Technical note usda natural resources conservation service pacific islands area



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Appendix C. Native and Polynesian plants associated with Samoan and Pacific flying foxes (For more info see references 29,45).




Family name



Common name (scientific name)

Forages on (29)

Roosts in (45)



Elevation - ft (m)†,‡



Habitat†,‡

Clusiaceae (Mangosteen)

Fetau (Calophyllum inophyllum)





3-330 (1-100)

Littoral strand, lowland forest

Combretaceae (Indian Almond)*

Tropical almond, talie (Terminalia catappa)






3-920 (1-280)

Littoral strand, lowland forest

Malili (Terminalia richii)





3-2720 (1-830)

Lowland forest, montane forest

Fabaceae (Pea)*

Polynesian chestnut, ifi (Inocarpus fagifer)*






3-2460 (1-750)

Lowland forest

Coral tree, gatae (Erythrina variegata)





3-410 (1-125)

Littoral strand, lowland forest

Lecythidaceae (Brazil nut)

Fish-poison tree, futu (Barringtonia asiatica)





3-655 (1-200)

Littoral strand, lowland forest

Meliaceae (Mahogany)

Maota (Dysoxylum maota)





3-1475 (1-450)

Lowland, montane forest

Moraceae (Mulberry)*

Breadfruit ‘ulu (Artocarpus altilus)*






3-2160 (1-650)

Lowland forest

Banyan, āoa (Ficus obliqua)





100-2300 (30-700)

Lowland forest, montane forest

Banyan, āoa (Ficus prolixa)





3-490 (1-150)

Lowland forest

Myrtaceae (Myrtle)*

Asi, asi toa, asi malo (Syzygium inophylloides)*





3-3675 (1-1120)

Lowland forest, montane forest

Pandanaceae (Screw pine)

‘Ie‘ie (Freycinetia reinecki)






590-3935 (180-1200)

Lowland forest, montane forest

Pandanus, fasa (Pandanus tectorius)






3-330 (1-100)

Littoral strand. lowland forest

Sapindaceae (Soapberry)*

Tava (Pometia pinnata)






3-1640 (1-500)

Lowland forest

Sapotaceae (Sapodilla)*

Gasu (Palaquium stehlinii)*






490-2460 (150-750)

Lowland forest, montane forest

‘Ala‘a (Planchonella garberi)






3-1640 (1-500)

Lowland forest

‘Ala‘a (Planchonella grayana)






3-605 (1-185)

Littoral strand, lowland forest

Māmālava (Planchonella samoensis)*






3-3545 (1-1080)

Lowland forest, montane forest

*Important families and species (29)

W. A. Whistler, The Samoan Rainforest (Isle Botanica, Honolulu, HI, 2002).

W. A. Whistler, “Botanical inventory of the proposed Tutuila and Ofu Units of the National Park of American Samoa” (Tech. Rep. 87, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 1994).



Appendix D

FAQs about Crops and Pe‘a
How to prevent pe‘a from eating crops? Harvest fruit before they ripen. Pe‘a eat cultivated fruit such as papaya or breadfruit, but not until fruit are ripe or over-ripe. Since most fruit grown for the market are harvested before they ripen, there should be little or no conflict. If fruit must be tree-ripened, protect fruit through bagging or other means. Growers in Asia shine bright lamps below fruit a few days before harvest to keep bats away.
Do pe‘a eat green fruit? Pe‘a sometimes eat green (un-ripened) fruit when ripe fruits are scarce, such as after a hurricane or during a drought, but they normally like ripe fruit. Therefore, if it’s not ripe and not hanging from a tree, shrub, or vine, there’s a good chance another animal is involved. Rats, birds, and pigs eat green and ripe fruit. In Hawaii, Red-vented Bulbuls and Indian Mynahs eat cultivated fruit.
Who’s eating my fruit? It’s important to understand a problem (who, where, when, why, how) before trying to fix it. Look carefully to figure out the best solution. Most birds eat during the day, roof rats eat at night, and pe‘a eat day or night. For pe‘a vao, look for triangular-shaped tooth marks and discarded fruit pulp under the tree. If you hear bats in coconut groves, they are usually feeding on flowers not fruit. Roof rats can be heard at night in trees. Look for roof rat signs such as (a) hole in skin with fruit hollowed out, (b) rat nests in trees, or (c) black banana-shaped droppings about ¼ - ½ inch long (1 cm). For birds, observe the site to see which birds are present. Keep in mind that many different animals could be eating the fruit. For example, birds may be eating insects on fruit previously damaged by rats. So if you see a bird, it doesn’t necessarily mean the bird is causing the damage. Keep track of what you see.
Bats are beneficial. Farmers generally accept a small percentage of crop damage, especially if it’s infrequent. Pe‘a help the forest in many, many ways. They pollinate flowers and transport seeds around which helps with forest re-growth. Timely harvest is one of the keys to an environmentally sustainable farm.
Recommended reading
M. S. Fujita, M. D. Tuttle, Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): threatened animals of key ecological and economic importance, Cons. Biol. 5, 455-463 (1991).
W. H. Kern, “Control of roof rats in fruit trees” (Tech. Rep. No. SS-WEC-120, Univ. of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 1997; http://polkhort.ifas.ufl.edu/documents/publications/Rat%20Control%20in%20Fruit%20Trees.pdf).





Appendix E. Summary of habitat components and range map for Guam and CNMI.







Habitat component

Habitat characteristics


 Pacific sheath-tailed bat



 Mariana fruit bat

Food

  • Mainly fruit, also nectar, pollen, flowers, and leaves

Cover (foraging)

  • Native and nonnative forests

  • Forages in forest understory, also in and above upper canopy

  • Native limestone forest

  • Native volcanic forest

  • Secondary forest

  • Coastal strand

  • Savanna

Cover (roosting)

  • Roosts in caves and other cavities

  • Human and ungulate disturbance minimal

  • Native limestone forest and forest patches

  • Volcanic forest

  • Minimal human activity

Water

  • Foods presumably provide adequate water in diet

Interspersion

  • Suitable roosting habitat near multiple insect-rich foraging habitats.

  • Roosting habitat that doubles as or is near foraging areas

Minimum habitat area

  • Wide ranging species

  • Foraging areas of 3 bats ranged from 35-270 ac (14-110 ha) in primary and secondary forest, varies by habitat type and quality

Threats*

  • Roost disturbance

  • Loss of habitat

  • Obstacles to flight

  • Introduced predators

  • Pesticides

  • Natural phenomena (e.g., severe storms, tidal surges)

*Potential threats for Pacific sheath-tailed bat





Current range for bats in Guam and CNMI.

Appendix F. Summary of habitat components and range map for American Samoa.

Habitat component

Habitat characteristics

 Pacific sheath-tailed bat

 Samoan flying fox

 Pacific flying fox

Food

  • Small night-flying insects

  • Mainly fruit, also nectar, pollen, flowers, and leaves

  • Mainly fruit, also nectar, pollen, and leaves

Cover (foraging)

  • Native and nonnative forests

  • Forages in forest understory, also in and above upper canopy

  • Primary forest

  • Secondary forest

  • Agroforest

  • Primary forest

  • Secondary forest

  • Agroforest

Cover (roosting)

  • Roosts in caves and crevices, and other natural and manmade cavities

  • Human and ungulate disturbance minimal

  • Mature primary forest ≥1312-2133 ft (400-650 m) from nearest house

  • Cover ≥45% fruiting trees

  • Minimal human activity

  • Primary or secondary forest ≥2395-3868 ft (730-1139 m) from nearest house

  • Tree height averages ~50 ft (15 m)

  • Minimal human activity

Water

  • Foods presumably provide adequate water in diet

  • Foods meet water requirements

  • Foods meet water requirements

Interspersion

  • Suitable roosting habitat near multiple insect-rich foraging habitats.

  • Roosting habitat that doubles as or is near foraging areas

  • Roosting habitat that doubles as or is near foraging areas

Minimum habitat area

  • Home range unknown

  • Wide ranging species

  • Home ranges for 2 young males were 432 and 2021 ac (175 and 818 ha) in primary forest, varies by habitat type, territories may overlap

  • Wide ranging species

  • Foraging distance averages 0.5-14 miles (1-23 km), varies by habitat type and food availability

Threats*

  • Roost disturbance

  • Loss of habitat

  • Obstacles to flight

  • Introduced predators

  • Pesticides

  • Natural phenomena (e.g., severe storms, tidal surges)

  • Illegal hunting

  • Roost disturbance

  • Habitat loss

  • Severe hurricanes

  • Illegal hunting

  • Roost disturbance

  • Habitat loss

  • Severe hurricanes

*Potential threats for Pacific sheath-tailed bat










Current range for bats in American Samoa.


This information was taken primarily from the USFWS Recovery Plan and the current research of Dr. Frank Bonaccorso of USGS.

This information was taken primarily from the USFWS Recovery Plan.

Bats of the U.S. Pacific Islands Page December 2009
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