The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats



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Amphiura filiformis (O. F. Müller, 1776)

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AM

5-1200

Amphiura (Amphiura) grandisquama Lyman, 1869

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AM

2-170

Amphiura incana Lyman, 1879

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AM

18-58

Amphiura lacazei Guille, 1976

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E

20-175

Amphiura mediterranea Lyman, 1882

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+

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E

0-90

Amphiura (Ophiopeltis) securigera (Düben & Koren, 1846)

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AM

40-600

Astrospartus mediterraneus (Risso, 1826)

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+

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C

50-188

Cryptopelta brevispina (Ludwig, 1879)

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E

20-145

Ophiacantha setosa (Retzius, 1805)

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AM

5-1480

Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840)

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AM

50-1765

Ophiactis macrolepidota Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1887







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+

LM

0-200

Ophiactis savignyi (J. Müller & Troschel, 1842)

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+

+

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C

2-518

Ophiactis virens (M. Sars, 1857)

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AM

0-90

Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard, in O. F. Müller, 1789)

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AM

0-400

Ophioconis forbesi (Heller, 1863)

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AM

20-200

Ophiocten abyssicolum Marenzeller, 1893

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AM

40-620

Ophioderma longicaudum (Retzius, 1805)

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AM

0-70

Ophiomyxa pentagona (Lamarck, 1816)

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AM

0-260

Ophiopsila annulosa (M. Sars, 1857)

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AM

10-100

Ophiopsila aranea Forbes, 1843

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AM

9-185

Ophiopsila aff. guineensis Koehler, 1914

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AM

27-175

Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard, in O. F. Müller, 1789)

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AM

0-1244

Ophiura albida Forbes, 1839

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AM

2-850

Ophiura (Dictenophiura) carnea Lütken, 1858 ex M. Sars MS

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AM

30-1260

Ophiura grubei Heller, 1863

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AM

1-187

Ophiura ophiura (Linnaeus, 1758)

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AM

0-685

Pectinura vestita Forbes, 1843










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E

160































Echinozoa




























Echinoidea




























Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758)

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AM

0-50

Arbaciella elegans Mortensen, 1910

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AM

1 - 40

Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841)

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AM

4-1500

Brissopsis atlantica mediterranea Mortensen, 1913

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AM

0 - 250

Brissus unicolor (Leske, 1778)

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AM

0-250

Centrostephanus longispinus (Philippi, 1845)

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AM

40-363

Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

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AM

20-2000

Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778)













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LM?

15-18

Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777)

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C

0-230

Echinocardium fenauxi Péquignat, 1963

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E

20-125

Echinocardium flavescens (O. F. Müller, 1776)

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AM

5-360

Echinocardium mediterraneum (Forbes, 1843)

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AM

2 - 40

Echinocardium mortenseni Thiéry, 1909

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E

10 -70

Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776)

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AM

0-1250

Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816

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AM

3-1280

Echinus melo Lamarck, 1816

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AM

20-1100

Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarck, 1816)




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AM

3 -10

Genocidaris maculata A. Agassiz, 1869

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AM

12-500

Hemiaster expergitus Lovén, 1874

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AM

400-3120

Neolampas rostellata A. Agassiz, 1869

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AM

95-1260

Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816)

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AM

0-90

Plagiobrissus costai (Gasco, 1876)

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AM

20-200

Psammechinus microtuberculatus (Blainville, 1825) Heller, 1868

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E

1-685

Schizaster canaliferus (Lamarck, 1816)

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E

9-105

Spatangus inermis Mortensen, 1913

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E

20-350

Spatangus purpureus (O. F. Müller, 1776)

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AM

15-969

Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816)

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AM

2-120

Stylocidaris affinis (Philippi, 1845)

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AM

5-1000































Holothuroidea




























Aslia lefevrei (Barrois, 1882)

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AM

6 -20

Havelockia inermis (Heller, 1868)

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AM

6-180

Hedingia mediterranea (Bartolini-Baldelli, 1914) Tortonese, 1965

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E

800-1005

Holothuria (Panningothuria) forskali Delle Chiaje, 1823

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AM

1-125

Holothuria (Holothuria) helleri Marenzeller, 1878

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E

0-80

Holothuria (Thymiosycia) impatiens (Forskål, 1775) 

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C

0-30

Holothuria (Vaneyothuria) lentiginosa Marenzeller, 1892

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AM

100-250

Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata Grube, 1840

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AM

1 - 77

Holothuria (Roweothuria) poli Delle Chiaje, 1823

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AM

0-250

Holothuria (Platyperona) sanctori Delle Chiaje, 1823

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AM

2 - 30

Holothuria (Holothuria) tubulosa Gmelin, 1788

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AM

0-123

Labidoplax buskii (McIntosh, 1866)

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AM

10-540

Labidoplax digitata (Montagu, 1815)

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AM

0-268

Labidoplax media Östergren, 1905

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AM

5 - 95

Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865)

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E

7 - 70

Leptopentacta elongata (Düben & Koren, 1844)

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AM

0-150

Leptopentacta tergestina (M. Sars, 1857)

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AM

8-170

Leptosynapta decaria (Östergren, 1905)







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AM

2 - 70

Leptosynapta galliennii (Herapath, 1865)




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AM

5 - 30

Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776)

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AM

2-173

Leptosynapta makrankyra (Ludwig, 1898)

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E

1 - 36

Leptosynapta minuta (Becher, 1906)

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AM

3 - 50

Meseres occultatus (Marenzeller, 1893)

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C

232-5300

Mesothuria intestinalis (Ascanius, 1805) Östergren, 1896

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AM

18-4255

Mesothuria verrilli (Théel, 1886)

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C

280-2520

Molpadia musculus Risso, 1826

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+




AM

25-2098

Myriotrochus geminiradiatus Salvini-Plawen, 1972







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E

70-225

Neocnus incubans Cherbonnier, 1972

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E

1-?

Neocucumis atlantica (Ludwig & Heding, 1935)

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AM

50-300

Neocucumis marioni (Marenzeller, 1878)

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AM

25-560

Ocnus grubei (Marenzeller, 1874)

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E

3 - 40

Ocnus koellikeri (Semper, 1868)

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AM

50-685

Ocnus lacteus (Forbes & Goodsir, 1839)

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AM

0-100

Ocnus petiti (Cherbonnier, 1958)

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E

30-35

Ocnus planci (Brandt, 1835)

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AM

5-250

Ocnus syracusanus (Grube, 1840) Panning, 1949

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E

7-100

Panningia hyndmanni (W. Thompson, 1840)

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+




AM

7-1152

Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817)

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AM

5-1200

Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871)

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AM

0-130

Penilpidia ludwigi (Marenzeller, 1893)

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E

755-4766

Phyllophorus drachi Cherbonnier & Guille, 1968

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E

?-90

Phyllophorus granulatus (Grube, 1840)

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E

3 - 15

Phyllophorus (Phyllophorus) urna Grube, 1840

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E

2-150

Prototrochus meridionalis (Salvini-Plawen, 1977)

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E

?-540

Pseudothyone raphanus (Düben & Koren, 1846)

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AM

7-1050

Pseudothyone sculponea Cherbonnier, 1958

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E

25-120

Stereoderma kirchsbergii (Heller, 1868) Panning, 1949

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+




AM

30-80

Synaptula reciprocans (Forskål, 1775)










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LM

0-20

Thyone cherbonnieri Reys, 1960

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E

3 - 63

Thyone fusus mediterranea Madsen, 1941

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E

20-150

Thyone gadeana R. Perrier, 1902

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+




AM

562-1045

Trochodota furcipraedita Salvini-Plawen, 1972

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E

4 - 5

Trochodota venusta (Semon, 1887)

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E

1 - 13

Ypsilothuria bitentaculata (Ludwig, 1893)

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+




AM

200-4000

Total number of species in the Mediterranean Sea: 154

144

98

101

107

73














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