The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats



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Table S29. Checklist of the Class Reptilia (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phyllum Cordata)




Scientific names

English name

Distribution

Status IUCN

Occurrence

Threats

Caretta caretta

Loggerhead turtle

Throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Nesting: Eastern Mediterranean Sea

EN

Resident

Habitat loss and degradation, by-catch, plastic debris, boat strikes

Chelonia mydas

Green turtle

Mainly distributed in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, sightings records in western Mediterranean Sea. Nesting: Eastern Mediterranean Sea

EN

Resident

Habitat loss and degradation, by-catch, plastic debris, boat strikes

Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback turtle

Sighting mainly in the western Mediterranean Sea; few observations in Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt and Israel

CR

Transient*

 

Eretmochelys imbricata

Hawksbill turtle

Few sightings in Marseille, Albania, southern Sicilian coast, Malta

DD

Transient*

 

Lepidochelys kempi

Kemp's Ridley turtle

Few sightings in Spanish waters, Malta and France

DD

Transient*

 

* DD= Data Deficient, NA=Not Assessed, VU= Vulnerable, EN= Endangered, CR= Critically Endangered

The diversity of the past and temporal patterns (by Heike K. Lotze)

Table S30. Ecologically and economically important species of the Adriatic Sea for which long-term data were available and that were included in historical diversity trends


We considered 64 species or species groups belonging to 7 functional groups, 6 taxonomic groups, and 22 ecological guilds [data were adapted from ref. 1, where a complete list of references for the Adriatic Sea can be found in the Supporting Online Material].

Functional group

Taxonomic group

Ecological guild

Species or species group

Common and scientific names

LARGE CARNIVORES

Mammals

Large whales

Whales

Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus)

 

Mammals

Small whales

Dolphins

Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)

 

Mammals

Pinnipeds

Monk seal

Monachus monachus

 

Reptiles

Turtles

Sea turtles

Most abundant: Loggerhead (Caretta caretta), less abundant: Leathery Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), Kemp turtle (Lepidochelys kempii)

 

Fish

Diadromous fish

Sturgeons

Several species: Adriatic sturgeon (Accipenser naccarii, endemic), Beluga / Giant sturgeon (Huso huso), Europena sturgeon (A. sturio)

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

Bluefin tuna

Thunnus thynnus

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

Other tuna

Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda), frigate tuna (Auxis thazard), skip-jack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), plain bonito (Orcynopsis unicolor)

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

Swordfish

Xiphias gladius

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

White shark

Carcharodon carcharias

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

Angular rough shark

Oxynotus centrina

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

Soupfin shark

Galeorhinus galeus

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

Sharpnore seven gill shark

Heptranchias brucus

 

Fish

Pelagics, large

Other sharks

Squalus spp., Scyliorhinus spp.

 

Fish

Groundfish, large

Rays

Sandy ray (Leucoraja circularis)

 

Fish

Groundfish, large

White skate

Dipturus alba

 

Fish

Groundfish, large

Common skate

Dipturus batis

 

Fish

Groundfish, large

Grouper

Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus), other groupers (Epinephelus spp.)

 

Fish

Groundfish, large

Sea bass

Common bass / European sea bass: Dicentrarchus labrax

 

Fish

Groundfish, large

Adriatic / European hake

Merluccius merluccius

 

Fish

Groundfish, large

Murena / moray eel

Muraena helena

 

Birds

Raptors

Eagle

White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), spotted eagle (Aquila clanga)

 

Birds

Seabirds

Pelicans

Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), White pelican (P. onocrotalus)

 

Birds

Waders

Flamingo

Greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber / roseus)

 

Birds

Waders

Crane

Grus grus

LARGE HERBIVORES

Reptiles

Turtles

Sea turtles

Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)

 

Birds

Waterfowl

Geese, swans

Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)

SMALL CARNIVORES

Fish

Groundfish

Flatfish

Flounder (Platichthys flesus), Commons sole (Solea vulgaris), brill (Scophthalmus rhombus)

 

Fish

Groundfish

Turbot

Psetta maxima

 

Fish

Groundfish

Red mullet

Mullus barbatus

 

Fish

Groundfish

Grey mullets

Mugil spp., Liza spp.

 

Fish

Groundfish

Sea bream

Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), Axillary seabream (Pagellus acarne)

 

Fish

Groundfish

Pandora

Red or common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus)

 

Fish

Groundfish

Anglerfish

Lophius budegassa, Lophius piscatorius

 

Fish

Groundfish

Whiting

Merlangius merlangus

 

Fish

Pelagics, small

Sprat

Sprattus sprattus

 

Fish

Pelagics, small

Sardine

Sardina pilchardus

 

Fish

Pelagics, small

Anchovies

Engraulis encrasicolus

 

Fish

Pelagics, small

Jacks

Blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus), Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus)

 

Fish

Pelagics, small

Mackerel

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

 

Fish

Diadromous

Eel

Anguilla anguilla

 

Fish

Diadromous

Trout

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykis), endemic trout (Salmo letnica)

 

Invertebrates

Cephalopods

Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish

Horned octopus (Eledone cirrhosa), Musky octopus (Eledone moschata), Common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), European squid (Loligo vulgaris)

 

Invertebrates

Crustaceans

Norway lobster

Nephrops norvegicus

 

Invertebrates

Crustaceans

Shrimp

Deepwater rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris), shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus)

 

Invertebrates

Gastropods

Whelk

Murex brandaris, M. trunculus

 

Birds

Shorebirds

Shorebirds

e.g. Wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), Kentish plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus)

 

Birds

Waders

Heron, egret, ibis

Night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), little egret (Egretta garzetta), great white egret (E. alba), squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), purple heron (Ardea purpurea), glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)

 

Birds

Waterfowl

Ducks

Great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), ducks: ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), mergansers (Mergus spp.)

 

Birds

Seabirds

Gulls

Mediterranean gull (Larus melanocephalus), slender-billed gull (Larus genei), herring gull (Larus cachinnans), Audouin’s gull, great black-headed gull

 

Birds

Seabirds

Cormorants

Phalacrocorax carbo, pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus)

 

Birds

Seabirds

Terns, shearwater

Common tern (Sterna hirundo), little tern (Sterna albifrons), sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis), gull-billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), Mediterranean shearwater

SMALL HERBIVORES

Birds

Waterfowl

Ducks

Wigeon (Anas penelope), marbled teal (Anas angustirostris), teal (Anas crecca), shoveler (Anas clypeata), gadwall (Anas strepera), pochard (Aythia ferina), pintail (Anas acuta), garganey (A. querquedula), coot (Fulica atra)

 

Invertebrates

Echinoderms

Black sea urchin

Paracentrotus lividus

 

Invertebrates

Gastropods

Limpets

Patella coerulea, P. ulyssiponensis

 

Invertebrates

Gastropods

Top shells

Gibbula adansoni, G. adriatica, G. ardens, G. varia

SUSPENSION FEEDERS

Invertebrates

Oysters

Oyster

Ostrea adriatica, O. edulis, O. Lamellosa

 

Invertebrates

Mussels

Scallops

Pectinid (Pecten jacobaeus)

 

Invertebrates

Mussels

Mussels

Razor shells, clams, mussels (Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovinzialis, M. marioni, Cerastoderma edule, Abra ovata, Loripes lacteus)

 

Invertebrates

Mussels

Striped Venus

Venus (Chamelea) gallina

 

Invertebrates

Sponges

Sponges

e.g. Dalmatian sponge (Spongia officinalis [var. adriatica and var. mollissima]), Spongia agaricina, Hippospongia communis

 

Invertebrates

Corals

Gorgonians

Eunicella singularis, E. cavolinii, Paramuricea clavata, P. chameleon

MACROPHYTES

Vegetation

Seagrass

Seagrass

Posidonia oceanica (endemic)

 

Vegetation

Macroalgae

Rockweeds

Cystoseira, Sargassum hornschuchi

WETLANDS

Vegetation

Wetlands

Salt marshes

Salt marshes


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