The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats



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Cirripeda







>40













A. Koukouras, A. Matsa, G. Relini

[43,44]




Malacostraca


































Leptostraca




6













J. Moreira

[36,45]







Stomatopoda




11










2

P. Abelló, C. Froglia, B.S. Galil

[46,47,48].







Bathynellacea




10?
















[19]







Euphausiacea




13













M. Mavidis, L. Guglielmo

[49]







Decapoda




383




40




74 (69*) *marine aliens

C. Froglia, A. Koukouras, J. E. Cartes, B. Companys, B.S. Galil, P. Noël, P. Dworschak, C. d’Udekem d’Acoz, T. Katagan

[44,50,51,52,53, Table S21]







Thermosbaenacea

5
















[19]







Mysidacea




102

African coasts and eastern sector less studied

37

0.6% annual increase of new species

2

C.Sanvicente, C. Barberá Cebrián, J.E. Cartes, T. Munilla, P. Ariani, K. Wittman


[54,55, Table S19]







Cumacea

Water-sediment interface

99

Adriatic Sea or the Gulf of Gabes unknown

32

0.5% annual increase of new species

1

J. Corbera, J.E. Cartes, J.C. Sorbe

[56, Table S17]







Isopoda




165
















[44]







Amphipoda




449













D. Bellan-Santini, S. Ruffo, T. Krapp-Schickel

[44,57,58,59]







Tanaidacea




43
















[19]




Arachnida




Only species related to marine environments

13/450
















[19,37]




Pantopoda







>45













T. Murilla, F. Krapp

[19]




Chilopoda







6
















[19]




Myriapoda




Only species related to marine environments

2/10
















[19,37]




Apterygota







14
















[19]




Insecta




Only species related to marine environments

54/250
















[19,37]




Chaetognatha




>20
















[19]




Nemertea







172
















[19]




Annelida







1172













D. Martin, J. Gil, C. Arvanitidis, G. San Martín, E. López, R. Capaccioni, M. Aguado, R. Sardá, J. Parapar, F. Aguirrezabalaga, J. Moreira, J.M. Amoureaux, A. Giangrande, C. Gambi, G. Cantone, C. Lardicci, B. Mikac, N. Simboura, M.E. Çinar, Z. Ergen, N. Ben Eliahu, R. Barnich, D. Fiege, F. Pleijel, A. Mackie, A. Castelli







Polychaeta




1122




210

4.2 species being discovered per year

70-80




[60,61,62,63, Table S16]







Clitellata




44













E. Rota, A. Minelli

[36,37]







Echiura




6
















[35]




Sipuncula







34

Poor in southern and deep areas




Unknown, but large

2

J.I. Saiz

[64,65,66,67,68,69, Table S24]




Phoronida







3/5













C.C. Emig

[19,70]




Brachiopoda







14/15




2







C.C. Emig, F. Álvarez

[19,71,72]




Mollusca







2113

Poor in southern and deep areas

5-10 species being discovered every year

154-203

J. Templado, H. Mienis, B. Cesare

[73,74,75,76, Table S14]







Aplacophora (Caudofoveata)

9










0

L. Salvini Plaven










Aplacophora (Solenogastres)

29










0

L. Salvini Plaven










Polyplacophora




31










1

B. Dell’Angelo










Monoplacophora




1










0













Gastropoda




1564










92

B. Sabelli, M. Oliverio, S. Gofass, R. Cattaneo Vietti, M. Ballesteros







Bivalvia




400










57













Scaphopoda




14










0

G. Steiner










Cephalopoda




65




3




4

G. Bello, P. Belcari, P. Jereb, E. Lefkaditou, A. Quetglas, A. Salman, P. Sánchez, R. Villanueva

[73]




Gnathostomulida




10
















[19]




Gastrotricha




Meiofauna

165

Poor










W.D. Hummon, M.A. Todaro, M. Balsamo

[19,77]




Cycliophora







1

Poor













[78,79]




Entoprocta







19
















[19,35]




Bryozoa




Mainly benthic

388




88




1??

C.M. López de la Cuadra, JA. Álvarez, Y.V. Gautier, J.G. Harmelin, J.C. García Gómez, M. Zabala, A. Rosso

[80,81,82,83,84,85,86, Table S22]







Cyclostomata




53

Poor

17



















Ctenostomata




44

Poor

5



















Cheilostomata




292

Poor

66
















Placozoa







1/2?
















[19]




Ctenophora




Mainly pelagic

>30
















[19]




Cnidaria (Coelenterates)




757
















[19,87, and references within]







Anthozoa




164




37




3

D. Vafidis, H. Zibrowius

C. Morri, A. Altuna Prados, P.J. López González




[44,88,89,90, Table S13]







Scyphozoa




20













F. Boero, B.S. Galil, M. Avian

[19]







Cubozoa




1













M. Avian










Hydrozoa




457













J.M.Gili, F. Boero, J. Bouillon, Á.L. Peña Cantero

[91]







Myxozoa




115
















[19]




Porifera







681

Well known except southern areas and the Levantine Sea

J. Vacelet, N. Boury-Esnault, M. Pansini, M.J. Uriz, M. Maldonado, E. Voultsiadou

[92,93,94,95,96]







Hexactinellida




8

























Calcarea




44

























Demospongiae




629




Approx. 302













Plantae3

seaweeds (part) and seagrasses

Only benthic

854

Limited

171




91

A. Athanasiadis, A. Gómez-Garreta, A. Meinesz, A. Sfriso, A. Vergés, C. Perrone,

C. Rodriguez-Prieto, C.F. Boudouresque, CI Delle Foglie, D. Balata, D. Serio, E. Ballesteros, E. Cecere, F. Boisset, F. Cinelli, F. De Masi, F. Rindi, F. Tripodi, G. Alongi, G. Bressan, G. Furnari, G. Giaccone, G. Sartoni, G.M. Gargiulo, I. Pérez-Ruzafa, J. Rull, L. Babbini-Benussi, L. Piazzi, M. Altamirano, M. Cormaci, M. Verlaque, M.A. Ribera, M.C. Barceló, N. Sánchez, S. Benhissoune



[97]




Rhodophyta







657




150




73




[98, Table S10]




Chlorophyta4




Macroalgae

190 (1804)




20




17




[99, Table S11]




Magnoliophyta or angiospermae

7




1




1




Table S12

Protoctista (Protozoa) & Chromista

Mainly marine and freshwater

Unknown, first estimate approx. 44005

Very limited










M. Estrada, J.M. Gasol

[19,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122]




Chlorophyta




Microalgae




























Bacillariophyceae

736













Z.R. Velasquez

[113]







Coccolithophores

166













L. Cros

[114]




Dinoflagellata







673













F. Gomez

[19,120]




Foraminifera




Benthic and pelagic

>600
















[110,122,123,124,125].




Heterokontophyta




277




81




23

A. Athanasiadis, A. Gómez-Garreta, A. Meinesz, A. Sfriso, A. Vergés, C. Perrone,

C. Rodriguez-Prieto, C.F. Boudouresque, C.I. Delle Foglie, D. Balata, D. Serio, E. Ballesteros, E. Cecere, F. Boisset, F. Cinelli, F. De Masi, F. Rindi, F. Tripodi, G. Alongi



[126, Table S9]

Prokaryotes







Not Available

Very limited
















Bacteria and Archaea







Not Available

Very limited










J. Gasol, C. Pedrós-Alió, R. Massana, K. Linke, W. Petz

[19,127,128,129,130,131,132]




Large cyanobacteria




165
















[19,35]

(1) Not an exhaustive list; (2) Not an exhaustive list; (3) Includes a part of the Macrophytobenthos (red and green seaweeds and seagrasses); (4) 10 species reported within the Chlorophyceae (Volvocales) and Prasinophyceae (Chlorodendrales, Pyramimonadales) are unicellular and can be considered to be phytoplanktonic although they thrive in mediolittoral and supralittoral pools and have been classically included in the checklists of marine macroalgae; (5) This number is highly uncertain (see text section heading “The biodiversity of the ‘smallest’”).

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