Technical note usda natural resources conservation service pacific islands area



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NRCS Conservation Programs that apply: CSP Conservation Stewardship Program; EQIP Environmental Quality Incentives Program; WHIP Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program; WRP Wetlands Reserve Program (More info: http://www.pia.nrcs.usda.gov/).

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Contacts for more info on bats and other wildlife:


Guam

NRCS

(671) 472-7490 Mongmong



Division of Aquatic & Wildlife Resources

(671) 735-3955 Mangilao



CNMI

NRCS

(670) 236-0888 Garapan, Saipan



Division of Fish & Wildlife

(670) 664-6000/04 Lower Base, Saipan

(670) 433-1404/01 San Jose, Tinian

(670) 532-6000 Songsong, Rota



American Samoa


NRCS

(684) 633-1031 Pago Pago, Tutuila



Dept. of Marine & Wildlife Resources

(684) 633-4456 Pago Pago, Tutuila

Hawai‘i


NRCS Biologist

(808) 541-2600 Honolulu, O‘ahu



U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

(808) 792-9400 Honolulu, O‘ahu



Division of Forestry & Wildlife

(808) 274-3433 Lihue, Kaua‘i

(808) 587-0166 Honolulu, O‘ahu

(808) 984-8100 Wailuku, Maui

(808) 887-6061 Waimea, Hawai‘i

(808) 974-4229 Hilo, Hawai‘i




Common and scientific names of animals and plants in text

Animals

Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis)

Cat (Felis catus)

Dog (Canis familiaris)

Cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui)

Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae)

Goat (Capra hircus)

Little Mariana fruit bat (Pteropus tokudae)

Monitor lizard (Varanus indicus)

North American hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

Philippine deer (Rusa marianna)

Pig (Sus scrofa)

Rat (Rattus spp.)

Roof rat (Rattus rattus)

Swiftlet (Aerodramus spp.)
Plants

‘Ala‘a (Planchonella spp.)

Albizia (Falcataria moluccana)

Asi (Syzygium inophylloides)

Avocado (Persea americana)

Banana, fa‘i (Musa spp.)

Banyan, āoa, (Ficus prolixa)

Breadfruit, ‘ulu (Artocarpus altilus)

Chopak (Mammea odorata)

Coconut palm, niu (Cocos nucifera)

Cook pine (Araucaria columnaris)

Coral tree, gatae (Erythrina variegata)

Cycad (Cycas micronesica)

Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.)

Fagot (Neisosperma oppositifolia)

False elder (Premna obtusifolia)

Fetau (Calophyllum inophyllum)

Fig, mati (Ficus spp.)

Fish-poison tree, futu (Barringtonia asiatica)

‘Ie‘ie (Freycinetia reineckei) (Freycinetia spp.)

Inkberry (Cestrum diurnum)

Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia)

Kapok (Ceiba pentandra)

Koa (Acacia koa)

Lychee (Litchi chinensis)

Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia)

Malili (Terminalia richii)

Māmālava (Planchonella samoensis)

Māmane (Sophora chrysophylla)

Mango, mago (Mangifera indica)

Mangrove (Rhizophoraceae)

Maota (Dysoxylum maota)

Naio (Myoporum sandwicense)

‘Ōhi‘a (Metrosideros polymorpha)

Pandanus, fasa (Pandanus spp.)

Papaya, ‘esi (Carica papaya)

Pengua (Macaranga thompsonii)

Polynesian chestnut, ifi (Inocarpus fagifer)

Seeded breadfruit (Artocarpus mariannensis)

Sogā (Pipturus argenteus)

Strawberry guava, ku‘ava (Psidium cattleianum)

Tamanu (Calophyllum neo-ebudicum)

Tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala)

Tava (Pometia pinnata)

Tropical almond, talie (Terminalia catappa)

Ylang-ylang, moso‘oi, (Cananga odorata)

Yoga (Elaeocarpus joga)


References
1. D. S. Jacobs, Pac. Sci. 48, 193-200 (1994).

2. T. Menard, thesis, Univ. of Hawai‘i (2001).

3. F. Bonaccorso, P. M. Gorresen, C. Todd, C. Cornett, paper presented at the Hawai‘i Conservation Conference, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 30 July 2008.

4. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (USFWS Publication, Portland, OR, 1998).

5. F. Bonaccorso, paper presented at the Lyman Museum, Hilo, HI, 11 August 2008.

6. C. E. Koehler, R. M. R. Barclay, J. Mamm. 81, 234-244 (2000).

7. J. O. Whitaker, P. Q. Tomich, J. Mamm. 64, 151-152 (1983).

8. J. J. Belwood, J. H. Fullard, Can. J. Zool. 62, 2113-2120 (1984).

9. D. S. Jacobs, Can. J. Zool. 77, 1603-1608 (1999).

10. D. S. Jacobs, Funct. Ecol. 10, 622-630 (1996).

11. F. Bonaccorso, personal communication.

12. P. H. Baldwin, J. Mamm. 31, 456-457 (1950).

13. F. Bonaccorso, A. Miles, C. Todd, P. M. Gorresen, paper presented at the Hawai‘i Conservation Conference, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 27 July 2007.

14. P. Q. Tomich, Mammals in Hawai‘i (Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, HI, ed. 2, 1986), pp. 21-28.

15. K. K. Fujioka, S. M. Gon, J. Mamm. 69, 369-371 (1988).

16. J. A. Esselstyn, G. J. Wiles, A. Amar, Acta Chiropterologica 6, 303-308 (2004).

17. T. O. Lemke, J. Mamm. 67, 743-746 (1986).

18. G. S. Grant, S. A. Banack, P. Trail, Micronesica 27, 133-137 (1994).

19. R. C. B. Utzurrum, J. O. Seamon, K. Schletz Saili, “A comprehensive strategy for wildlife conservation in American Samoa” (Tech. Rep., Dept. of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Pago Pago, AS, 2006).

20. G. J. Wiles, D. J. Worthington, “A population assessment of Pacific sheath-tailed bats (Emballonura semicaudata) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands” (Tech. Rep., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI, 2002).

21. P. L. Bruner, H. D. Pratt, ‘Elepaio 40, 1-4 (1979).

22. G. J. Wiles, A. P. Brooke, in Island Bats: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation, T. H. Fleming, P. A. Racey, Eds. (Univ. of Chicago Press, IL, 2009).

23. G. J. Wiles, personal communications.

24. G. J. Wiles, J. Engbring, D. Otobed, J. Zool., Lond. 241, 203-227 (1997).

25. E. B. Arnett et al., “Impacts of wind energy facilities on wildlife and wildlife habitat” (Tech. Rep. 07-2, Wild. Soc., Bethesda, MD, 2007).

26. A. Duncan, G. B. Baker, N. Montgomery, “The Action Plan for Australian Bats” (Tech. Rep. Environment Australia, Canberra (1999).

27. P. A. Cox, T. Elmqvist, E. D. Pierson, W. E. Rainey, Conserv. Biol. 5, 448-454 (1991).

28. M. S. Fujita, M. D. Tuttle, Cons. Biol. 5, 455-463 (1991).

29. S. A. Banack, Ecology 79, 1949-1967 (1998).

30. G. J. Wiles, J. A. Esselstyn, D. Janeke, D. J. Worthington, N. C. Johnson, “Population status and trends of the Mariana Fruit Bats (Pteropus mariannus) in the Southern Mariana Island, 1985-2004” (Draft Tech. Rep., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI, 2006).

31. G. J. Wiles, P. O. Glass, Atoll Research Bulletin 343, 1-6 (1990).

32. C. S. Monson, S. A. Banack, P. A. Cox, Cons. Biol. 17, 678-686 (2003).

33. G. J. Wiles, N. C. Johnson, Pac. Sci. 58, 585-596 (2004).

34. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Guam Mariana Fruit Bat and Little Mariana Fruit Bat Recovery Plan (USFWS Publication, Portland, OR, 1990).

35. G. S. A. Perez, J. Mamm. 49, 758 (1968).

36. M. V. C. Falanruw, Micronesica 21, 39-51 (1988).

37. G. J. Wiles, M. S. Fujita, Biol. Rep. 90, 24-35 (1992).

38. J. A. Esselstyn, A. Amar, D. Janeke, Pac. Sci. 60, 531-539 (2006).

39. D. Janeke, thesis, Univ. of Guam (2006).

40. R. C. B. Utzurrum, in “Natural History Guide to American Samoa,” P. Craig, Ed. (National Park Service and Dept. of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Pago Pago, AS, 2002).

41. S. A. Banack, Mammalian Species 661, 1-4 (2001).

42. A. P. Brooke, J. Zool., Lond. 254, 309-319 (2001).

43. R. C. B. Utzurrum, G. J. Wiles, A. P. Brooke, D. J. Worthington, in “Monitoring trends in bat populations in the United States and territories: problems and prospects,” T. J. O’Shea, M. A. Bogan, Eds. (Tech. Rep. USGS/BRD/ITR-2003-0003, Ft. Collins, CO, 2003).

44. S. C. Thomson, A. P. Brooke, J. R. Speakman, J. Zool., Lond. 256, 55-62 (2002).

45. A. P. Brooke, C. Solek, A. Tualaulelei, Biotropica 32, 338-350 (2000).

46. E. D. Pierson, T. Elmqvist, W. E. Rainey, P. A. Cox, Cons. Biol. 10, 438-451 (1996).

47. C. A. Miller, D. E. Wilson, Mammalian Species 552, 1-6 (1997).

48. S. L. Nelson, dissertation, Univ. of Florida (2003).

49. S. A. Banack, G. S. Grant, J. Wild. Manage. 66, 1154-1163 (2002).

50. S. L. Nelson, T. H. Kunz, S. R. Humphrey, J. Chem. Ecol. 31, 1683-1691 (2005).

51. S. L. Nelson, M. A. Miller, E. J. Heske, G. C. Fahey, Jr., Ecography 23, 393-401 (2000).

52. M. Misa, A. M. Vargo, in “Proceedings of the workshop on research methodologies and applications for Pacific Island agroforestry,” Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, 16-20 July 1990 (Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-140, USDA Forest Service, Pac. Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, 1993).

53. G. J. Wiles, N. H. Payne, Biol. Cons. 38, 143-161 (1986).

54. G. J. Wiles, Pac. Sci. 59, 509-522 (2005).

55. J. M. Morton, G. J. Wiles, Micronesica 34, 155-163 (2002).

56. G. J. Wiles, Australian Mammalogy 10, 93-95 (1987).

57. P. Glass, E. M. Taisacan, in “5-year progress report, FY1982-87” (Tech. Rep., Div. of Fish and Wildlife, Saipan, CNMI, 1988).

58. D. J. Worthington, A. P. Marshall, G. J. Wiles, C. Kessler, Pacific Conservation Biology 7:134-42 (2001).


Web Resources
American Samoa Digital Library: http://www.nps.gov/npsa/naturescience/digitallibr.htm

Bat Conservation International: http://www.batcon.org/

Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy-CNMI: http://www.wildlifeactionplans.org/n_marianas.html

Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy-Guam: http://www.guamdawr.org/Conservation/gcwcs2/

Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy-Hawai‘i: http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dofaw/cwcs/index.html

Habitat Management for Bats (UK): http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-2138

Integrated Pest Management & Wildlife: ftp://ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/WHMI/WEB/pdf/IPM_Wildlife.pdf

Microchiropteran Bats, IUCN Conservation Plan: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/

Old World Fruit Bats, IUCN Conservation Plan: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/

USFWS Hawaiian hoary bat: http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/SpeciesReport.do?spcode=A03W

USFWS Mariana fruit bat: http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/SpeciesReport.do?spcode=A07X
Appendices


  1. Native plants and communities used by Hawaiian hoary bat

  2. Native plants commonly used by Mariana fruit bat

  3. Native and Polynesian plants associated with Samoan and Pacific flying foxes

  4. FAQs about crops and pe‘a

  5. Summary of habitat components and range map for Guam and CNMI

  6. Summary of habitat components and range map for American Samoa

Appendix A. Native plants and communities used by Hawaiian hoary bat.



Family


Common name (scientific name)

Foraging cover (1,8)

Roosting cover (15)

Roosts in (4,12)


Elevation - ft (m)


Habitat,

Epacridaceae (Epacris)


Pūkiawe (Styphelia tameiameiae)









50-10600 (15-3230)

Mesic to wet shrublands and forest

Fabaceae (Pea)


Koa (Acacia koa)









195-6760 (60-2060)

Dry to wet forest

Fabaceae – Myoporaceae

(Pea - Myoporum)




Māmane-naio (Sophora chrysophylla- Myoporum sandwicense)









3000-9800 (900-3000)

Dry to mesic forest

Myrtaceae (Myrtle)


‘Ōhi‘a (Metrosideros polymorpha)








0-7220 (2200)

Dry to wet shrublands, mesic to wet forest


Myrtaceae – Ebenaceae (Ebony)


‘Ōhi‘a-lama (Metrosideros polymorpha-Diospyros sandwicensis)










15-4000 (5-1220)

Dry to mesic forest

Pandanaceae (Screw pine)

Hala (Pandanus tectorius)









0-2000 (610)

Mesic valley slopes and coastal sites

W. L. Wagner, D. R. Herbst, S. H. Sohmer, Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i (Univ. of Hawai‘i Press, Honolulu, HI, ed. 2, 1999).

Dry: <50 inches (1200 mm) annual rainfall, where evaporation exceeds rainfall; Mesic: 50-100 inches (1200-2500 mm) annual rainfall, where evaporation and rainfall are approximately equal; Wet: >100 inches (2500 mm) annual rainfall, where rainfall exceeds evaporation.


Appendix B. Native plants used by Mariana fruit bat (37).



Family name


Common name (scientific name)

Forages on

(33,39,56-58)



Roosts in

(23,33,34,57)




Habitat†,‡

Apocynaceae (Dogbane)

Fagot, fago (Neisosperma oppositifolia)





Strand, limestone forest, volcanic forest

Lipstick tree, langiti, lengit (Ochrosia mariannensis)






Limestone forest, volcanic forest

Arecaceae (Palm)

Coconut palm, niyog, nihok, luu (Cocos nucifera)





Strand, volcanic forest

Casuarinaceae (She-oak)

Ironwood, Australian pine, gagu, gago, weighu (Casuarina equisetifolia)





Strand, savanna, limestone forest, volcanic forest

Clusiaceae (Mangosteen)

Palomaria, mastwood, da‘ok, da‘og, raghisch (Calophyllum inophyllum)






Strand, savanna

Chopak, chopag, lifeis (Mammea odorata)





Limestone forest

Combretaceae (Indian Almond)

Tropical almond, talisai, talisei (Terminalia catappa)






Strand, volcanic forest

Cycadaceae (Cycad)

Cycad, fandang, fadan, federico (Cycas micronesica)






Strand, limestone forest, volcanic forest

Euphorbiaceae (Spurge)

Pengua, bwengwa (Macaranga thompsonii)






Limestone forest, savanna

Fabaceae (Pea)*

Gulos (Cynometra ramiflora)






Limestone forest, volcanic forest

Coral tree, catclaw tree, gaogao (Erythrina variegata)






Limestone forest, volcanic forest

Seabean, bayogo dikike, gayetan (Mucuna gigantean)






Strand

Gentianaceae (Gentian)

Wengu (Fagraea berteriana)






Limestone forest

Hernandiaceae (Hernandia)

Nonak, nonag, oschal (Hernandia sonora)






Strand, limestone forest

Icacinaceae (Icacina)

Faniok (Merrilliodendron megacarpum)






Limestone forest, strand

Lecythidaceae (Brazil-nut)

Fish-kill tree, puting, ghuul (Barringtonia asiatica)






Strand, limestone forest, volcanic forest

Meliaceae (Mahogany)

Mapunyao, mapunao, fischil liyoos (Aglaia mariannensis)





Limestone forest, volcanic forest

Moraceae (Mulberry)*

Seeded breadfruit, dogduk, dukduk, meiyas (Artocarpus mariannensis)





Limestone forest, volcanic forest

Fig, banyan, nunu, ghiliau (Ficus spp.)





Strand, limestone forest, volcanic forest

Pandanaceae (Screw pine)*

Liana (Freycinetia reineckei)






Limestone forest, volcanic forest

Pandanus, kafu, fatsao, fashil wal (Pandanus tectorius)






Strand, limestone forest, volcanic forest, savanna

Rubiaceae (Coffee)

Zebrawood, panao, mwesor (Guettarda speciosa)





Limestone forest, strand

Sapindaceae (Soapberry)

Faniok, fanog, faia (Tristiropsis obtusangula)






Limestone forest

Tiliaceae (Linden)

Yoga, joga, ghumar (Elaeocarpus joga)





Limestone forest, volcanic forest, savanna

Urticaceae (Nettle)

(Dendrocnide latifolia)






Limestone forest, volcanic forest

Silvery pipturus, amahadyan, ghasooso (Pipturus argenteus)






Strand, limestone forest

Verbenaceae (Verbena)

False elder, ahgao, yoor (Premna obtusifolia)






Limestone forest, volcanic forest, strand, savanna

*Important families (37)

L. Raulerson, A. Rinehart, Trees and Shrubs of the Northern Mariana Islands (Coastal Resources Management, Saipan, CNMI, 1991).

S. Vogt, L. L. Williams, Common Flora and Fauna of the Mariana Islands (Self published, Saipan, CNMI, 2004).
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