The information given for each of the species in this section is a summary of know
ledge; space restrictions preclude the inclusion of all information. The information is
arranged under the following headings, but note that not every heading may be relevant
to a species, in which case it is not included.
In cases where infraspecific taxa are
recognised, the taxa are listed here. The data relevant to the
differences between the infraspecific taxa, and their natural
occurrence, ecology, flowering times etc. are given under
the appropriate headings. One new name is published in
this volume, i.e. M. glauca (Sweet) Craven.
The included reference(s) is(are) the place
of publication of the accepted name of each species and,
where relevant, also of each nonautonymic infraspecific
taxon. It is given in the standard taxonomic style, i.e. the
page number is the page upon which the name is first
given. There may be further relevant information given
on the subsequent and/or preceding page(s).
The derivation of specific and infraspecific
epithets, as far as these can be ascertained, is provided.
Only the major taxonomic or nomenclatural
synonyms are given. Names that have been rarely or not
used in recent decades are not included.
This is a standard botanical statement of
the species’ morphology. Where decimal places do not
match, this is to stress that the ranges provided are not
given with a strict level of precision, owing to the nature
of the materials studied.
The geographical distribution
of each taxon is given for the plant’s natural range. In a
few cases where a taxon is extensively, or well known to
be, naturalised, the naturalised range may also be given.
The herbarium documentation of adventive or locally
naturalised Melaleuca species within Australia and other
countries needs to be encouraged, and herbarium records
should clearly indicate if a taxon is adventive or is definitely
naturalised, with evidence of several generations present
A brief statement of the habitat in which each
taxon occurs is given.
Flowering times are derived from the
information given on herbarium specimens and, in some
cases, must be considered as a guide only, especially for
taxa noted as flowering throughout the year. Sometimes
an individual plant may flower well outside the usual
flowering period and thus a herbarium record may not be
applicable to the whole population on the particular date
on which the specimens were collected.
A leaf oils profile of each taxon is given
here. The full data are available online, at:
The yield of oil is given here; also whether the
distilled foliage sample was fresh or dried material (weight
for weight; w/w).
essential oil information was previously published, the
reference(s) is(are) given here.
Under this heading is information on essential oils
of interest, notes on cultivation, the differences between
infraspecific taxa, pertinent taxonomic or nomenclatural
information and so on.
Where available, an image of flowering material is
included. In a few cases, where no flowering material was
7. Species ac
available, an image of young or mature fruit has been used.
colour of their flowers. Sometimes the recorded variability
is due to differences in the shade of a colour or the different
interpretations of collectors when noting flower colour.
In some species, however, the flower colour can vary
dramatically, such as in M. nervosa whose flowers may be
green, red or white to yellowish. The image included in
the species’ account can therefore only be considered a
guide to the colour. Sourcing plants for floral ornamental
purposes will require care to ensure that the desired colour
form is obtained.
The data upon which the
distribution maps are based were drawn from records
of specimens held in Australian herbaria, supplemented
with data from protologues and other sources. In the case
of species in which infraspecific taxa are recognised, the
depicted distribution is for the species as a whole.
Fabaceae, and the Greek oides, resembling, in reference
to the similarity, in foliage, between this species and certain
species of Acacia
1.5–10 m tall; bark papery
or rarely hard, whitish or greyish or rarely brownish.
glabrescent to longish pubescent.
wide, shortpetiolate to subsessile; blade glabrescent, long
ish pubescent, narrowly obovate, obovate, narrowly elliptic
or elliptic, in transverse section transversely linear, the
base attenuate or cuneate, the apex rounded to acuminate,
the veins longitudinal, 5–7,
capitate, lateral, pseudotermi
nal or interstitial, with 2–10 triads.
abaxially hairy, 0.5–0.6 mm
long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.4 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.2–1.6 mm long.
bundle claw 2–2.4 mm long, 0.4–0.6 times as long as the
7–7.5 mm long.
6–9 per locule.
1.6–2.3 mm long, the calyx lobes abaxially persis
tent; cotyledons obvolute.
Northern Territory, Queens
land; also Papua New Guinea: from western Arnhem Land
in the Northern Territory eastwards to Cape York Penin
sula in Queensland. The species also occurs in southern
Papua New Guinea.
Recorded as occurring generally in slightly
saline areas, typically on the land side of mangrove and
samphire communities, in grassland, tall myrtaceous
scrub, riparian vegetation, and eucalypt woodland.
dominated by sesquiterpenes. The principal components
were bselinene (21–30%) and aselinene (53–55%). These
were accompanied by lesser amounts of the sesquiterpe
nes selina11en4ol (6–9%), globulol (0.7–2.0%) and
bcaryophyllene (1–2%). Monoterpenes were virtually
absent from this oil.
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3–0.8%.
References on essential oils:
Brophy et al. 1987;
This species may have potential for shelter belts
or specimen plantings in regions with saline soils and a
monsoonal tropical climate. It could be useful as a source
of a and bselinene.
Two subspecies are recognised within this
species: subsp. acuminata and subsp. websteri (S.Moore)
Barlow ex Craven
(1858), subsp. acuminata; in Craven & Lepschi, Australian
Systematic Botany 12: 858 (1999), subsp. websteri
acuminata, from the Latin acumen, sharp
point, in reference to the leaf apex; websteri, in honour
of Leonard Clarke Webster (1870–1942), an Australian
pharmacist and botanical collector, who later trained as
Shrub or tree
1.2–4 m tall; bark papery or
fibrous, whitish or greyishwhite.
cent (the lanuginulose hairs ephemeral).
4.5–19 mm long, 0.8–4 mm wide, 2.5–18 times as long
as wide, shortpetiolate to subsessile; blade soon glabres
cent (the lanuginulose hairs ephemeral), linear, oblong,
narrowly elliptic, elliptic, narrowly ovate or ovate, in trans
verse section lunate, conduplicateinvolute or transversely
linear, the base attenuate to rounded, the apex acuminate,
narrowly acute or narrowly acuminate, the veins weakly
pinnate (superficially appearing to have 3 longitudinal
sparse, distinct to obscure, scattered.
capitate, lateral (often developing on older
wood), with 1–8 monads, 6–20 mm wide.
0.5–1.4 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 1–2 mm
deciduous, 1.5–3 mm long.
bundle; filaments white or cream (rarely yellowish), 4–7.5
mm long, the bundle claw 3–4.9 mm long, 0.6–0.7 times as
long as the filaments.
5.1–7.3 mm long.
2.3–4.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth or
the calyx lobes weathering away or rarely persistent; coty
ledons planoconvex to subobvolute.
Australia, South Australia, New South Wales: southern
Western Australia, extending eastwards to southern South
Australia and farwestern Victoria and New South Wales.
trict south to the Wyalkatchem district.
mallee woodland, closed mallee shrubland, woodland and
mallee heath, on white sand, clayey sand over laterite, red
sand, and greybrown calcareous loamy sand, sometimes
in the vicinity of salt lakes. subsp. websteri: Recorded as
occurring in Casuarina–Eucalyptus–Melaleuca thickets,
on sandy soil, granite loam, and clay, sometimes in saline
flowering from March to April, and from June to January,
probably mainly flowering in winter and spring. subsp.
websteri: Recorded as flowering from August to October.
subsp. acuminata: The leaf oil of this
subspecies was dominated by monoterpenes. The bulk
collection (of three trees) contained significant amounts
of 1,8cineole (36.4%) and terpinolene (15.5%) and
was similar to subsp. websteri, suggesting that at least
one of the trees was of this chemical form. Two further
individual trees contained 1,8cineole (52–65%) as the
principal component. This was accompanied by lesser
amounts of limonene (2–4%), apinene (1–7%), myrcene
(1–3%), terpinen4ol (1–3%) and aterpineol (3–6%).
The major sesquiterpenes present were aromadendrene
(3–5%), viridiflorene (1–3%), globulol (2–3%), viridiflorol
(1–2%) and spathulenol (0.6–2.0%). A second collection
(BJL 1651) contained 1,8cineole (35–55%) and apinene
(10–15%) as major components, with all other components
being in similar amounts to those listed above. subsp.
by monoterpenes. The two principal components were
1,8cineole (24–30%) and terpinolene (25–33%). They
were accompanied by lesser amounts of the monoterpe
nes apinene (2–7%), aphellandrene (6–7%), gterpinene
(2–3%) and lesser amounts (<1.5%) of limonene, myrcene,
aterpinene, pcymene, terpinen4ol and aterpineol.
Sesquiterpenes, while reasonably plentiful, did not con
tribute significantly to the oil. The principal members
of this class were aromadendrene (2–3%), viridiflorene
(1–2%), bicyclogermacrene (0.5–2.0%), globulol (1–3%),
viridiflorol (1–2%) and spathulenol (1–2%).
w/w) was 2–3%. subsp. websteri: The oil yield (fresh
weight, w/w) was 1–2%.
The two subspecies are distinguished as follows:
narrowly ovate or ovate; hypanthium 1.8–2.7 mm long;
calyx lobes 0.5–1.4 mm long. subsp. websteri: Leaf blade
linear, oblong or narrowly elliptic; hypanthium 1.2–1.8
mm long; calyx lobes 0.5–0.7 mm long.
This species is regarded as adaptable and easy to grow in
most soils, whether acidic or alkaline, in drytemperate to
temperate environments (Holliday 2004).
acutifolia, from the Latin acutus, acute,
Melaleuca lateriflora var. acutifolia Benth.;
Melaleuca lateriflora subsp. acutifolia (Benth.) Barlow ex
0.4–6 m tall; bark fibrous or
to minutely sericeous or rarely pubescent or sericeous
lanuginulose to lanuginulosepuberulous.
7–25 mm long, 2–7.5 mm wide, 3.9–8 times as long
as wide, shortpetiolate to sessile; blade glabrescent,
sericeouslanuginulose, often with some lanuginulose
puberulous hairs or rarely with glabrous lamina and ciliate
margin, sometimes sericeouslanuginulose to minutely
sericeous, sericeouslanuginulose with some lanuginulose
hairs or sericeouspubescent, narrowly obovate, narrowly
elliptic, very narrowly obovate or very narrowly elliptic, in
transverse section lunate, sublunate or transversely nar
rowly elliptic (approaching transversely linear), the base
cuneate, narrowly cuneate or attenuate, the apex obtusely
shortly acuminate, acute, acuminate or rarely obtuse, the
veins longitudinal, 5–9,
dense or moderately
dense, distinct or obscure, scattered to more or less in
capitate, lateral, with 1–15 monads,
up to 25 mm wide.
glabrous, 1.5–2.3 mm
abaxially glabrous, costate (sometimes
faintly so), 0.7–1.3 mm long, scarious in a marginal band
0.15–0.5 mm wide.
deciduous, 2–3.4 mm long.
10–22 per bundle; filaments white or rarely
cream, 8–10 mm long, the bundle claw 3.5–6.5 mm long,
0.5–0.8 times as long as the filaments.
8–10 mm long.
25–45 per locule.
2.8–4.2 mm long, with
sepaline teeth (these at length weathering); cotyledons
planoconvex (sometimes approaching subobvolute).
Kalbarri–Yalgoo district south to the Perth–Waroona district.
shrubland, mallee scrubland, Melaleuca woodland, dense
low heathland, near edge of salt pan, on sandy clay, clay
loam with laterite, and saline soil.
whelmingly monoterpenoid in character. The principal
component was 1,8cineole (76.5%). This was accompanied
by lesser amounts of apinene (3.4%), bpinene (1.9%),
limonene (3.7%), pcymene (1.1%) and aterpineol (9.1%).
Sesquiterpenes were neither abundant nor plentiful, with
the principal component being spathulenol (0.6%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.
Based upon its natural distribution and ecology,
this species should be suitable for regions with a dry Medi
terranean climate and slightly saline soils.
(Benth.) Craven & Lepschi
tralian Systematic Botany 3: 171, fig. 2c–d (1990)
adenostyla, from the Greek adenos, gland,
and stylos, style, in reference to the glandular style
1.5–5 m tall.
decussate, 6–16 mm long, 0.8–1.2 mm wide,
5–16 times as long as wide, shortpetiolate; blade soon
glabrescent (the ephemeral hairs lanuginulose), linear or
narrowly elliptic, in transverse section lunate, shallowly
lunate or semicircular, the base attenuate to cuneate, the
apex narrowly acuminate or narrowly acute, the veins
weakly pinnate (superficially appearing to have 3 longitu
sparse to dense, distinct to obscure,
spicate, pseudoterminal, with
1–12 monads, up to 18 mm wide.
2.2–2.7 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, 0.5–1.2
long, scarious in a broad marginal band 1–2 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.8–2.4 mm long.
bundle; filaments cream, 4.6–6.8 mm long, the bundle
claw 3.3–4.4 mm long, 0.6–0.7 times as long as the fila
4.9–6.3 mm long.
60–75 per locule.
3.5–5 mm long, with sepaline teeth or rarely the
lobes persistent; cotyledons planoconvex to flattened
Dumbleyung district eastwards to the Hyden–Newdegate
Recorded as occurring in open eucalypt
woodland, with scattered shrubs on a grassy roadside, in
a swampy saline depression, saltmarsh, in sandy loam over
clay, and gravelly sandy soil.
monoterpenoid oil. The principal component of the leaf
oil was 1,8cineole (66.8%). This was accompanied by
lesser amounts of apinene (14.1%), limonene (4.9%)
and aterpineol (4.4%). Sesquiterpenes accounted for
less than 10% of the oil, with the principal components
being spathulenol (1.2%), bicyclogermacrene (1.4%), vir
idiflorene (0.7%) and globulol (0.8%). Also present was
an unknown, assumed aromatic, compound of molecular
weight 236 (1.6%).