The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats



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Table S31. Timing of different cultural periods around the Adriatic Sea [after 1,2]




Time BC–AC

Cultural period

>100000 BC

Prehuman

100,000 – 6000 BC

Hunter gatherer

6000 – 900 BC

Agricultural

900 – 500 BC

Local market

500 BC – 600 AD

Classical period / Regional market

600 – 1500 AD

Medieval period

1500 – 1800 AD

Early modern

1800 – 1900 AD

Late modern / Industrial

1900 – 1950 AD

Early global period

1950 – 2000 AD

Late global period


References

1. Lotze HK, Lenihan HS, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke RG, et al. (2006) Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312: 1806-1809.



2. Haywood J (1997) Atlas of World History. Oxfordshire Abingdon, UK: Andromeda Oxford.

Current threats to diversity

Table S32. Ranking of current threats for various taxonomic groups in the Mediterranean Sea


Threats to diversity were ranked by experts of this synthesis from 0 to 5 (1: lowest in importance, 5: highest in importance) for 13 taxonomic groups, taking into account the relative importance of each threat to the biodiversity of the group.

 




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pollution

Eutrophication

Habitat degradation

Exploitation

Aquaculture

Invasions

Climate change

Maritime traffic

Others

1

Seaweeds and seagrasses

4

4

5

2

1

2

1

 

 

2

Porifera

2

1

3

2

 

 

2

 

 

3

Anthozoa

3

 

3

2

 

 

2

 

 

4

Mollusca

3

3

5

3

2

3

2

1

 

5

Cumacea

2

2

4

 

 

1

1

 

 

6

Decapoda

3

2

5

4

1

2

3

2

 

7

Ascidiacea

1

2

5

2

 

3

3

 

 

8

Sipuncula

3

3

3

3

1

2

3

1

 

9

Nematoda

2

1

2

 

1

 

2

 

 

10

Vertebrata (Pisces)

1

1

5

5

1

2

1

1

 

11

Vertebrata (Mammalia)

2

2

2

3

 

 

2

2

2

12

Vertebrata (Reptilia)

3

 

3

3

 

 

2

2

 

13

Vertebrata (Aves)

2

 

5

5

 

1

1

 

 



































Table S33. Ranking of future threats to diversity (considering 10 years from now) for various taxonomic groups in the Mediterranean Sea


Threats to diversity were ranked by experts of this synthesis from 0 to 5 (1: lowest in importance, 5: highest in importance) for 13 taxonomic groups, taking into account the potential impact of each threat on the biodiversity of the group.


 




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pollution

Eutrophication

Habitat degradation

Exploitation

Aquaculture

Invasions

Climate change

Maritime traffic

Others

1

Seaweeds and seagrasses

3

3

5

2

1

2

1

 

 

2

Porifera

2

1

4

2

 

 

3

 

 

3

Anthozoa

3

 

4

3

 

 

3

 

 

4

Mollusca

3

3

5

3

2

4

2

1

 

5

Cumacea

3

3

5

 

 

2

2

 

 

6

Decapoda

3

2

5

5

1

3

3

2

 

7

Ascidiacea

1

3

5

2

 

2

2

 

 

8

Sipuncula

3

3

4

3

1

3

3

2

 

9

Nematoda

2

1

2

 

1

 

3

 

 

10

Vertebrata (Pisces)

2

1

5

5

1

2

2

1

 

11

Vertebrata (Mammalia)

4

4

3

4

1

 

3

2

2

12

Vertebrata (Reptilia)

4

 

4

4

 

 

3

2

 

13

Vertebrata (Aves)

1

 

5

5

 

1

2

 

 



































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