./Abdo, M.E./Gann, J.W./Gann, 

Sr., G.D./Woodmansee, S.W./Bradley, 

K.A./Grahl, E./Hines, K.N.. Natives For Your 

Neighborhood - Coco-plum. The Institute for 

Regional Conservation, Miami, FL 

http://www.regionalconservation.org

"Growth Rate: Moderate"

701


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Fruit ellipsoid, 1-2" long, yellow, pinkish white, red, or purple, flesh white, insipid, 

pit obovoid ca 1" long x 0.6", with 6-7 lengthwise furrows." [no evidence, and 

large fruit with no means of external attachment]

701


2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"Seed dispersion is presumed to be by gravity, water, birds, bats, domestic 



animals, and humans."

702


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"It has been widely introduced in the tropics and is now naturalized at least in 

eastern Africa, Vietnam, the Seychelles, Fiji, the Society Islands, and 

Hawaii…The coco-plum fruit is edible, though the flesh is dry and rather scanty

in Venezuela and Colombia it is cooked in syrup, bottled, and sold commercially.  

The leaves and fruit skins are used to make a black dye, and various parts of the 

plant are used medicinally in Latin America. The hard pits are filled with oil and 

burned for illumination."

703


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Fruit ellipsoid, 1-2" long, yellow, pinkish white, red, or purple, flesh white, insipid, 

pit obovoid ca 1" long x 0.6", with 6-7 lengthwise furrows." [no evidence, and 

large fruit unlikely to contaminate produce]

703


2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"Seed dispersion is presumed to be by gravity, water, birds, bats, domestic 



animals, and humans."

704


2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"Seed dispersion is presumed to be by gravity, water, birds, bats, domestic 



animals, and humans." [not adapted for wind dispersal]

705


2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"Seed dispersion is presumed to be by gravity, water, birds, bats, domestic 



animals, and humans."

706


2004. Kueffer, C.. Impacts of woody invasive 

species on tropical forests of the Seychelles. 

PhD Dissertation. Swiss Federal Institute Of 

Technology, Zurich, Switzerland 

"Observations of frugivory on fruits of alien woody plant species. [Chrysobalanus 

icaco listed as being dispersed by Acridotheres tristis (Common Mynah) and 

Coracopsis nigra barklyi (Seychelles Black Parrot)]"

706


2009. Kueffer, C./Kronauer, L./Edwards, P.J.. 

Wider spectrum of fruit traits in invasive than 

native floras may increase the vulnerability of 

oceanic islands to plant invasions. Oikos. 118: 

1327-1334.

"Two of the invasive (Chrysobalanus icaco, Syzygium jambos) and one native 

species (Syzygium wrightii) have larger fruits that are only dispersed by fruit bats, 

although they are eaten by birds (Kueffer 2006)."

Page 7 of 8

Print Date:

3/28/2011

Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)


707

2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Fruit ellipsoid, 1-2" long, yellow, pinkish white, red, or purple, flesh white, insipid, 

pit obovoid ca 1" long x 0.6", with 6-7 lengthwise furrows." [no evidence, and 

large fruit with no means of external attachment]

707

2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 



United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"Seed dispersion is presumed to be by gravity, water, birds, bats, domestic 



animals, and humans."

708


2004. Kueffer, C.. Impacts of woody invasive 

species on tropical forests of the Seychelles. 

PhD Dissertation. Swiss Federal Institute Of 

Technology, Zurich, Switzerland 

"Observations of frugivory on fruits of alien woody plant species. [Chrysobalanus 

icaco listed as being dispersed by Acridotheres tristis (Common Mynah) and 

Coracopsis nigra barklyi (Seychelles Black Parrot)]"

801


2005. Staples, G.W./Herbst, D.R.. A Tropical 

Garden Flora - Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian 

Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop 

Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 

"Fruit ellipsoid, 1-2" long, yellow, pinkish white, red, or purple, flesh white, insipid, 

pit obovoid ca 1" long x 0.6", with 6-7 lengthwise furrows." [no evidence, and 

large, one-seeded fruit unlikely to reach such high densities]

802


2009. Francis, J.K.. Wildland Shrubs of the 

United States & its Territories: Thamnic 

Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-

1. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Internation Institute of 

Tropical Forestry,  

http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.ht

m

"This seed lot gave 89 percent germination beginning 34 days after sowing 



sample (Francis and Rodríguez 1993). No scarification or other seed treatment is 

needed." [longevity of natural seed bank unknown]

803

1969. Bovey, R.W./Morton, H.L./Baur, J.R./Diaz-



Colon, J.D./Dowler, C.C./Lehman, S.K.. Granular 

Herbicides for Woody Plant Control Granular 

Herbicides for Woody Plant Control. Weed 

Science. 17(4): 538-541.

"Species resistant to picloram included pomarrosa, Santa Maria (Calophyllum 

brasiliense (Camb.), coco-plum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.), and fiddle- wood 

(Petitia domingensis Jacq.)." [no other information found on control of this 

species with herbicides]

804

2009. University of Florida IFAS. Landscape 



Plants - Chrysobalanus icaco, Cocoplum. 

http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/Pages/chrica/chrica.sht

ml

"Cocoplum is used most often as a clipped hedge, however it can be pruned into 



a multi-trunked small tree or specimen shrub…Healthy plants respond nicely to 

reduction pruning which keeps plants small. This pruning technique presents a 

very formal or neat appearance to the surrounding landscape. Many reduction 

cuts on branches one-half to three-quarters inch diameter are made at the edge 

of the canopy every other year. Few if any interior branches are removed. Trees 

grow slightly larger each year but remain much smaller than they would without 

pruning. Appropriately performed, few people would recognize that the trees were 

pruned."


805

2009. WRA Specialist. Personal Communication.  Unknown

Page 8 of 8

Print Date:



3/28/2011

Chrysobalanus icaco (Chrysobalanaceae)


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə