Theories of Personality Jung Outline



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Theories of Personality Jung


Outline

  • Overview of Analytical Psychology

  • Biography of Jung

  • Levels of the Psyche

  • Dynamics of Personality

  • Psychological Types

  • Development of Personality

  • Jung’s Method of Investigation

  • Related Research

  • Critique of Jung

  • Concept of Humanity



Biography of Jung



Overview of Analytical Psychology

  • People are extremely complex

  • Opposing qualities

  • Occult Phenomena Influence Lives

  • Inherit Experiences from Ancestors

  • Aim at Achieving Balance between Opposing Forces



Levels of Psyche



Archetypes

  • Archetypes

  • Archetypes include:

    • Persona
    • Anima
    • Animu


Shadow



Great Mother



Wise Old Man



Hero



Self

  • Your picture here!



Dynamics of Personality



Causality and Teleology



Progression and Regression

    • Progression
      • Forward flow of psychic energy
    • Regression
      • Backward flow of psychic energy


Psychological Types



Psychological Types (cont’d)



Jungian Types

  • Introversion – Thinking

  • Extraversion – Feeling

  • Introversion – Sensation

  • Extraversion – Intuition





Development of Personality

  • Stages of Development

    • 1) Childhood (birth to adol)
      • Anarchic
      • Monarchic
      • Dualistic
    • 2) Youth
    • 3) Middle Life
    • 4) Old Age


Self-Realization

  • Individuation

    • assimilation of unconsciousness
    • Process of integrating opposites
    • Must allow unconscious to dominate
    • Rarely achieved


Jung’s Method of Investigation



Critique of Jung



Concept of Humanity

  • Deterministic or Pessimistic

  • Causal or Teleological

  • Conscious or Unconscious

  • Biology or Social

  • Similarity or Individual Differences



Theories of Personality Horney



Biography of Horney



Outline

  • Overview of Psychoanalytic Social Theory

  • Introduction to Psychoanalytic Social Theory

  • Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety

  • Compulsive Drives

  • Intrapsychic Conflicts

  • Feminine Psychology

  • Critique of Horney’s theory

  • Concept of Humanity



Why would college women with an alcoholic parent offer more help to an exploitative person than to a nurturing person?

  • Why would college women with an alcoholic parent offer more help to an exploitative person than to a nurturing person?



Overview of Psychoanalytic Social Theory

  • Social and Cultural Conditions Largely Responsible for Shaping Personality

  • When Needs Are Not Met in Childhood, Basic Hostility and Anxiety Arise



Psychoanalytic Social Theory

  • Horney criticizes Freud



Horney’s theories

  • stressed

    • The Impact of Culture
    • The Importance of Childhood Experiences


Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety

  • Basic hostility

  • Basic anxiety

  • Protective factors

    • Affection
    • Submissiveness
    • Power or prestige
    • Withdrawal


Compulsive Drives

  • All use strategies to protect self

  • Neurotic Needs



Neurotic need for:

  • Affection and approval

  • Powerful partner

  • Restrict life in narrow borders

  • Need for power

  • Exploit others



Neurotic need for (continued):

  • 6. Social recognition/prestige

  • 7. Personal admiration

  • 8. Ambition and personal achievement

  • 9. Self-sufficiency and independence

  • 10. Perfection



Horney and Stewie



Neurotic Trends



Intrapsychic Conflicts

  • become part of belief system

  • take on a life of their own

  • separate from the interpersonal conflicts that created them

  • Originate from Interpersonal Experiences



Intrapsychic Conflicts

  • Idealized self image

  • Neurotic search for glory

  • Neurotic claims

  • Neurotic pride



Intrapsychic Conflicts

  • Self-Hatred

    • (1) relentless demands on self,
    • (2) merciless self-accusation,
    • (3) self-contempt,
    • (4) self-frustration,
    • (5) self-torment or self-torture
    • (6) self-destructive actions and impulses.


Feminine Psychology

    • Found concept of “penis envy” unsound
    • If that existed, should also be “womb envy”


Critique of Horney

  • Horney’s Theory Is:

    • Moderate on Internal Consistency and Parsimony
    • Low on Falsifiability, Generating Research, and Guiding Action
    • Very Low on Organizing Knowledge
    • Based mostly on own clinical experiences with neurotic patients


Concept of Humanity

  • Free Choice vs. Determinism

  • Optimism vs. Pessimism

  • Biology vs. Social Influence

  • Similarities vs. Uniqueness

  • Causality vs. Teleology

  • Conscious vs. Unconscious



Name that Theorist!

  • Anatomy is destiny

  • Freud

  • A particularly beautiful woman is a source of terror. As a rule, a beautiful woman is a terrible disappointment.

  • Jung

  • To be human means to feel inferior.

  • Adler

  • I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for a father's protection.

  • Freud

  • Like all sciences and all valuations, the psychology of women has hitherto been considered only from the point of view of men.

  • Horney



America is the most grandiose experiment the world has seen, but, I am afraid, it is not going to be a success.

  • America is the most grandiose experiment the world has seen, but, I am afraid, it is not going to be a success.

  • Freud

  • Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves.

  • Jung

  • Men are more moral than they think and far more immoral than they can imagine.

  • Freud

  • War is organized murder and torture against our brothers

  • Adler

  • Concern should drive us into action, not into a depression.

  • Horney

  • Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.

  • Freud



As we ascend the social ladder, viciousness wears a thicker mask.

  • As we ascend the social ladder, viciousness wears a thicker mask.

  • Creativity requires the courage to let go of certainties.

  • In love the paradox occurs that two beings become one and yet remain two

  • Man is the only animal for whom his own existence is a problem which he has to solve.



Erich Fromm



Outline

  • Overview of Humanistic Psychoanalysis

  • Biography of Fromm

  • Fromm’s Basic Assumption

  • Human Needs

  • The Burden of Freedom

  • Character Orientations

  • Personality Disorders

  • Critique of Fromm

  • Concept of Humanity



Biography of Fromm



Overview of Humanistic Psychoanalysis

  • People Have Lost Their Connection with Nature and One Another



Fromm’s Basic Assumption

  • Personality can only be understood in the light of history

  • “torn away” from their prehistoric union with nature

  • Two fundamental dichotomies

    • Life and death
    • Complete Self-realization and the fact that we cannot reach this goal because “life is too short


Human Needs

  • 1) Relatedness

  • 2) Transcendence

  • 3) Rootedness

  • 4) Sense of Identity

  • 5) Frame of Orientation





  • Summary of Human Needs

    • needs have evolved from humans’ existence as a separate species
    • Aimed at moving humans toward reunification with the natural world
    • Lack of satisfaction of any of these needs is unbearable and may result in insanity


The Burden of Freedom

  • Freaks of the universe

  • Freedom means no more fixed roles

  • Freedom becomes a burden



The Burden of Freedom

  • To reduce sense of isolation

  • 3 Mechanisms of Escape

    • Authoritarianism
    • Destructiveness
    • Conformity


Questions re: Burdon of Freedom

  • Did you feel more lonely after moving away from home?

  • Is technology (Internet, Email) increasing the sense of loneliness?

  • Insignificance?

  • Alienation?



The Burden of Freedom

  • Positive Freedom

    • Spontaneous and full expression of both rational and emotional potentialities
    • Achieved when a person becomes reunified with others and with the world


Character Orientations

  • Assimilation

  • Socialization

  • The Nonproductive Orientations

    • Receptive
    • Exploitative
    • Hoarding
    • Marketing


Character Orientations



Personality Disorders

    • Necrophilia
    • Malignant Narcissism
    • Incestuous Symbiosis


Critique of Fromm

  • Fromm’s Theory Is:

    • High on Organizing Knowledge
    • Low on Guiding Action, Internal Consistency, and Parsimony
    • Very Low on Generating Research and Falsifiability


Concept of Humanity

  • Unconscious vs. Conscious

  • Free Choice vs. Determinism

  • Pessimism vs. Optimism

  • Uniqueness vs. Similarities

  • Teleology vs. Causality

  • Social vs. Biology









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