THUNDER Round 11
Questions by Trygve Meade, Eric Mukherjee, and George Stevens
1. After the death of fur trapper Ewing Young, this region was left without a government until the Champoeg Meetings created the Organic Laws, which set up a provisional government. John McLoughlin is seen as the father of this region, and the Whitman Massacre here sparked the Cayuse War. Henry James Warre and Mervin Vavasour were sent to scout this region in case a war broke out over it, but it never came to that, although Lyman Cutler’s shooting of an animal did spark the bloodless Pig War here. Missouri Senator Lewis Linn was a champion of annexing this region, and a dispute over the boundary of this region led to the slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight!” but James Polk settled for the 49th parallel as its northern border in an 1846 treaty with Great Britain. For 10 points, name this region of the Pacific Northwest, the namesake of a trail used by pioneers.
ANSWER: Oregon Territory [or Oregon Country]
2. A quasi-periodic relaxation in these devices is known as an Edge-Localized Mode and was first discovered in the ASDEX. These devices are specified by a set of three parameters; a ratio of pressures beta, a product of collision frequency and transit time v-star, and a ratio of radii rho-star. Heat is carried to the walls of these devices by free neutrons, and unlike z-pinches these devices are closed. Radio-frequency or neutral beam injection heating are used in these devices, some of which include the Alcator c-Mod and the future ITER. Originally concieved by Tamm and Sakharov, they use the Lorentz effect via a toroidal magnetic field. For 10 points, name these devices used to contain plasmas, important in fusion research.
3. One character in this work battles with the title character for two days and reveals that he's vulnerable in his navel after sleeping on a rock as a pillow. That same character was earlier confronted by the ghost of Argalia, (*) who gives him a magic helmet. That character is Farau, but Bradamante is a female warrior in this work who possesses a magical lance that unseats everyone. Agramante and his allies are the main antagonists in this work, and the English Knight Astolfo flies on a hippogriff to Ethiopia and then to the moon to help cure the title character. Matteo Maria Boiardo wrote the work which this long poem attempts to continue, which told of its title character in love. For 10 points, name this work which focuses on the titular paladin in the service of Charlemagne, an epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto.
ANSWER: Orlando Furioso (also accept things like Crazy Orlando;accept Orlando Inamorato before *)
4. After conquest by Quintus Caecilius Metellus, Gortyn served as the Roman capital of this, and it is home to one of the last refuges of the kri-kri, which is found at its Samaria Gorge. After the Fourth Crusade, this island came under the rule of Venetians, who called their capital Candia, and its mountain ranges include the Dedros and Dikti. This island’s Amari Valley was the center of the resistance movement during German occupation following Operation Mercury, and its highest point is Mount Ida, where Zeus was supposedly born. With capital at Heraklion, for 10 points, name this largest Greek island on which the Minoan site of Knossos lies.
5. One king of the Hasdingi tribe of these people was defeated by Hermeric, a king of the Suebi, after which he became a king of their Silingi tribe. These people incorporated the Alans into their kingdom, and their persecutions of Donatists, Manichaeans and Catholics contributed to their downfall. These people’s first king, Godigisel, died shortly before he could lead them across the frozen Rhine River, and one of these peoples served as chief minister to Western Emperor Honorius, but Stilicho’s inability to stop them from entering Roman territory caused his downfall in that position. The last king of these people, Gelimer, was defeated at the battles of Ad Decimum and Tricamarum by Belisaurius, after which their kingdom in North Africa was incorporated into the empire of Justinian. For 10 points, name this Germanic tribe which sacked Rome under Geiseric in 455.
ANSWER: Vandal(s) [or Vandilii]
6. Along with the heart, this organ is severely damaged in Alagille syndrome, which results from the deletion of a gene coding for the JAG1 protein. The Child-Pugh scale is used to evaluate damage to this organ, which can also occur when veins leading to it are occluded in Budd-Chiari syndrome. Morrison's pouch lies behind this this organ, which is suspended by the coronary ligament. It is one of the major sites of damage as a result of copper accumulation in Wilson's disease, and it is attached to the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall by the falciform ligament. Red blood cells are broken down in this organ by macrophages called Kupffer cells, and this organ receives blood through the portal vein system. For 10 points, identify this site of gluconeogenesis, a four-lobed, bile-secreting organ.
7. His studies in conducting began at the Curtis Institute of Music, where he received the only “A” Fritz Reiner ever gave and continued at Tanglewood with Serge Koussevitzky. His first big break came in 1943, when, without any rehearsal, he substituted in concert for the ailing Bruno Walter. In 1953, he became the first American to conduct at La Scala and in 1989, he conducted a performance of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony to celebrate the tearing down of the Berlin Wall, that changed the word “joy” to “freedom” in “Ode to Joy”. He was preceded by Dmitri Mitropoulos and succeeded by Pierre Boulez as Music Director of the New York Philharmonic, and his tenure was noted for his educational broadcasts for children, the Young People’s Concerts. For 10 points, who is this conductor and composer of the musical, West Side Story? ANSWER: Leonard Bernstein
8. One character in an early novel by this author has the dream of chronicling the entire colonial history of his home nation, but can't due to money; that character is Felipe Montero, who appears in this author's novel Aura. This author overdubbed lines from Jules Supervielle’s poem “La Chambre Voisine” on another of his novels, which was dedicated to this author's friend Luis Bunuel and entited Distant Relations. In a better-known novel by this man, which is divided into “The Old World,” “The New World,” and “The Next World," El Señor attempts to freeze Hispanic tradition but fails. This author of Terra Nostra may be better-known for writing a novel which focuses on a fictional Ambrose Bierce, or one in which Lorenzo is the son of the titular dying tyrannical family head. For 10 points, name this Mexican author of The Old Gringo and The Death of Artemio Cruz.
ANSWER: Carlos Fuentes
9. This ruler’s physician Moses Hamon got him to denounce blood libels against Jews, and he had his concubine Mahidevran or Gulbahar banished for beating his wife. This ruler died of natural causes during the Siege of Szigetvar, at which a tiny Croatian force under Nikola Zrinski delayed his army of 100,000 for over a month. This ruler’s Code of the Rayas lifted many of his subjects from serfdom, and together with his Grand Mufti Ebussuud he brought Qanun closer to Sharia. At the Battle of Preveza, Hayreddin Barbarossa won a victory which secured this man’s domination of the eastern Mediterranean, and he appointed John Zapolya King of Hungary after the death of Louis II at the Battle of Mohacs. The husband of Roxelana, for 10 points, name this son of Selim the Grim, an Ottoman Sultan of the sixteenth century known as “the magnificent”.
ANSWER: Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent [or Suleiman I; or Suleiman the Lawgiver]
10. Commentary discussions of their authority alternates between two terms: she-niztavvu and she-kibbelu aleihem. Maimondes claims that only divine authority and revelation to Moses constitutes the proper basis for acceptance of these. It is argued that the principle of “dina demalkhuta dina” only applies within the context of their framework and thus Jewish marital law is outside its jurisdiction. The Tosefta claims four possible additions to these, including the magical practices described in Deuteronomy 18, while the tannaitic sources indicate a complete lack of agreement to their proper enumeration. He who accepts its obligations is referred to as ger-toshav or “resident-stranger,” and only one of these derives exegetical support from outside Genesis 2:16. That one places an injunction on the eating of flesh of live animals, and the only positively formulated one establishes a requirement to have just Laws. For 10 points, name this set of 7 ethical duties which according to rabbinic tradition binds all of mankind and is named after the final antediluvian Prophet.
ANSWER: Seven Laws of Noah [accept Noachide or Noahide Laws]
11. He’s not Edvard Munch, but this figure created a self-portrait in which a skeleton clutches his shoulder. He depicted one of the title creatures holding a rock over his head in his Battle of the Centaurs, while in a more peaceful scene he showed a Centaur in the Village Blacksmith’s Shop. He showed a satyr playing a flute between two columns in his Idyll, and painted a black-clad figure holding a scythe and riding a dragon in The Plague. Two white-clad figures kneel before an altar medial to a procession in his The Sacred Wood. He painted five different views of his most notable work, which has eerily-lit straight cliffs and two figures in a boat rowing to the title location, presumably to deliver a coffin. For 10 points, name this Swiss painter of Isle of the Dead.
ANSWER: Arnold Bocklin
12. One character in this novel notes the appearance of fine lace curtains after the protagonist of this novel redecorates his home. The title character of this novel returns to Lantern Yard after a time, but fails to find satisfaction after the actions of William Dane, who eventually marries his old fiancée Sarah. The son of Dolly, Aaron Whintrop marries a central character in this novel after spending years as a childhood playmate. One character in this novel accidentally cripples the expensive horse Wildfire; later, he falls into a quarry pit, and will only e identified years later after it's drained. That character is Dunstan, who drunkenly stole some gold. Nancy Lammetter marries Godfrey Cass in this novel, and Godfrey is the legitimate father of a golden haired child who appears to the title character of this novel on New Year's Eve. For 10 points, identify this novel about the love for Eppie by the titular cloth worker, a work by George Eliot.
ANSWER: Silas Marner, Weaver of Raveloe
13. The deuterium isotope effect for this reaction mechanism is greater than one, and in a cyclohexane ring this reaction can only occur when the substituents are trans diaxial. Originally elucidated by Christopher Ingold, one reaction that obeys a similar mechanism occurs after an exhaustive methylation step. It only occurs when the substituents are coplanar and is much faster when they are antiperiplanar, and is a concerted mechanism with an sp3 hybridized carbon transforming to sp2 in one step. For 10 points, name this reaction mechanism that occurs with bulky bases, whose name stands for bimolecular elimination.
ANSWER: E2 or Bimolecular elimination before mention
14. The Incan god of this was the chief priest of the moon god Coniraya, and one Shinto diety of this phenomenon cried so loudly at birth that he had to be sailed around Japan to calm him down. The Chinese diety of this phenomenon acquired his powers after eating from a heavenly peach tree, and has claws, bat wings, and a birds beak. Along with his bag-carrying brother, another god of this lost a protracted battle with 33 gods and has a companion who hides in the navels of children. In addition to Ajisukitakahikone and Lei Gong, an implement used to create this phenomenon was buried by Thrym, forcing its owner to dress up as Freya in order to retrieve it; that object is Mjollnir. For 10 points, name this atmospheric phenomenon controlled by Raijin, Thor, and Zeus.
ANSWER: Lightning or Thunder
15. It was recently revealed that this character has a deep hatred for Wil Wheaton for not showing up to a Star Trek convention that he had taken a long journey to get to. This character attempted to build a nuclear reactor until told by the government that storing yellowcake was illegal, and also build a CAT scanner in his bedroom. His death ray only succeeded in “pissing the dog off to no end”, and this figure gained his current post after earning his PhD on twistor theory at age 16. His neighbor once gave him a gift of a napkin signed by Leonard Nimoy, and this figure’s agreements with his roommate include the Skynet clause and the Body Snatchers Clause. A professor of physics at Caltech alongside Raj Koothrappali and Howard Wollowitz, for 10 points, name this socially inept and OCD roommate of Leonard Hofstader, a protagonist of The Big Bang Theory.
16. This campaign replaced Operation Comet, which was never put into place because of poor weather conditions. Polish troops under Stanislaw Sosabowski arrived on the fifth day of this campaign and took up a position in the village of Driel. This operation called for 10,000 men under John Frost capturing a key point and holding it for two days, but in actuality, less than 1,000 men reached that point and had to hold it for four days. This operation was ended by Operation Berlin, the rescue of over 2,000 surrounded men, and it was an attempt to bypass the Siegfried Line. During this operation, the British under Brian Horrocks, the commander of XXX Corps, were supposed to join the American 101st and 82nd
divisions and seize bridges at Grave, Eindhoven and Nijmegen. This operation was the last Allied attempt to win the war by Christmas, and it failed to secure a crossing point of the Rhine at Arnhem. For 10 points, name this failed 1944 offensive through the Netherlands, the largest airborne operation in history.
ANSWER: Operation Market Garden
17. In a trilogy of philosophical works, this writer examined Hannah Arendt, Melanie Klein, and Colette, describing them as the titular Female Genius. In another work, this thinker rejected two notions of feminism, including essentialism, in her essay "Woman's Time," which appeared in her longer work New Maladies of the Soul. This writer coined a term which describes an instinctual recoiling from the mother, which she calls "abjection." That term was introduced in an essay which claimed that Oedipus "stands on the fragile threshold as if stranded on account of an impossible demarcation," Powers of Horror. This philosopher is especially notable for favoring writing about subjects "in crisis," such as in her study of Chinese women. For ten points, identify this philosopher who wrote Desire in Language, and who along with Cixous and Irigary, is a post-structural feminist.
ANWER: Julia Kristeva
18. This man’s namesake convolution theorem is used to relate arithmetic functions by summing over divisors, and he sometimes lends his name to the indicator function of the rationals. One result named for this man is used to prove the Thue-Siegel-Roth theorem, and applies the pidgeonhole principle to make a blunt diophantine approximation, while another theorem named for him is complementary to the Green-Tao theorem and requires this mathematicians’ namesake L-series to prove. In addition to that theorem on the arithmetic progression of primes, this mathematician is more famous for a simple type of boundary condition on the solutions of differential equations. For 10 points, name this French mathematician and number theorist, who also came up with the pidgeonhole principle.
ANSWER: Johann Peter Dirichlet
19. Miles, Dean, Serge and Leonard are four people in this novel who comprise a band called the Paranoids. One character in this novel is a former Buchenwald doctor and take joy in prescribing LSD to housewives to solve their problems. In addition, another character in this novel is a Yoyodyne employee who tells the central character about the Peter Penguid society. The central character of this novel is seduced by a man in a hotel room with whom she watches old movies, but he gets tired of trying to remove her multiple layers of clothes. That character, Metzger, is in conflict with a guilt-wracked used car salesman who's married to the central character, Mucho. The title of this novel refers to the auctioning off of a horn stamp used by the Tristero organization to send mail. For 10 points, identify this novel about the quest to execute the estate of Pierce Inverarity by Oedipa Maas, a shorter novel by Thomas Pynchon.
ANSWER: The Crying of Lot 49
20. One section in this work describes the way that pleasure is seen as an evil to be rooted out of one's breast, but contradictorily claims that the subjects of this work are not Puritans, because they do not neglect the cultivation of desire, which is done as a fine art. That section of this work further cites the influence of Percival Lowell's description of plunging oneself into a bath of cold water for cultivation of artificial austerity. Both of those anecdotes appear in the section of this work titled The Circle of Human Feelings, while another section describes the propensity of its subjects to sleep in any situation at all. An important distinction in this work is drawn between guilt and shame cultures. Another important section of this work details the relationship between true feelings and façade, which are termed honne and tatemae. For ten points, name this study of the subtitular Patterns of Japanese Culture, written by Ruth Benedict.
ANSWER: The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture
1. This rule is the cause of electron degeneracy pressure in neutron stars and is reponsible for the repulsive term in the Lennard-Jones potential. For 10 points each:
 Name this result that states that two identical fermions have an antisymmetric wavefunction, or alternatively that no two fermions can occupy the same state simultaneously
ANSWER: Pauli exclusion principle
 This set of three statements is used to find the term symbols of a particular electron in an atom. One of them considers the energy shift due to spin-orbit coupling.
ANSWER: Hund's rules
 This potential models a diatomic molecule as an anharmonic oscillator and takes the potential as the well depth times the quantity one minus an exponential of the distance, all squared.
ANSWER: Morse potential
2. It takes its nickname from its second movement, which is adapted from the composer’s own setting of the titular poem by Matthias Claudius, for 10 points each:
 What is this penultimate string quartet of Franz Schubert?
ANSWER: “Der Tod und das Mädchen” Quartet or “Death and the Maiden” Quartet or String Quartet No. 14
 This Czech composer’s String Quartet No. 1 “From My Life” contains a musical depiction of his tinnitus. He is better known for the opera The Bartered Bride and the symphonic cycle Ma Vlast.
ANSWER: Bedrich Smetana
 The Lyric Suite for string quartet by this composer of the Second Viennese School quotes Zemlinsky’s Lyric Symphony. He also wrote the operas Lulu and Wozzeck.
ANSWER: Alban Berg
3.One member of this family is a carpenter with political aspiration who makes a grand speech disclaiming the responsibility of his son in a murder trial. For 10 points each:
 Name this family whose member Absalom goes to Johannesburg to look for his Aunt Gretrude.
 The Kumalo family, including its head Stephen, appear in Cry, the Beloved Country, which is a novel by this South African author of Ah! But Your Country is Beautiful.
ANSWER: Alan Paton
 Pieter van Vlaanderen is a white policeman in this Alan Paton novel, in which that policeman commits a crime, as seen from the vantage point of his aunt.
ANSWER: Too Late the Phalarope
4. In the aftermath of the Ryutin Affair, this man’s support of the event’s namesake resulted in the commutation of his death sentence, for 10 points each:
 Name this Bolshevik leader of the Leningrad party who was assassinated in 1934 for his opposition to Stalin.
ANSWER: Sergei Mironovich Kirov [or Sergei Mironovich Kostrikov]
 Stalin used Kirov’s murder to begin this campaign of repression and persecution of dissidents in the Soviet Union which left around one million dead but also completely depleted the Soviet military of its leadership.
ANSWER: Great Purge
 The Great Purge was carried out by this secret police organization, the successor of the Cheka, which was led by Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria at the time.
ANSWER: NKVD [or People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs; or Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del]
5. The Mudgala Purana talks about eight incarnations of this diety, who is often depicted riding around on a mouse and having only one tusk. FTPE:
 Identify this remover of obstacles, who got his elephant head after Shiva beheaded him.
 Ganesh once won a race against this peacock-riding brother of his simply by standing still. This figure was born after Agni dropped a sample of Shiva’s semen.
ANSWER: Skanda or Kartikeya or Murugan
 According to some accounts, Ganesh wrapped this naga around his neck. This figure expelled halahala during the churning of the ocean, which Shiva had to swallow to prevent armageddon.
6. Its continuous brance goes from plagioclase to orthoclase feldspar. FTPE:
 Name this y-shaped diagram which is useful in determining what minerals will form when magma cools.
ANSWER: Bowen’s reaction series
 At the very bottom of Bowen’s reaction series, well before the branching is this silicon dioxide mineral. It appears right below muscovite.
 On the discontinuous branch, the first mineral present is this mica, which is named for a French scientist. It contains both magnesium and iron.
7. Sarah Miles promises herself not to see the protagonist of this novel after his apparent death in a London bombing raid. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel about writer Maurice Bendrix and his frustration that the extremely Catholic Sarah will not divorce her boring husband Harry to live with him instead.
ANSWER: The End of the Affair
 This other novel focuses on the relationship between Henry Scobie and his wife Lousia, with whom he at one point had a child Catherine, who died. Scobie kills himself after his servant Ali dies.
ANSWER: The Heart of the Matter
 Both The End of the Affair and The Heart of the Matter were written by this British novelist of The Power and the Glory and Monsignor Quixote.
ANSWER: Henry Graham Greene
8. Answer the following about the traditional Japanese religion of Shinto, for 10 points each.
 This oldest Japanese text details the creation myths. Unlike the Nihon Shoki, Japan’s second oldest book, this text is chiefly concerned with mythology and religion.
ANSWER: Kojiki [or Furukotofumi; or The Record of Ancient Matters]
 Many adherents of Shinto keep small shrines known by this name to which they pray and offer food and flowers.
 The Ofudesaki or “Tip of the Writing Brush” is the chief text of this sect of Shinto that practices the Joyous Life, which is an ideal achieved by abstaining from anger, arrogance, greed, hatred and selfishness. It was founded by Nakayama Miki in the nineteenth century.
 Name this man who began physical anthropology and wrote The Mind of Primitive Man.
ANSWER: Franz Boas
 This student of Franz Boas began the anthropology department at Northwestern. He pioneered discussion of cultural relativism in Man and His Works, and also wrote The Myth of the Negro Past.
ANSWER: Melville Herskovits
 Another anthropologist to write about the problems associated with African-Americanism was this man, who wrote The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin, White Masks.
ANSWER: Frantz Fanon
10. Dante recounts the Battle of Montaperti between these factions, and both were threatened with excommunication by Pope Benedict XII. For 10 points each:
 Name both of these Italian factions of the Middle Ages, one of which supported the Holy Roman Empire, the other supported the Papacy.
ANSWER: [both answers required] Guelphs and Ghibellines
 Guelphs and Ghibellines collaborated in the mid-fifteenth century to create this short-lived republic, although infighting and betrayal by Francesco Sforza led to its demise.
ANSWER: Golden Ambrosian Republic [or Aurea Repubblica Ambrosiana]
 The Ambrosian Republic controlled this city, the capital of Lombardy, which was ruled by the Visconti and Sforza families.
11. This poem reads “THE apparition of these faces in the crowd/petals on a wet black bough.” For 10 points each:
 Name this Imagist poem.
ANSWER: “In a Station of the Metro”
 Identify the author of “In a Station of the Metro,” whose other works include “Sestina: Altaforte” and a set of poems written while in jail in Italy, the Pisan Cantos.
ANSWER: Ezra Pound  Another Ezra Pound work, this poem is divided into two groups of smaller poems, the second of which is a semi-autobiographical sketch of the title character in 1920. It describes his creation of “Medallions,” while the first part ends with a long section called “Envoi.”
ANSWER: “Hugh Selwyn Mauberley”
12. This process occurs via transesterification of a 2 prime hydroxyl of a donor site with an acceptor site, forming a lariat structure which is then removed as exons are joined together. For 10 points each:
 Name this process by which introns are removed from an immature mRNA.
ANSWER: Splicing  A special type of these tools can be used to detect splice sites. In general, these objects consist of a silicon wafer with a grid of labelled oligonucleotides which can be used to assay transcript levels by hybridization.
ANSWER: DNA microarray or chip  Incorrent splicing or premature stop codons leads to the activation of this pathway, in which exon junction complexes recruit degradation enzymes to destroy aberrent mRNA.
ANSWER: Nonsense-mediated decay or NMD
13. This man was the subject of a failed assassination plot by Jing Ke, and he ended the Warring States Period. For 10 points each:
 Name this founder of the Qin dynasty who started construction on the Great Wall of China and built a terracotta army to protect his burial site.
ANSWER: Qin Shi Huangdi [or Ying Zheng]
 Shi Huandgi was advised by this Legalist philosopher who served as his Prime Minister to begin a policy known as the Burning of Books and Burying of Scholars which resulted in the eradication of Mohism.
ANSWER: Li Si [or Li Ssu]
 In the Burning of Books, Li Si singled out all texts from this period except Legalist books. Confucianism, Mohism, Legalism and Taoism had begun during this intellectual period of Chinese history which began in the Spring and Autumn Period.
ANSWER: Hundred Schools of Thought [or Zhuzi Baijia; or Chu-tzu Pai-chia]
14. He once created a pit of webs in order to capture a leopard and simulated rain in order to catch a swarm of hornets. FTPE:
 Name this West-african trickster spider god.
 This sky-god ordered that Anansi capture a python, a leopard, a swarm of hornets and a dwarf. Anansi used a wax figure to capture the dwarf.
 Anansi went through all of these ordeals so that Nyame would give up these items, which only he had and the world had none of.
15. Becoming, Knowing, Willing, and Being are the four title concepts of this work. For ten points each:
 Identify this work in which those four concepts combine to provide a rationalization for the idea that everything that happens does so because of some cause.
ANSWER: On the Fourfold Root of Sufficient Reason
 Identify the man who wrote On the Fourfold Root of Sufficient Reason, who also wrote The World as Will and Idea and Prarerga and Paralipomena.
ANSWER: Arthur Schopenhauer
 Arthur Schopenhauer also wrote this work which explains how to win in a debate against anyone. Its tips include State a False Syllogism, Meet Him With a Counter-Argument as Bad as His, and Generalize the Matter, Then Argue Against it.
ANSWER: The Art of Being Right
16. The Erdman Act, signed into law by McKinley, put restrictions on these agreements, and they were sometimes known as “infamous” or “iron-clad” documents. For 10 points each:
 Name this agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees to not join a labor union.
ANSWER: yellow-dog contract
 This 1908 Supreme Court case upheld yellow-dog contracts, and declared the Erdman Act unconstitutional.
ANSWER: Adair v. United States
 Yellow-dog contracts were outlawed in this 1932 act named after a Nebraska Senator and the man who later served as Mayor of New York whose name now graces the smallest of New York’s three major airports.
17. In this painting, a clothed woman holds a vase, and a nude Venus carries flame, for 10 points each.
 Name this painting in which a bride in a white dress sits beside Cupid on a sarcophagus.
ANSWER: Sacred and Profane Love  Sacred and Profane Love was painted by this Renaissance artist, who portrayed three human heads above three animal heads in Allegory of Prudence. He also painted Venus of Urbino.
ANSWER: Titian [or Tiziano Vecellio]
 Titian also created this painting in which a satyr is hung upside down from a tree for challenging Apollo in a music contest.
ANSWER: The Flaying of Marsyas
18. This state was the site of the short-lived Popham Colony, and it contains Acadia National Park. For 10 points each:
 Name this state whose Mount Katahdin is the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail.
ANSWER: State of Maine
 Maine borders this Canadian province which is connected to Nova Scotia by the Isthmus of Chignecto.
 This river forms part of the Maine-New Brunswick border and flows through its namesake city, the largest in New Brunswick, before emptying into the Bay of Fundy.
ANSWER: Saint John River
19. With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, and Fire In the Steppe constitute his historical Trilogy about his native Poland. For 10 points each:
 Name this novelist.
ANSWER: Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz
 Sienkiewicz also wrote this Roman historical novel about the love between the Christian Lygia and the Pagan Marcus Vinicius, which is set in the time of Nero.
ANSWER: Quo Vadis?
 This other Polish writer wrote works like "Colon" and "Rhymes for Big Kids," but her early works were paeans to Stalin and Lenin like That is what we are living for.
ANSWER: Wislawa Szymborksa
20. The Askaryan effect is similar to it, and when it occurs in a periodic medium its known as the Smith-Purcell effect. For 10 points each:
 Identify this effect responsible for the blue glow of nuclear reactors, in which a particle travels faster that the speed of light in a given medium.
ANSWER: Cerenkov radiation
 This formula, which fails for low wavelenghts, is used to give the energy of Cerenkov radiation. It integrates over the superluminal frequencies.
ANSWER: Frank-Tamm formula
 In lieu of asking you about ring-imaging Cerenkov detectors or the like, identify the awesome neutrino detector located in Mozumi Mine that uses Cerenkov radiaiton to, well, awesomely detect neutrinos