Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment - Update
Key Stakeholders identified during the PEIA and subsequent work include:
Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) – John Forrest
CALM was previously consulted regarding the area of construction just west of Passing
Lane 1 and adjoining John Forrest National Park (GHD 2002). No particular issues
were raised with regard to the construction of that passing lane in terms of there being
any particular aspects of conservation significance in the works area. However, it was
noted that a number of issues should be further investigated and considered in an
EMP. These were:
species found should be detailed;
Dieback – a detailed dieback management plan should be developed including
construction disturbance carried out where appropriate;
Spoil removal – any spoil to be removed offsite to prevent potential weed and
(and downslope of) Passing Lane 1 is dieback free.
It has also been indicated that there is a long-term requirement for CALM to provide
public access to the park at the northern end of John Forrest National Park, but there
are no plans for where this might occur.
Department of Environmental Protection (former) / Department of
Following the discussions with CALM about another passing lane just west of Passing
Lane 1, the former Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) was consulted in
2002 by MRWA and confirmed that, provided that the advice of CALM was followed,
there would be no requirement to refer the Passing Lane 1 proposal to the EPA for
From the above it can be assumed that referral of Passing Lane 1 and the other
Region) were also contacted with regard to the need for a Permit to Disturb Bed or
Bank for the impacts on minor waterways. Bob Whittaker of this Region noted the
small risk of sedimentation from roadworks and the possible impact on downstream
landowners, particularly regarding water quality in dams. Details of the proposal have
been forwarded to the Region and MRWA should also provide the EMP to the DoE for
Heritage Council of Western Australia
The Heritage Council of Western Australia was consulted by GHD in regards to
Proposed Passing Lane 1 and its potential impact on the Redhill Convict Station. The
Heritage Council endorsed the Conservation Plan prepared for MRWA in 1998 by
Heritage and Conservation Professionals. However, recommendations made by the
Heritage Council are only valid for a period of two years, and therefore there is a
requirement to submit a Development Referral.
Constraints or Impacts
The most significant constraint to the construction of the passing lanes along Toodyay
Road is the presence of the road reserve adjacent to John Forrest National Park at
Red Hill (Passing Lane 1) and the loss of road reserve vegetation that will occur during
the construction of the passing lanes.
All relevant issues will be the subject of management requirements in the
Environmental Management Plan for the project.
New legislation under the Environmental Protection (Clearing of Native Vegetation)
Australia. Under the new law, clearing native vegetation is prohibited, unless a
clearing permit is granted by the DoE, or the clearing is for an exempt purpose. These
exemptions ensure that low impact day-to-day activities involving clearing or activities
that are required under other laws can be undertaken without individual permits or
activities. Proponents that wish to clear are required to submit an application if an
exemption does not apply. This will be assessed against principles that consider
biodiversity, land degradation and water quality. MRWA has an exemption for road
widening works until January 2006, except where those works impact an
Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA). As Passing Lane 1 has some potential to
indirectly impact the John Forrest National Park, a Clearing Permit will be required for
that area, however, it is believed that Passing Lanes 2 and 4 would be exempt.
Although Passing Lane 4 passes close to part of Wooroloo Brook, which is mapped as
an ESA, there will be no direct impact on the Brook.
Passing Lane one has the potential to impact directly on a tributary of Strelley Brook
which crosses the road in that area and which runs parallel to the road for some
distance. Due to the perceived risks, and based on recent consultation with CALM,
MRWA has re-designed the drainage of Passing Lane 1 to avoid having any direct
impact on the Brook where it runs parallel to the road. There is a minor risk of erosion
and downstream sedimentation within and along the channel, and this will need to be
managed carefully through suitable rock armouring and other scour protection
The works at Passing Lane 4 intersect a minor drainage gully running across the road
to the east. There is potential for erosion at this gully but suitable culvert engineering
and protection will minimise this risk.
A Permit to Disturb a Bed or Bank is not required due to the small size of the
location and details of works in case any complaints from downstream landowners are
Flora and Vegetation Protection
Declared Rare and Priority Species
No Declared Rare or priority flora species are listed by CALM as occurring within the
road reserve area between Red Hill and Berry Road, and none have been observed
during field investigations. It is possible that some of these species will occur in the
more intact vegetation of the John Forrest National Park or other patches of remnant
vegetation bordering the road reserve. Since none of this vegetation will be destroyed
during the construction activities, there will be no known detrimental impacts to any
potentially occurring species of conservation significance.
No listed Threatened Ecological Communities (TECs) are found within the areas of the
Passing Lanes or Truckbay and none of the vegetation types recorded match known
TEC vegetation descriptions.
There are some significant weeds present in the areas of proposed works.
Construction work in the areas which have such weeds present should ensure that soil
or spoil from these areas is not spread to other sections of Toodyay Road or areas of
native vegetation bordering the road verge. The areas which currently have an
infestation of Leptspermem laevigatum (Victorian Tea Tree) and Watsonia meriana,
should be managed through a weed management plan, and monitored following
construction works. Targeted weed control is also required in order to achieve
successful rehabilitation within the road reserve adjacent to the works areas.
The dieback fungus has not been found to be present within the area of Passing Lane
1 and the truck bay, adjoining John Forrest National Park (Glevan, 2004 and CALM,
pers. comm.). However, there is a small chance that dieback may be present in the
other passing lane areas and Lilydale Pit. Dieback management should be included
as part of an EMP for the works and the details of the recommended dieback hygiene
should be disucssed with CALM.
No other issues with regard to specific vegetation impose any legislative constraint on
the project. Standard design and construction management procedures would be
necessary to minimise impacts.
The potential impacts of the passing lanes on the fauna are minimal due to the small
amounts of habitat in the road reserve and the presence of other significant areas of
habitat within the broader area. No special measures are likely to be necessary to
The development of the passing lanes is an extension to the existing road service.
Therefore, access and severance would not be considered to be a significant issue.
The design of the passing lanes takes all road and farm access requirements into
account and may involve only temporary impacts on residents and road users.
Passing Lane 1 may potentially impact the site of the underground oven associated
with the Redhill Convict Station. It is believed that this oven is under the southern
carriageway or shoulder at around SLK 7.050. GHD consulted the Heritage Council of
Western Australia, and despite endorsement from the council in 1998, the proposed
works will require the submission of a Development Referral. The Referral should
include a summary of the project, an outline of the potential impacts and any research
that has already been undertaken.
It is recommended that MRWA commission an archaeologist to be present during
excavation works in the vicinity of the potential oven location.
No Aboriginal sites, registered on the Department of Indigenous Affairs (DIA)
database, have been identified within the study area.
A search of the DIA database does not comprise of a full assessment under the
with knowledge of the area (usually, but not necessarily, Native Title Claimants), and
an archaeological survey to ascertain whether any previously unrecorded
archaeological sites are within the proposed works area. If any significant
ethnographic or archaeological sites are found within the proposed works area, a
clearance under Section 18 of the Act will be required.
Under the Aboriginal Heritage Act (1972), it is an offence to disturb an Aboriginal
heritage site whether it is registered or not. The proponent should be made aware of
this in any decision making with respect to whether they should proceed to a full
Aboriginal heritage site assessment.
Should any artefacts or other materials of potential indigenous significance be
discovered at the site, such as during earthworks, investigations will be required to
ascertain the implications of the presence of these materials and the DIA should be
notified of the find. This is a requirement under the Aboriginal Heritage Act, 1972.
Should any skeletal remains be found during earthworks the Western Australian Police
should be notified.
The possibility of significant construction impacts on adjacent houses and buildings
has been considered. Fieldwork and design drawings indicate that there are no
residential premises located within 200m of the road.
No residential dwellings were seen during the 2005 site visit to be within 200m of the
edge of Toodyay Road in any of the areas proposed for the passing lanes. Therefore
noise is unlikely to be an issue. Under the Environmental Protection (Noise)
Regulations 1997 (DEP, 1997) there is no requirement for the noise from construction
activities to be kept under particular limits. However, there are requirements related to
working hours, equipment noise and complaints.
As above, no residential dwellings were seen during the 2005 site visit to be within
200m of the edge of Toodyay Road in any of the areas proposed for the passing lanes.
Therefore a dilapidation study is not believed to be required.
Dust will be a potential nuisance factor for road users when the new passing lanes are
being constructed. However, dust can be adequately managed using standard
Due to the slopes and soil types considerable runoff may be expected following heavy
rain events during the construction period and prior to effective rehabilitation. This
must be carefully managed in order to prevent detrimental impacts on the tributaries to
the Wooroloo Brook, Strelley Brook and the other ephemeral drainage lines in the
area. The main issue of concern will be with regard to turbidity and sedimentation but
this can be managed using standard construction techniques.
Road Operation and Use
This section identifies potential issues associated with the operation and use of the
Potential for Air Pollution
The levels of traffic identified in this proposal are significantly below any criteria for an
air quality assessment. The MRWA Environmental Guideline on Air Quality indicates
that a local air quality assessment is not required if :
the road traffic levels are predicted to be less than 15,000 vpd for rural areas; or
there are no sensitive receptors within 200m of the road centre.
Both of these criteria are found in the areas of all Passing Lanes and the truck bay.
very high standard, unless significant wood burning is undertaken for space heating
during the winter. The construction of the passing lanes will, in fact, improve traffic
flow and therefore have a positive effect on air pollution.
The developments are an extension of the current road. Therefore it would be
expected that noise levels would not increase due to the construction of the passing
Road runoff is likely to be quite substantial due to the soil types, slopes and extent of
pavement. This concentrated runoff has the potential to cause considerable scour as
well as affecting stream zones and downstream water quality. Some localised
dissipation of drainage water may be required to effectively control water flows and
reduce the risks of downstream pollution and scouring. Rock protection has been
designed for areas at high risk of erosion and this should be satisfactory for reducing
the risk of impacts from concentrated runoff.
Toodyay Road is located through a largely rural landscape as well as an area of
National Park, which, due to its location at the edge of the Darling Scarp (Passing Lane
1), provides exceptional views over the coastal plain. The potential for negative visual
impacts as a result of the construction of the passing lanes is considered to be low.
MRWA should ensure that during construction that all trees that need to be removed
are clearly marked. Once work is completed on the passing lanes, appropriate
rehabilitation techniques should be utilised to improve areas adjacent to the works
4. Risk Assessment
proposed road with regard to a range of issues. These are:
1. MRWA Low Impact Environmental Screening; and
2. MRWA Environmental Aspects for Referral to EPA.
As a result of this checklist the project had a small number of aspects that were subject
to further assessment and it was therefore not classed as low impact. The potential
impacts have been further investigated in the PEIA and this EIA.
MRWA has produced a list of environmental aspects, which, if affected by a road
proposal, would require that proposal to be referred to the EPA (see Appendix B).
Some of these may also trigger the Commonwealth Environmental Protection and
the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH).
All aspects in this list have been considered with regard to their relevance to the
Toodyay Road passing lanes and none are likely to ‘trigger’ referral to the EPA or the
DEH. The potential for impacts on the National Park has been discussed with CALM
and the former DEP and the latter have confirmed that referral is not required.
Under the Environmental Protection (Clearing of Native Vegetation) Regulations 2004,
a Clearing Permit is required for Passing Lane 1, as it may be considered to impact an
ESA (John Forrest National Park).
The presence of the Redhill Convict Station site immediately adjoining Passing Lane 1
requires the need for a development referral to the Heritage Council of Western
Australia. The potential impacts on the site from the construction of Passing Lane 1
have previously been considered by the Heritage Council but the approval and
recommendations have lapsed as it was referred more than 2 years ago.
The following table summarises the relevant potential issues associated with
construction of the passing lanes along Toodyay Road. Recommendations are made
for the requirement for further study and the potential for formal clearances or special
management necessary for each issue.
Relates to other biological issues
and rehabilitation. Should involve
ongoing consultation with CALM.
Impact on Declared Rare
Flora, Priority flora and
Impact on fauna and
A Clearing Permit for Passing
Lane 1 is required under the
(Clearing of Native Vegetation)
Weed Management Program
should be developed for
rehabilitation works and control of
significant environmental weeds.
Discuss the requirements for
dieback hygiene with CALM for
Passing Lane 1 and truck bay.
Section 18 clearance under the
significant sites aredisturbed.
Potential impacts on Convict
Station Site. Requires further
consultation with the Heritage
Council and a Development
Impact on water quality
Standard runoff management and
Revegetation Plans have been
developed (KBR, 2005 and GHD,
Most of the issues highlighted in this report with regard to construction of the passing
lanes along Toodyay Road can be adequately managed using standard design and
construction techniques. There are no obvious major constraints to the construction or
operation of the road in terms of clearances that would be difficult to achieve or which
would require innovative design to become acceptable.
The most significant biological issue is in the area of Passing Lane 1, which adjoins the
boundary of John Forrest National Park. MRWA’s previous discussions with CALM
and the former DEP regarding an overtaking lane at (SLK 4.88 to SLK 5.48) indicated
that referral was not required and it is therefore considered that referral will not be
required for Passing Lanes 1, 2, 4 or the truck bay. However, ongoing discussion with
CALM should occur in relation to the acceptance of weed and dieback hygiene
commitments and proposed rehabilitation adjacent to John Forrest National Park.
Given suitable management of drainage and dieback and an agreed revegetation plan
it is not expected that this issue would prevent the project proceeding. There are no
other triggers that would mandate the project being referred to the EPA or the DEH. A
detailed Environmental Management Plan is being developed to ensure adequate
management of all relevant environmental impacts.
A Clearing Permit will be required for Passing Lane 1 as it adjoins an ESA. This will
require details on drainage management during and after construction works,
vegetation protection details and rehabilitation plans.
One European heritage site exists within the vicinity the road reserve at Passing Lane
1. This site is referred to as Redhill Convict Station. It is unlikely that the convict
station ruin will be impacted by construction of Passing Lane 1, however
archaeological research indicates that an oven is possibly present within the proposed
Passing Lane 1 area, mostly likely beneath the existing road shoulder. Consultation
with the Heritage Council indicates that a Referral Document will be required prior to
approval for construction.
No Aboriginal heritage sites have been previously identified within the works area,
however, standard precautions should be taken for management of any archaeological
material which may be uncovered during construction.
Social issues such as severance, noise increase and risk of crashes and spills along
the road would not increase due to the construction of the passing lanes.
The following are recommendations for completion of the environmental and heritage
assessment of the proposed passing lane project and to ensure that all potential issues
have been addressed.
1. Develop a Weed Management Program to control specific weeds in Passing Lane 1
and to maximise the change of successful rehabilitation in all passing lane areas.
2. Implement the EMP which is being developed for the project; and
– CALM in relation to ongoing impacts on the John Forrest National Park,
– the DoE with regard to the required Clearing Permit; and
– the Heritage Council of Western Australia regarding a Development Referral for
the convict site.
Alan Tingay and Associates (1998). A Strategic Plan for Perth’s Greenways. Final
ATA Environmental, 2004. Weed Survey: Toodyay Road. Appendix C in KBR, 2005.
Beard, J.S. (1979). The Vegetation of the Perth Area. Figure and Explanatory
Bush, F., Gibbs, M. and Stephens, J. (1996). The Toodyay Road Redhill Convict Road
and the Shire of Swan, January 1996.
CALM (1991). Flora and Fauna Survey of the John Forrest National Park and Red Hill
Area. Report to the Heritage Council. Department of Conservation and Land
Management, Perth, June 1991.
CALM (1994). John Forrest National Park Management Plan 1994-2004. Report to
NPNCA. Department of Conservation and Land Management , Perth.
CALM, 1999. Environmental Weed Strategy for Western Australia. Department of
Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
Churchward, H.M and McArthur, W.M. (1978). Darling System, Landforms and Soils.
Department of Agriculture, 2005. Declared Plants Search.
[http://agwdsrv02.agric.wa.gov.au/dps/version02/01_plantsearch.asp] viewed 27 June
Dell, J. (1983). The importance of the Darling Scarp to fauna. In J.D. Majer (Ed.),
Scarp Symposium. WAIT Environmental Studies Group, Report No. 10.
EPA, 2004. Revised Draft Environmental Protection (Swan Coastal Plain Wetlands)
Policy and Regulations 2004. EPA, Perth.
Garnett, S. (Ed.) (1992). Threatened and extinct birds of Australia. Royal Australasian
Ornithologists Union, Report No. 82.
Garnett, S.T. and G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds. 2000.
Environment Australia, Canberra.
GHD (2002) Toodyay Road Passing Lanes 1 to 4 - Preliminary Environmental Impact
GHD (2005). Toodyay Road Passing Lanes Revegetation Plan. Report prepared for
Main Roads Western Australia.
Glevan Consulting, 2004. Phytophthora cinnamomi – Assessment Results and
Heddle, E.M., Loneragan O.W. and Havel, J.J. (1980). Vegetation Complexes of the
Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Environment, 1980.
Heritage and Conservation Professionals (1998). Redhill Convict Station, Toodyay
Road. Conservation Plan. Prepared for Main Roads Western Australia.
Hill, A.L.., Semeniuk, C.A., Semeniuk, V and Del Marco, A. (1996). Wetlands of the
Environmental Protection, WA.
Johnstone, R.E. and G.M. Storr (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds.
Volume 1. Non-Passerines. W.A. Museum, Perth.
KBR, 2005. Toodyay Road Passing Lanes Design Report. KBR, Perth.
Kennedy, M. (Ed.) (1990). A Complete Reference to Australia’s Endangered Species.
Simon and Schuster, Sydney.
Main Roads Western Australia (2003). Toodyay Road Passing Lanes Environmental
Management Plan. Unpublished report, Main Roads Western Australia.
Storr, G.M. (1991). Birds of the South-West Division of Western Australia. Records of
the Western Australian Museum, Supp. No. 35.
Wilson, S.K. and D.G. Knowles (1988). Australia’s Reptiles. Collins, Sydney.
Project Area (2005)
becoming more common in areas of jarrah-wandoo forest that are baited to control
exotic predators. It is classified as ‘Vulnerable’ under the EPBC Act.
Carnaby’s Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) This species is a seasonal visitor
in the area in question. It feeds extensively on the proteaceous shrublands where they
have been retained. It is classified as “Endangered’ under the EPBC Act.
Baudin’s Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) This species is resident in the tall
eucalypt forest to the south of Mundaring and a seasonal visitor in areas around John
Forest National Park and further north. It is classified as “Endangered’ under the
Schedule 4 (Fauna which is Otherwise Specially Protected)
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) This species may occur as a vagrant in the
area in question, either in open woodlands or around the quarries located in the area in
Carpet Python (Morelia spilota imbricata) This species is known to occur in upland
areas throughout this part of the Darling Scarp wherever remnant vegetation has been
eucalypt forests around Mundaring and areas to the north but is generally at low
Quenda (Isoodon obesulus fusciventer) P5 This species has been recorded from
the area in question in locations with low dense heath vegetation and jarrah and marri
forest, particularly in riparian habitats.
Western Brush Wallaby (Macropus irma) P4 This species still occurs in the larger
patches of native shrubland within the area in question.
EPA or DEH
Types of Environmental Aspects
A road project that has environmental aspects from the following lists will most likely require
referral to the EPA. These aspects may be considered in terms of biophysical, pollution
During Site Visits in 2002 and 2005
This section of overtaking lane 1 was assessed from the boundary of John Forrest National Park with
Toodyay Road, to 150-200 metres east of the site entrance to the Pioneer Quarry on Red Hill, a distance
of approximately 1.4 kilometres. The species listed were recorded from the road verge area and the
adjacent area to the road verge. Some of the species recorded were naturally occurring, whilst others
are considered to be revegetation species planted by MRWA in the road verge area in the past. There
are also a number of introduced annual and perennial pasture species present in the road verge area
Species present in the section of road verge from 150 – 200 metres east of Pioneer Quarry entrance till
main quarry entrance:
Species present in the section of road verge from the Pioneer Quarry entrance to the boundary with the
John Forrest National Park near the Red Hill convict station site:
Acacia pulchella, Allocasuarina humilis, Andersonia lehmanniana, Anigozanthos sp., Apiaceae sp.,
Astartea fascicularis, Corymbia calophylla, Cryptandra arbutiflora/glabriflora, Dampiera sp. (D.?
lavandulacea), Daviesia sp., Diuris brumalis, Drosera sp., Dryandra bipinnatifida, D. nivea/lindleyana, D.
sessilis, D. squarrosa/armata, Gastrolobium sp., Grevillea endlicheriana, G. synapheae, Hakea
lissocarpha, Hakea sp., H. trifurcata, Hibbertia sp., H. hypericoides, Hovea trisperma, Juncus sp. (J. ?
pallidus), Kennedia prostrata, Lechenaultia biloba, Lepidosperma sp., Leucopogon sp., Lomandra sp.1,
L. sp. 2, Mesomelaena tetragona, Patersonia occidentalis, Pentapeltis peltigera, Petrophile biloba, Sollya
heterophylla, Stylidium amoenum, S. bulbiferum, Thomasia sp., Thysanotus patersonii, Trichocline
spathulata, Trymalium ledifolium and Viminaria juncea.
Two introduced species, which are potentially invasive environmental weeds in this section of proposed
roadworks are Nerium oleander (Oleander) and Watsonia sp. (W. ? meriana).
Passing Lane Number 2: Eastbound from SLK 13.3 to SLK 15.77.
The section of Toodyay Road, which was assessed during the site visit for this passing lane, was from
the intersection with Stoneville Road to the intersection with Morecombe Road, a distance of
approximately 2.0 kilometres. Species present in this area are:
Acacia nervosa, A. pulchella, A. saligna, A. wildenowiana, Agonis linearifolia, Astartea fascicularis,
Boronia/Philotheca sp., Bossiaea ornata, Calothamnus quadrifidus, Casuarina obesa, Corymbia
calophylla, Daviesia horrida/preissii, Desmocladus flexuosus/fasciculatus, Dianella revoluta, Drosera sp.,
Dryandra nivea/lindleyana, Eucalyptus marginata, E. wandoo, Gastrolobium/Nemcia sp., Grevillea
bipinnatifida, Hakea lissocarpha, H. undulata/cristata, Hibbertia hypericoides, Hovea pungens,
Hypocalymma angustifolium, Lechenaultia biloba, Lepidosperma sp., Lomandra sp., Melaleuca
preissiana, Mesomelaena tetragona, Opercularia hispidula, Pericalymma ellipticum, Phyllanthus
Environmental weed species present in this section of proposed roadworks are Acacia
The section of Toodyay Road, which was assessed during the site visit for this passing lane was from the
intersection with Berry Road to the Wooroloo Brook bridge crossing. This covers a distance of
approximately 1.7 kilometres. The first section of roadside vegetation was native remnant vegetation up
until a MRWA marker peg stamped with the figure SLK 8.0. The species recorded in this section of
remnant vegetation are:
Orchidaceae sp., Phyllanthus calycinus, Tetraria ? octandra and Xanthorrhoea preissii.
The next section of the road verge, for a distance of approximately 150 – 160 metres from the SLK 8.0
peg, is an area of past MRWA rehabilitation, with the following species present:
After the area vegetated with rehabilitational species, the road verge is once again vegetated with
remnant native species for a distance of approximately 120 – 150 metres. Most of the area occupied
with remnant native vegetation is outside the area of future impacts from the construction of the passing
lane, although some of the opportunistic native species which are present in the road verge (likely to
have germinated in this area as a result of past disturbance, and more freely available water due to the
roadside drain beside the road), will need to be removed for construction of the passing lane. These
opportunistic native species present in the roadside drain area are Lepidosperma sp., Stylidium sp.,
are; Acacia pulchella, Allocasuarina fraseriana/huegeliana, Corymbia calophylla, Daviesia sp.1, Daviesia
sp. 2, Eucalyptus wandoo, Gastrolobium/Nemcia sp., Kennedia prostrata/carinata, Lepidosperma sp.,
Lomandra sp., Melaleuca rhaphiophylla/preissiana, Neurachne alopecuroidea and Phyllanthus calycinus.
Another small area of rehabilitation vegetation after this remnant native vegetation is present for
approximately 80 metres. There are a mix of native and rehabilitation species present in the road verge.
The species recorded as present are; Acacia drummondii, A. pulchella, Allocasuarina humilis, Banksia
As the Wooroloo Brook drainage line is approached (heading west down Toodyay Road), there are many
more individuals present of Banksia grandis, Callistemon sp., and Melaleuca rhaphiophylla (Swamp
Paperbark). Other species present are a mixture of remnant native species and rehabilitation species.
The following taxa are present; Acacia pulchella, A. saligna, Astroloma pallidum, Bossiaea ornata,
Callistemon phoeniceus, Calothamnus quadrifidus, Corymbia calophylla, Dampiera ? lavandulacea,
The opposite side of Toodyay Road (across from the side where construction works will be undertaken)
was also assessed to see if there were any intact areas of vegetation or flora species of conservation
significance present in the road reserve area. This side of Toodyay Road was mostly very degraded with
only few native species present, and the remainder of the area dominated by introduced annual and
perennial species. The native species present are Eucalyptus marginata, E. wandoo, Hakea prostrata,
with Eucalyptus rudis over Typha domingensis and weed species (Eragrostis curvula and Schinus
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