The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats



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Supporting information 2nd file: supplementary material

The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats


Marta Coll1,2, Chiara Piroddi3, Jeroen Steenbeek3, Kristin Kaschner4, Frida Ben Rais Lasram5,6, Jacopo Aguzzi1, Enric Ballesteros7, Carlo Nike Bianchi8, Jordi Corbera9, Thanos Dailianis10,11, Roberto Danovaro12, Marta Estrada1, Carlo Froglia13, Bella S. Galil14, Josep M. Gasol1, Ruthy Gertwagen15, João Gil7, François Guilhaumon5, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes16, Miltiadis-Spyridon Kitsos10, Athanasios Koukouras10, Nikolaos Lampadariou17, Elijah Laxamana16, Carlos M. López-Fé de la Cuadra18, Heike K. Lotze2, Daniel Martin7, David Mouillot5, Daniel Oro19, Saša Raicevich20, Josephine Rius-Barile16, Jose Ignacio Saiz-Salinas21, Carles San Vicente22, Samuel Somot23, José Templado24, Xavier Turon7, Dimitris Vafidis 25, Roger Villanueva1, and Eleni Voultsiadou10

1 - Institut de Ciències del Mar, Scientific Spanish Council (ICM-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain;

2 - Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada;

3 - Fisheries Center - Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada;

4 - Evolutionary Biology & Ecology Lab, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg, Germany;

5 - Laboratoire Ecosystèmes Lagunaires UMR 5119, Université Montpellier 2, Montpellier Cedex 5, France;

6- Laboratoire Ecosystèmes & Ressources Aquatiques UR03AGRO1, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Tunis, Tunisia;

7- Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes, Scientific Spanish Council (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Spain;

8- Dipartimento per lo studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy;

9- Carrer Gran, Argentona, Spain;

10 - Department of Zoology, Aristoteleio University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece;

11 - Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Institute of Marine Biology and Genetics, Heraclion, Greece; 

12 - Dipartimento Scienze del Mare, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy;

13 - Istituto di Scienze Marine, Consiglio Nazionale dell Ricerche, Ancona, Italy;

14 - National Institute of Oceanography, Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel;

15 - Haifa University & Oranim Academic College, Haifa, Israel;

16 - The WorldFish Center, Philippine Office, Los Baños, Philippines;

17 - Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Institute of Oceanography, Heraklion, Greece;

18 - Laboratorio de Biología Marina - Departamento de Fisiología y Zoología, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain;

19 - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, Scientific Spanish Council (IMEDEA-CSIC), Esporles, Spain;

20 - Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale, Chioggia, Italy;

21 - Zoology Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain;

22 - Carrer Nou, Creixell, Spain;

23 - Météo-France, Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Toulouse Cedex, France;

24 - Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Scientific Spanish Council (MNCN-CSIC), Madrid, Spain;

25 - Department of Ichthyology & Aquatic Environment, University of Thessaly, Nea Ionia, Greece.



Address for correspondence: mcoll@icm.csic.es, martacoll@dal.ca

Outline

Table S1. Taxonomic classification of species known from the Mediterranean Sea.

Table S2. List of co-authors with expertise, specific contribution to the synthesis, and contact information.

Text S1. Taxonomic revision and methodological specifications.

Mediterranean AquaMaps (by Kristin Kaschner, Kathy Kesner-Reyes, Josephine Barile & Elijah Laxamana)

Text S2. Mediterranean AquaMaps specifications.

Table S3. Mediterranean native and endemic marine species reported by FishBase/SeaLifeBase by different taxa and current extent of coverage of AquaMaps.

Table S4. Proportion of checked or expert-reviewed AquaMaps for different taxa.

Table S5. Mediterranean species of special conservation concern covered by AquaMaps.

Table S6. Checklist of species included in AquaMaps of the Mediterranean Sea.

Seaweeds and Seagrasses (by Enric Ballesteros)

Table S7. Mediterranean biodiversity (species/infraspecific taxa, families, orders, classes) for the phyla Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Magnoliophyta and all the macrophytobenthos. Total number of species/intraspecific taxa is also split into introduced, endemics and others.

Table S8. Percentage of introduced, endemics and other macrophytobenthic species/infraspecific taxa by phylum and totals.

Table S9. Checklist of the phylum Heterokontophyta and comments to the checklist.

Table S10. Checklist of the phylum Rhodophyta and comments to the checklist.

Table S11. Checklist of the phylum Chlorophyta and comments to the checklist.

Table S12. Checklist of the phylum Magnoliophyta and comments to the checklist.

Sponges (by Eleni Voultsiadou & Thanos Dailianis)

Figure S1. Mediterranean percentages of the world sponge families and genera for each demosponge order.

Figure S2. Distribution of the recorded demosponge species (outer circle) and genera (inner circle) richness in distinct zoogeographic areas of the Mediterranean.

Anthozoans (by Dimitris Vafidis)

Table S13. Checklist of the class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria).

Mollusks (by José Templado & Roger Villanueva)

Table S14. Checklist of the phylum Mollusca.

Table S15. Number of Mediterranean species of each of the eight mollusks classes.

Polychaetes (by Daniel Martín & João Gil)

Table S16. Checklist of the class Polychaeta (Phylum Annelida).

Cumaceans (by Jordi Corbera)

Table S17. Checklist of the order Cumacea (Phylum Arthropoda), with enumeration of references in each region of the Mediterranean Sea.

Table S18. Species number of cumaceans known in different Mediterranean regions.

Mysidaceans (by Carles San Vicente)

Table S19. Checklist of the orders Mysida and Lophogastrida (Phylum Arthropoda) known in the different Mediterranean regions considered.

Table S20. Species number of mysidaceans known in the world and in the Mediterranean Sea. Endemics and its percentage for each family are also indicated.

Figure S3. Number of mysidacean species recorded in each of the main biogeographical zones of the Mediterranean Sea.

Decapods (by Carlo Froglia)

Table S21. Checklist of the Mediterranean endemic species of the Order Decapoda (Phylum Arthropoda), known geographic distribution and bathymetric range.

Bryozoans (Carlos Mª López-Fé de la Cuadra)

Text S3. References for Mediterranean bryozoan species.

Table S22. Checklist of the phylum Bryozoa.

Echinoderms (by Athanasios Koukouras & Miltiadis-Spyridon Kitsos)

Text S4. References for Mediterranean Echinoderms diversity.

Table S23. Checklist of the phylum Echinodermata, and their distribution in the geographical areas of the Mediterranean with reference to their presence in the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific Oceans.

Figure S4. Distribution of the known species of echinoderms in the main geographical areas of the Mediterranean, as real numbers (parentheses) and percentages of the total Mediterranean species.

Figure S5. Percentages of the four zoogeographical categories in the Mediterranean territorial areas and the Black Sea.

Sipunculans (by José Ignacio Saiz-Salinas)

Table S24. Checklist of the phylum Sipuncula. Asterisks indicate unpublished identifications from the author J.I. Saiz. N. sp. cf. flagriferum (43º02.83’N; 9º41.06’E; depth: 454 m). P. turnerae (41º07’N; 2º25’E; depth: 1100 m).

Figure S6. Cluster analysis of sipunculan species of the Mediterranean Sea by biogeographic sectors as proposed by Bianchi and Morri (2000).

Meiobenthos (by Nikolaos Lampadariou)

Text S5. References for Mediterranean Meiobenthos.

Ascidians (by Xavier Turon)

Table S25. Check-list of the class Ascidiacea (Subphylum Tunicata, Phylum Chordata).

Fishes (by Frida Ben Rais Lasram)

Table S26. Checklist of the class Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii, Myxini and Hyperoartia (subphylum Vertebrata, phylum Chordata).

Seabirds, marine mammals, and turtles (by Daniel Oro & Chiara Piroddi)

Table S27. Checklist of the class Aves (subphylum Vertebrata, phylum Chordata).

Table S28. Checklist of the class Mammalia (subphylum Vertebrata, phylum Chordata).

Table S29. Checklist of the class Reptilia (subphylum Vertebrata, phylum Chordata).

The diversity of the past and temporal patterns (by Heike Lotze)

Table S30. Ecologically and economically important species of the Adriatic Sea for which long-term data were available and that were included in historical diversity trends.

Table S31. Timing of different cultural periods around the Adriatic Sea (after Haywood 1997; Lotze et al. 2006).

Current threats to diversity

Table S32. Ranking of current threats for various taxonomic groups in the Mediterranean Sea.

Table S33. Ranking of future threats to diversity (considering 10 years from now) for various taxonomic groups in the Mediterranean Sea.
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