The importance of bio- fertilizers and study of their application in medicinally important plants



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Lake 2010: Wetlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change


Theme 1: Biodiversity – Terrestrial, Aquatic

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THE IMPORTANCE OF BIO- FERTILIZERS AND STUDY OF THEIR APPLICATION IN MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANTS


P. Anitha 1 and N. Nanda

1 Department of Botany, B M S College for Women, Bangalore -04.

Department of Chemistry, B M S College for Women, Bangalore-04.


The medicinal plants constitute a source of raw material for approximately 25% of the prescribed drugs which play an important role in the field of health care. Unscientific exploitation of natural vegetation has led to a large scale denudation and reduction in - population of medicinal plants. The loss of genetic diversity in the gene pool of these medicinal plants is the most serious environmental problem -mankind facing today. Hence, the main aim of the present study is conservation of certain medicinal plants by ex-situ conservation method and - improvement of the soil fertility by the application of eco friendly biofertilizers (Glomus mosseae and Glomus fasiculatum ).

Medicinal plants selected for the present investigations are Andrographis paniculata, Costus pictus, Gymnema and Adhatoda for their various pharmacological properties and also for their active principles. Pot trial experiments were conducted to study the responses of these medicinal plants to AM fungi association (bio fertilizers). Results envisaged that the total yield in terms of fresh and dry biomass production has been increased. Different yield attributes viz., height, number of branches have been found to be varying with treatments with the result being highest in the case of application of bio-fertilizers has been found to be varied with treatments, being highest in the application of bio-fertilizers.




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AGRO-BIODIVERSITY IN SOLE AND MIXED FIELD BEAN (LABLAB NIGER MEDICK) AGROECOSYSTEMS IN SOUTH KARNATAKA


Raghavendra. K.T., Chakravarthy.A. K*. and Hattappa.S

Department of Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,

Bangalore-560 065, Karnataka, India

*chakravarthyakshay@yahoo.com and chakravarthyakshay@gmail.com


Field studies were conducted in 1975-78 and 2009-10 to document agro-biodiversity in sole (SFB) and mixed field bean (MFB) cropping systems in and around Bengaluru (120 58’ N, 770 35’ E). In SFB only field bean was cultivated. In MFB, traditional cultivars of finger millet (Eleusine coracana), fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), castor (Ricinus communis), niger (Guizotica coracana) and field bean (Lablab niger Medick) were cultivated. MFB supported on an average 37 bird species with 148 individuals/km2 while SFB supported 17 species with 30 individuals /km2. MFB supported 13 plant species with 85250 individuals/km 2compared to 10 species with 26000 individuals/ km2 in SFB. MFB supported 16 butterfly species with 799 individuals/km2 compared to SFB with 10 species and 557 individuals /km2. MFB supported 30 beetle species with 76500 individuals/km 2compared to sole crop which supported 30 species with 60250 individuals/ km2.

The greater species richness at MFB was due to the greater physical habitat variability. Crop yield loss and bird species richness were negatively correlated (r = -0.8740), (P< 0.5).At study sites crop yield loss and index of species richness were inversely related. Yield loss and insect species richness were also negatively and significantly correlated (r = -0.9130), (P<0.05). Supplementing either sole or mixed crop with bird perches (stubs), shrubs and tress along fields borders and restricted use of pesticides facilitated agro-biodiversity and mitigated problems of pests and diseases. MFB (C:B ratio 1:4.1) facilitated sustainable crop yields proving economically, environmentally and ecologically sound than SFB (1:2.3) to the growers.-




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BRACHYURAN DIVERSITY IN SUB LITTORAL ZONE OF TROPICAL ESTUARY, KARWAR, WEST COAST OF INDIA


Shivakumar B. Haragi, Ulhas G. Naik and J. L. Rathod

Studies in Department of Marine Biology, Karnatak University Post Graduate Centre,

Kodibag, Karwar – 581 303, Karnataka, India.
Kali estuary (14o50’21“ N 74o09’05” E) ,-one of the productive ecosystems of Uttara Kannada, - located in the west coast of India, is known for its verdant mangrove diversity. Totally 13 species of true mangrove - belonging to 8 genera and 6 family were recorded inhabiting this area.. In addition to this, there is associated mangrove flora - comprising 7 species (5-genera and 3-family). Among mangroves, family Rhizophoraceae represents 5 species and 3-genera where as in associated flora dominant family was Fabaceae. This mangrove ecosystem harbours diversified fin and shell fish but present study focused mainly on brachyuran crab diversity. In all, 20 species of crabs belonging to 14 genera and 6 families have been recorded from sub littoral zone of the estuary. Dominant genera represented are Ocypode and Sesarma. But, Scylla serrata is the only commercial species found amidst the rich floral growth of Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia sp. associated with soft mud. Some crab species are site specific with respect to mangrove flora. Portunus sanguinolentus and P. pelagicus were absent in this biotope. Sesarma edwarsi and Varuna litterata were observed especially during the rainy season when low salinity regime is established (between 2 to 5 psu). Crab fishery, their landing and culture aspects along the estuary is also discussed briefly to give some information on their culture potentials. Conversion of mangrove area into shrimp farm, industrialization, sand mining and excavation of shell fossils are major threats to crab diversity in this area.

Keywords: Brachyuran, Mangrove, Estuary, Crab fishery and Diversity.
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URBAN TREE DIVERSITY OF KARWAR, KARNATAKA

Shivananda Bhat B., Jayakara Bhandary M. and Syed Fasihuddin

Department of Botany, Government Degree College, Karwar – 581301, Uttara Kannada, Karnataka
Email: mbjaikar@gmail.com
Urban trees serve many useful functions such as climate change mitigation by carbon sequestration, air quality improvement by air pollution abatement, biodiversity conservation, source of ecosystem goods and service to urban inhabitants. They also have aesthetic, socio-religious and recreational value in urban context. In spite of the importance, they have not received much scientific attention. This paper investigates the diversity and density of tree species growing both within the built environment as well as road-side avenues in the seaside town of Karwar which is the administrative headquarters of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka. The total area of the town is 27.15 m2 and population is 62,973. The tree flora of Karwar comprises of about 100 species in which about 70% are wild indigenous species. The other 30% involves exotic and cultivated species. The top five dominant species are Mangifera indica (wild mango, 20.016% of total tree population), Polyalthia longifolia (False Ashoka, 12.544%), Peltophorum pterocarpum ( Yellow flame tree, 6.763%), Samania saman ( Rain tree, 5.072%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus ( Jackfruit, 5.045%). The tree diversity represents a good assemblage of different utility categories such as wild and cultivated fruit yielding trees, shade and ornamental trees, sacred and religious trees, etc. Besides the high proportion of old trees of wild mango and jackfruit, presence of other wild fruit yielding trees like Artocarpus incisus and Spondias pinnata, large sized sacred trees such as Ficus religiosa and F. benghalensis, rare medicinal species such as Garcinia indica, Saraca asoca, Terminalia bellirica, etc., are some of the notable features of the urban tree flora of Karwar.
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PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND POLLUTION INDICATORS OF BATHI POND NEAR DAVANGERE-A SEASONAL STUDY

Nafeesa Begum1 and J. Narayana

1Department of Botany, Sahyadri Science College (Auto), Shimoga

Department of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta

E-mail: nafeeza_khaliqh@yahoo.co.in
A study was carried out in Bathi pond near Davangere city Karnataka on phytoplankton diversity, density and distribution in different seasons and their correlations with physico-chemical properties of water. A total of 67 phytoplankton species belonging to Chlorococcales, Blue-greens, Desmids, Diatoms and Euglenoids were represented. Relative abundance of phytoplankton showed maximum of Blue-greens (45.61%) followed by Chlorococcales (40.11), Diatoms (13.97), Desmids (0.17%) and Euglenoids (0.13%). The highest density of phytoplankton was recorded during summer season. Chlorococcales varied with peak density (14,134 org/l) during summer and lowest during rainy season (10,333 org/l), Blue-greens recorded highest during summer with 16,351 org/l and least during winter with 14,289 org/l. Diatoms –showed a variation of 5,600 org/l during summer and minimum -of 3,739 org/l during rainy season, Desmids varied from 76 org/l during summer –to 48 org/l (lowest during rainy season). -() - Euglenoids recorded 57org/lduring summer and 41 org/l (least) during winter. -(). Our study revealed that the growth of phytoplankton is governed by BOD, Chloride, COD, Conductivity, Potassium and Sodium. When total phytoplankton density was considered, Air temperature is positively correlated with Euglenoids, BOD was positively correlated with Diatoms andChloride was positively correlated with Desmids and Diatoms. COD showed positive correlation with Blue-greens, Chlorococcales and Euglenoids. Potassium and sodium are positively correlated with Desmids. Pollution tolerant species like Scenedesmus quadricauda, Coelastrum sp. Tetraedon muticum, Closterium sp. Euglena sp. Phacus sp. Trachelomonas sp. and Microcystis sp were recorded.

Key words: Bathi pond, phytoplankton, Chlorococcales, Euglenoids, Blue-greens, Desmids
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DIVERSITY OF WATERBIRDS IN KAIGA, UTTARA KANNADA DISTRICT

Puttaraju K

Scientific officer, Kaiga Generating Station, Kaiga – 581 400

Kaiga village, a rich source of Biodiversity, is located between 14 51’ 00’’ N lat and 74’ 26’ 00’’ E in Uttara Kannada district. A preliminary survey was carried out for a period of two years from November 2007 to October 2009. Survey was held in a total of 18 sampling sites namely Kuchegar, Virje, Hartuga, Irpage, Mallapur, Kadra, Devkar, Devlamakki, Halaga, Ulga, Katne, Baire, Hapkarni, Sakli, Keravadi, Kaiga plant site area, Bare and Haroor. Census was carried out during daytime between 7 am and 9 am. A total of 48 species of waterbirds belonging to 9 families were recorded. The results indicate that Kaiga region is enriched with diverse waterbird species including rare and migratory birds.
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DIVERSITY OF BARK AND BLAZE CHARACTERS

OF COMMON TREE SPECIES OF DANDELI WILD LIFE SANCTUARY


S. S. Kulkarnia and Dr. G. R. Hegdeb

a Department of Botany, B. N. Degree College, Dandeli.

b P. G. Dept. of Botany, K. U. Dharwad.
Tree species, due to their enormous height, inconspicuous flowers and short and irregular phonological cycles; makes the identification process based on flower and fruit character - difficult for field biologists. - Nevertheless, identification of trees by morphological features - is often necessary for many practical purposes. So efforts have been made in the preparation of successful field keys based on field and vegetative characters in many countries. This is relatively easy when the study is -restricted to small geographical areas which can be further - divided based on vegetation types. Keeping this in view, a study was undertaken to prepare a database of tree species of Wild life sanctuary, Dandeli ,based on bark and blaze characters.





ON SPECIES OF CALOTROPIS: EVOLUTION IN ACTION


T1_Oral_08

Shri Niwas Singh

Department of Agricultural Botany, B.R.D.P.G. College, Deoria, U.P.

Only two species of Calotropis R. Br. genus namely Calotropis procera R. Br. and C. gigantea R. Br. are usually reported in literature. Study of variation in these species distributed over a stretch of about hundred and fifty kilometers in the eastern Uttar Pradesh suggests the presence of at least four types of plants. These plants can be easily identified as C. gigantea blue (cgb) and C. gigantea white (cgw), Calotropis procera blue (cpb) and C. procera white (cpw),. Simple morphological characters like maximum attainable plant height, corolla shape and corolla color are sufficient for constructing artificial dichotomous keys and their unambiguous identification. A preliminary systematic study of these four types of plants on the basis of scatter plots between leaf length and leaf width also indicates their clear differentiation. Study of such variations in Calotropis leading to identification of clear differentiation and development of reproductive isolation barriers may help us identify suitable species or ecotypes/genotypes that can be tried further for tapping their full potential as medicinal and petro-crops, insect trap crops and ideotypes for multistorey cropping.

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DENSITY AND BIODIVERSITY OF BGA IN RICE FIELDS OF GOA


Annie F. D'Souza e Gomes1, B.F. Rodrigues2 & A.V. Veeresh3

1 Department of Botany , Govt. College , Quepem; 2 Department of Botany , Goa University Taleigao Goa; 3 Department of Botany , S.P.Chowgule College, Margao, Goa

Cyanobacteria forms a large group of structurally complex and ecologically significant gram negative prokaryotes which flourish in rice fields and also known to sustain the fertility of this ecosystem. This study is aimed to characterize the abundance of cyanobacteria in various habitats of rice field areas in Goa i.e. Khazan lands, Coastal areas, Hinterlands and Mining areas –during Khariff and rabi seasons. A total of 16 genera and 90 species of heterocystous, non-heterocystous and unicellular BGA forms were recorded. The diversity of all the three types of algae was higher in the hinterlands -compared to the other habitats and also the diversity was more in rabi season than khariff. The density of heterocystous forms was most abundant followed by non-heterocystous and unicellular forms respectively. The results were analysed statistically using standard statistical package.


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WATER BIRD DIVERSITY AT HEGGERI LAKE, HAVERI DISTRICT


N. R. Birasal

Zoology Department, KLE Society’s G H College, Haveri – 581 110, Karnataka state

nrbirasal@gmail.com
The avifaunal diversity and density in Heggeri lake, Haveri district, Karnataka, India, was studied for a period of 2 years (2004 – 06). Heggeri lake inhabits several local and migratory bird species. Reduction in water retention in this lake in summer has affected the avifauna diversity in the study area. This habitat attracted 30 bird species belonging to 10 families, which are local and migratory birds. Highest population of painted storks and Bar headed geese was recorded in January. Other prominent residents were herons and little cormorants. Interestingly, in spite of disturbances in NHAI activity, all the 30 species enjoyed the habitat from November to February during the study period. But birds like Flamingoes, White breasted water-hen, Little grebe, Spot billed pelican, Open bill-stork, Great stone plover, Brahminy shell-duck, Comb duck Eurasian pigeon, Mallard, Garganey and Poachard observed from 1997 to 2003 were not spotted during the study period.

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RIPARIAN FLORA OF ATHIKKADAVU, COIMBATORE DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

K. Jisha, Honey John A and V.S. Ramachandran

Taxonomy & Floristic Lab, Dept. of Botany

Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046.
Riparian vegetation is to provide a number of ecological functions, such as controlling sediment and nutrient inputs to water bodies, regulating temperature of waste bodies, inputting fine and coarse organic debris for maintaining aquatic biodiversity, and maintaining terrestrial biodiversity. In the present study an attempt was made to collect and document the Riparian flora of Athikkadavu and it has resulted in the collection of 95 species from 90 genera and 50 families. -The analysis of the flora reveals that the most common trees –are Hopea ponga (Dennst.), Mangifera indica L., Pongamia -pinnata (L.) Pierre, Terminalia arjuna DC. W &A., Madhuca neriifolia (Moon) H.J.Lam., Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kosteletsky., Salix tetrasperma Roxb., and Crataeva religiosa. Wild relatives of cultivated plants like Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Solanum torvum Sw., Vanilla walkeriae Wight, Eleusine indica (L.) and Paspalum conjugatum Berg are also recorded. Medicinal plants -like Centella asiatica (L.), Homonia riaparia Lour., Mimosa pudica L. and Solanum nigrum L.and Ornamental plants -like Cretaeva religiosa Forst. f., Asclepias curassavica L., Brugmansia suaveolens (Willd.) Bercht. & Presl., Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw., Diplazium esculantum (Retz.) Swartz. were also selected for the study -. The productivity of riparian vegetation is much higher than that of terrestrial - ones. The economically important plants are exploited only by the indigenous community. Their indigenous knowledge can be utilized in identifying the other potential useful plants. Hence, it is suggested that the studies on the Riparian flora has to be undertaken in other Riparian zones, in order to get more useful information about the role and status in conserving our natural biodiversity.
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A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE RIPARIAN FLORA OF THE RIVER KALLAR, COIMBATORE DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU


M. Sudha, C. Udhayavanai and V.S. Ramachandran

Taxonomy and Floristic Lab, Dept. of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046


The riparian forests are critical transition zones of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. In the absence of human alteration, riparian - plant communities support numerous functions including bank stabilization through root strength and sediment deposition on flood plains. It act as wildlife habitat and increase biodiversity. The present study evaluates 69 species under 57genera belonging to 29 families. The most dominant families – were Asteraceae (13%), Solanaceae (13%), Poaceae (9%), Amaranthaceae (7%), and Euphorbiaceae (7%) - of which - there - were 41 herbs, 13 shrubs, 4 climbers/ –twiners and 8 trees. The dicots – comprised 59 species and 10 species represented the monocots -. The plants –were grouped under different headings based on the utility point of view-(a) Medicinal plants; Solanum nigrum, Mimosa pudica, Ficus recemosa , Calotropis gigantea, Daemia extensa and Eclipta prostrata, (b)Edible plants; Lycopersicum esculentum, Physalis minima, Centella asiatica, Alternanthera sessilis and Alternanthera tenella, (c)Wild relatives of cultivated plants; Solanum villosum , Mangifera indica, Eleusine indica, Ficus hispida and Solanum americanum , (d)- Ornamental -plants like Solanum seaforthianum, Brugmansia suoveolens, Aritemisia nilagirica , Asclepias curassavica and Lantana camera. It is inferred that the majority of the plants - happened to be of invasive nature. These plants – are carried by the water - bodies from upper-reaches of Nilgiri Hills to the plains of Coimbatore district.
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DENSITY AND DIVERSITY OF MOLLUSCS AT THREE DIFFERENT IRRIGATION RESERVOIRS OF CENTRAL GUJARAT


Patel Chandni, Gandhi Niraja and Padate Geeta

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002, Gujrat, India.



Variations in the macrofaunal species composition and abundance in freshwater benthic habitats – are often related to soil chemistry. The aim of this study is to find out the relation between the density and diversity of Molluscs and soil chemistry at three irrigation reservoirs in the semi-arid zone of Central Gujarat. All of them are important wintering grounds for migratory as well as resident species of birds. For an egg laying species, calcium is an important component of food and many species are known to feed on molluscs to satisfy their calcium needs. The study was conducted from March 2010 to November 2010. Benthic samples were collected by Quadrat sampling. All together 5 taxa of mollusc were identified, of which Bellamya benghalensis dominated at the larger wetland with least anthropogenic pressure while Lamellidens consobrinus dominated the wetland with urban-rural gradient and Indoplanorbis exustus dominated the wetland with total agricultural matrices. The soil chemistry will be discussed.
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DIVERSITY OF BACILLUS STRAINS IN THE WETLANDS AROUND KUMARAKOM REGION OF VEMBANADU LAKE

Maya George1 Sreenamol M.G.2 and A. A. Mohamed Hatha 2

1School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, mayarosegeorge@gmail.com,

2Department of Marine Biology, Microbiology and Biochemistry, School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, mohamedhatha@gmail.com.
Microbial diversity of unexplored geographical locations assumes significance considering the various physiological and metabolic capabilities of microorganisms, especially bacteria. Many of them may possess the ability to solve new and emerging disease problems and to advance biotechnology. Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the wetland were characterized by detailed conventional biochemical methods as described in Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Analysis of the data revealed that B. pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study (17%) followed by B. subtilis ssp. subtilis (11%). The isolates show differences in certain characteristics such as, shape of the spore, position of the spore and swelling of the sporangium. About 95% and 91% of the total isolates could grow in media with salt concentrations of 5% and 7% respectively. B. cascainensis, B. coagulans, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. sterothermophilus and B. subtilis were able to survive at temperatures up to 55oC and at 10% of salt concentration. About 78% of the isolates exhibited protease and DNase activity. Tween 80 and starch were hydrolyzed efficiently. About 8% of isolates were capable of elaborating tyrosinase. Carbohydrate fermentation ability of Bacillus isolates revealed that glucose is the most preferred carbon source.
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THE IMPACT OF BENGALURU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (BIAL) ON NATIVE BIODIVERSITY

Mayur.A.M. Chakravarthy.A.K., Hattappa.S and Yathish, K.R

Department of Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 0665, Karnataka, India

chakravarthyakshay@yahoo.com and chakravarthyakshay@gmail.com
The impact of BIAL on native biodiversity elements was assessed in 2009 and 2010. The biodiversity elements were less impacted in Ganamuthenahalli and severely impacted in Hunasuru. The bird species richness at Ganmuthnahalli was 18.12, species evenness was 0.82 and Shannon wiener diversity index was 1.61 with 65 bird species. At Hunasuru the corresponding figures were 15.83, 0.64 and 1.54 with 57 bird species respectively. The butterflies’ species richness at Gangamuthaenahalli was 15.83, species evenness was 0.94 and Shannon Weiner index was 1.30 with 24 butterfly species. At Hunasuru the corresponding figures were 8.87, 0.81 and 1.26 with 19 butterflies’ species, respectively. The mammalian species richness at Ganamuthenahalli was 3.76, species evenness was 0.37 and Shannon wiener diversity index was 0.47. At Hunsuru the corresponding figures were 3.54, 0.35 and 0.45 with ten species of mammals, respectively.

Establishment of BIAL resulted in massive landscape changes, denudation of vegetation, large scale movement of rural masses of people away from BIAL area, increased traffic frequency on road, chemical pollution and water pollution. There was a 25% reduction in mammal species. Out of the fourteen state forests three have been deforested for development of BIAL. These changes have affected biodiversity in 4500 acres of BIAL area and surrounding 25 Km2 area where urbanization is steadily increasing. It is suggested that large open spaces available around 25 Km2 BIAL area be planted with indigenous species of trees, shrubs and creepers.


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DIVERSITY OF ORCHIDS IN SRINGERI TALUK, WESTERN GHATS OF KARNATAKA

Santhosh N.R.1, E.S.Kumaraswamy udupa2, and K.Krishnaswamy3
1, 3 Department of Botany, Sahyadri Science College (Auto), Shimoga 577203, Karnataka, India.

2 Department of Botany, Sri JCBM College, Sringeri 577 139, Karnataka.

Email: santhu.nrs@gmail.com1, udupa_sringeri@yahoo.co.in2,krishna_swamy_k@yahoo.co.in3

Sringeri is the smallest Taluk of Chickamagaluru District situated between 1315-13-61 N and 7504’-75-21’ E with a geographical area of 442.32 km square. The Taluk has a rich diversity of orchids distributed in different types of vegetation. The documentation of orchids and their host specification in different types of selected vegetations like Evergreen, Dry deciduous, Moist deciduous, Scrubby, Acacia plantations and Grasslands by using 2x100 m belt transect reveals that the taluk has rich diversity of orchids.

A total of 50 species of orchids belonging to 29 genera were recorded within the transects and out of the transects in Sringeri Taluk. Among these, 29 orchid species belonging to 21 genera were documented within the transect area of all types of selected vegetation including grass lands. Moist deciduous forest contributes the highest orchid diversity (249 individuals) followed by the scrubby forest (42) and also harbor high plant density (566 individuals) compare to other type of vegetation whereas, evergreen forest contributes only 5 individual of Aerides crispa and also lowest number of trees in the selected area A.crispa is the dominant orchid found in the evergreen vegetation and Sarcanthus pauciflora is dominant in remaining types of vegetation except evergreen forest. The grass lands contribute 106 individuals of terrestrial orchids viz. Habenaria heyneana (87), Satyrium nepalensis (11) and Platanthera susanae (8) with in the transect the other orchids found in grassland outside the transect are H.perotettiana, H.grandifloriformis and H.logicorniculata, Peristylus aristatus and P.spiralis.

The transect study in selected different forests reveals that S.pauciflora is the most abundant species (22.40), having highest SIV (60.53) and has highest density (14.00). A.crispa has highest frequency (0.75) and is followed by S. pauciflora (0.50). The recorded orchid species in different forest in Sringeri Taluk showed Shannon diversity value, H1 = 2.19) and Simpson’s species richness, C = 0.18.

The recorded 347 individuals of epiphytic orchids belonging to 26 species within the transect of different type of forests preferred 434 individuals of supporting trees as host plant belonging to 34 species of 22 families. S.pauciflora preferred 112 number of host plants followed by T.stocksii (44). In the study area, the orchid L.zeylanica (20) observed only on Hopea ponga



Keywords: Transects, Sringeri, Western Ghats, Sarcanthus pauciflora Platanthera susanae, Hopea ponga.
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VARIATIONS IN THE BUTTERFLY FAUNA AROUND THREE IRRIGATION RESERVOIRS IN THE SEMI ARID ZONE OF CENTRAL GUJRAT

Gandhi Nirjara, Patel Chandni and Padate Geeta

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002, Gujrat, India.
Wetlands are the most diverse ecosystems, where the main focus is given to water birds. However, in this ecosystem, the invertebrates especially the insects form functionally important group. In present study an attempt has been made to document the butterfly fauna around three different irrigation reservoirs in the semi arid zone of Central Gujarat. All the three reservoirs are surrounded by different agricultural matrices and face different kinds of anthropogenic pressure. The Species Richness, Shannon Weiner Diversity index (H') and Evenness (E) and the Percentage abundance of the different butterfly families are assessed with seasonal differences. 46 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families of Order Lepidoptera were observed around the three reservoirs with 40 species noted around the Nationally Important Wetland, Wadhwana Irrigation Reservoir, whereas 31 around Jawla Irrigation Reservoir with rural surrounding and 26 around Timbi Irrigation reservoirs with rural-urban gradient. Around larger wetlands, majority of species were found. At the wetland under rural-urban gradient the species found showed the influence of modern urban vegetation. The influence of size of reservoir, agricultural matrix and human movements is discussed with the seasonal differences in the species composition and variation in their abundance.
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ORTHOPTERAN FAUNA OF CHANDOLI NATIONAL PARK, MAHARASHTRA

Y. J. Koli1, D. L. Bharmal2, S. R. Aland3, S. J. Patil4 & G. P. Bhawane5

1,3,4,5- Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur.

2- S.P.K. Mahavidyala, Savantvadi
The present paper includes 61 species/ subspecies belonging to 55 genera 8 families of Orthoptera from Chandoli national park. Survey and collection was carried out from August 2008 to August 2010. The order Orthoptera is divided in to two suborders namely Caelifera and Ensifera. The suborder Caelifera includes short-horned grasshopper, Locust & Grouse locust; however, Ensifera includes long-horned grasshopper, Katydids, Cricket & Mole cricket.

The suborder Caelifera is represented by 33 species under 32 genera and 3 families viz Acrididae (23 species and 22 genera), Tetrigidae (8 species & 8 genera) and Pyrgomorphidae (2 species & 2 genera).

The suborder Ensifera is represented by 29 species under 23 genera and 5 families Viz Tettigoniidae (12 species & 11 genera), Gryllidae (11 species & 09 genera), Oecanthidae (3 species & 1 genera), Trigonidiidae (2 species & 1 genera) and Gryllotalpidae (1 species & 1 genera).

Key words: Orthoptera, fauna & Chandoli national park.

T1_Poster_19





LARVAL ENERGETIC STUDIES OF BUTTERFLY STRIPED TIGER, DANAUS GENUTIA (FAM: NYMPHALIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT HOST PLANTS IN COMPARISON WITH A MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT VULNERABLE HERB HOLOSTEMMA ADA-KODIEN


Kunal Ankola, Lakshminarayan, Kavya Krishna., Arun P., Sudarshan N.M., Sunil G.N. and Puttaraju H.P.
School of Natuaral Sciences, Division of Biological Sciences, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560 056
The butterfly Striped Tiger (Danaus genutia) belonging to the family Nymphalidae is a common butterfly in India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and most parts of the South East Asia and Australia. The caterpillar of these butterflies are known to acquire toxic alkaloids from their host plants making the caterpillars and adults toxic to their predators. The host plants of these butterflies belong to Family -Asclepiadaceae including a medicinally important plant Holostemma ada-kodien, which has been listed out as vulnerable and rare in the FRLHT red list of medicinal plants. In the current study, we investigated the energetics of striped tiger larvae with two different milkweed plants as – against Holostemma. The study aimed to check the biological association between larvae with their different host plants. The experimental setup was done with three sets each consisting of 30 newly emerged larvae of striped tiger. The first and second sets of larvae were made to feed on Cynanchum dalhousiee and Asclepias curassavica respectively. At the same time the third set of larvae were made to feed on Holostemma ada-kodien. The larvae of first and second set used 1.6068±0.15 g of Cynanchum dalhousiee leaves and 1.6464±0.13 g of Asclepias curassavica leaves for their metamorphosis into pupae respectively. However it was observed that the third set of larvae which fed on Holostemma used 1.868±0.16 g of leaves for their metamorphosis. The result obtained in the current study clearly demonstrates that the Striped Tiger larvae damage the leaves of Holostemma more than that of other two host plants as they require more leaves for the their metamorphosis. Considering the vulnerability status of medicinally important plant Holostemma, the larvae of striped tiger act as reasonable pests in wild condition.
T1_Poster_20



POPULATION DENSITY OF VARIOUS CASTES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE MOUND OF THE TERMITE ODONTOTERMES WALLONENSIS WASMANN (ISOPTERAN: TERMITIDAE)

B. Vasantkumar1, K. Vijaykumar2

1 Asst. Professor, Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree Arts & Science College, Karwar. Uttar Kannada.

2Chairman, Department of Zoology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga.
Population density ( per 100 g. unit of fungus garden) of workers, soldiers, nymphs of the termite Odontotermes -wallonesis from different parts of the mound, namely, peripheral, fungus garden, fungus garden around the royal chamber and from royal chamber itself, and the foraging population density (per 102 sq. cm. area) from the foraging covered runways on the eucalyptus trees were studied. Percentage of major workers in peripheral fungus garden and foraging covered runways was higher compared to the other parts of the mound. Percentage of minor workers was more in the fungus garden around the royal chamber and in the royal chamber than other parts of the mound. High percentage of soldiers was found concentrated in the fungus garden around the royal chamber. Various castes in different parts of the mound are distributed according to their functional behavior.
T1_Poster_21




BUTTERFLY DIVERSITY AT BANNERGHATTA NATIONAL PARK


Deepanjali Tamang

Christ University

In the present study, observation made in the Butterfly Park, Bannerghatta shows the presence of a great number of varieties of species of butterflies. Some rare species like Southern birdwing -was also observed. Many other species like the Baronet, Common castor, Crimson rose, common Emigrant, common Mormon, Mottled Emigrants etc., were also observed. The park displayed a rich floral surrounding for the proliferation of the butterflies along with many other insects. Though many species were identified and many unknown species were observed, the populations of different species were not very high. This may be due to change in the climatic condition or impact of human activities.
T1_Poster_22



BIODIVERSITY OF INSECTS IN CHRIST AND DHARMARAM CAMPUS


Shabana, Rakshitha .I. Narayan and Sunpriya .S

Christ Junior College

-

T1_Oral_23






TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY AT THE VALLEY SCHOOL – EXPERIENCES AND CHALLENGES


The Valley School

The valley school is located on the edges of the Bannerghatta reserve forest. Over the last 30 years, the school has made many efforts to conserve the biodiversity as well as the water bodies on the campus. Due to our efforts, the campus has a large number of indigenous species of trees. We have also been able to conserve the fresh water lake on campus.

As a part of the environment education curriculum, the class 9 students will be undertaking a project next term (Nov-Dec) to study and document the biodiversity on the campus. The area of study for the project would include (i) terrestrial biodiversity along the perimeter of the lake and the stream that carries the run-off from the lake (ii) aquatic biodiversity in the lake and (iii) testing the water quality in the lake. The students will also identify the challenges to biodiversity conservation in The school.

The students will present the summary of the project during the Lake 2010 symposium. The objective is to share The Valley School’s efforts in conservation and land care.

T1_Oral_24

CONSERVATION THREATS OF PACHAIMALAI HILLS BIODIVERSITY, TAMILNADU: ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE


Ashoka Chakkaravarthy Q.

Environmental Science, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli-2.



Anthropogenic activities and the rapidly changing environment have been gradually depleting and deteriorating habitats for proper perpetuation and survival of many plant as well as animal species, Ambarish Mukherjee (1995). The present study was conducted to have a detailed work over the factors responsible for the habitat’s decline in Pachaimalai hills. The study area is a part of the Eastern Ghats in the southern state of India, Tamilnadu. The hills are spread over the three districts of Tamilnadu viz, Tiruchirappalli, Salem, Perambalur, located near 11.18 oN 78.35 oE. It is –one of the least known hill ranges occupying a total area of 527.61 Sq.km with 82 villages. - -Tropical climate prevails here with - temperature ranging from 14oC to 31 oC. The study area faces constant uncontrolled anthropogenic exploitation of lands as well as vegetation. Tapioca cultivation is in practice instead of traditional - paddy culture for better profit. The study site is rich in biodiversity but problems have arisen recently as the habitats of Pachaimalai hills are threatened- due to the anthropogenic activities - carried out in -the pretext of human development resulting in the gradual conversion of natural vegetation for the purpose of tapioca cultivation. Rapid rate of deforestation due to encroachment and illegal felling of trees, especially on hillocks pose serious threat to all forest species. -Fire wood collections by local villagers destroy microhabitats.


22nd-24th December 2010 Page



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