Western australian wildlife management program no. 28 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District



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Flowering Period:  July-September

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

D. serratuloides subsp. serratuloides is found near the southern boundary of the Moora District where it

occurs over a range of ca. 10 km in an area just north of Mogumber.  The species grows in dense low heath,

sometimes in open low woodland of 

Eucalyptus wandoo or E. drummondii or mallee eucalypts.  It is found

on lateritic gravel and brown loam on ridge tops or slopes or in red brown clayey sand on lower areas.

Associated species include 

Allocasuarina humilis and Dryandra species.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.  Gillingarra

VP

Shire Road Reserve, 



Rail Reserve 

4.9.1990


20+

-

2.  N of Gillingarra VP



Shire Road Reserve, 

Rail Reserve

25.7.1987

20+


-

6.  S of Koojan

VP

Rail Reserve



27.6.1991

10

Undisturbed



7.  S of Koojan

VP

Nature Reserve



27.6.1991

100+


Many plants dead ?,

drought


8.  S of Gillingarra

VP

Shire Road Reserve, 



Rail Reserve

9.7.1991


30+ &

12 dead


Partly disturbed

9.  Gillingarra

VP

Nature Reserve, Shire



Road Reserve, Rail 

Reserve, Private

28.4.1992

1100+


Plants on the N side of

nature reserve heat

affected, however

most recovering,

numerous seedlings,

weedy


10.  S of Gillingarra

VP

Shire Road Reserve



Rail Reserve

9.7.1991


30+

-

Response to Disturbance



48

Some exposed plants at population 9 were killed by a hot, dry cyclonic wind in August 1991.  Others,

which had apparently died, were resprouting from the base in April 1992 and seedlings have germinated

beneath several dead plants.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Monitor populations regularly, particularly populations 7 and 8 where a large proportion of plants have

died.


-  Maintain liaison with landowners and land managers of land on which the populations occur.

-  Investigate the possibility of land acquisition at population 9 to enhance the conservation status of this

subspecies.

-  Weed control at population 9.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


-  Complete the collection of seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed

Centre at the Western Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements

-  Monitor growth of seedlings and resprouting plants at population 9.

-  Further survey is required.

-  Conduct research on the fire response of the species and its susceptibility to Phytophthora species.



References

Bentham (1870), Blackall and Grieve (1988), George (1996), Griffin (1985), Sainsbury (1985).



49

Eremophila microtheca (F.Muell. ex Benth.) F.Muell.

MYOPORACEAE

Heath-like Eremophila

This species was first collected and described last century from specimens collected at Port Gregory in the

Geraldton District and has more recently been found near Kalbarri.  The population near Eneabba was

found in 1948 by Charles Gardner.



Eremophila microtheca is an erect heath-like shrub to ca. 1 m high, with stems and leaves finely hairy,

becoming glabrous.  The plant has a strong, pungent scent.  The leaves are crowded and linear, ca. 1 cm

long.  The flowers are lilac in colour, tubular with five lobes.  The populations in the Kalbarri area differ

from those in the Moora District, which have longer, terete leaves.



Flowering Period:  August-September

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

This species is known in the Moora District from one area south-west of Eneabba where it occurs for ca. 2

km along a drainage line.  It has also been found near Kalbarri in the Geraldton District, where two

populations are known.

It grows on sandy clay soils in winter wet areas, in open low woodland of 

Casuarina obesa, with tall scrub

of 


Melaleuca rhaphiophylla, and other Melaleuca species.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.  SW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve, Shir



Road Reserve

2.9.1993


65

Healthy


3.  SW of Eneabba

Ca

Private



6.1.1992

1000+


Plants grazed,

remnant vegetation in

pasture

Response to Disturbance

Plants at population 2 were surviving as the only representative of native vegetation in grazed pasture.  The

plants were partly grazed but some were in flower.  Grazing is possibly inhibited to some extent by the

strong smell and presumably the taste of the plant.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Unknown


Management Requirements

-  Maintain liaison with landowner and local government authority.



50

-  Fence population 3.

-  Weed control at population 3.

-  Monitor populations regularly.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.

Research Requirements

-  Further taxonomic research may be required to clarify differences between the northern and southern

populations. 

-  Further survey is required to find new populations.

-  Conduct research on the susceptibility of this species to Phytophthora species.

References

Bentham (1870), R. Chinnock (personal communication), Patrick and Hopper (1982).



51

Eremophila nivea Chinnock

MYOPORACEAE

Silky Eremophila

An erect, compact shrub to 2 m tall, with branches, leaves, pedicels and sepals clothed in a dense covering

of whitish, woolly hairs.  The leaves are sessile, alternate and linear, to 18 x 3.5 mm, acute, with slightly

turned back margins.  The flowers are borne 1-2 in the axils of the leaves, on pedicels 2-5.5 mm long.  The

sepals are acute, to 11 x 2.5 mm.  The petal tube is about 23 mm long, tubular, two-lipped, hairless on the

outside and lilac in colour.  It is whitish inside on the lower lip, with lilac to brown spots.  There are four

stamens, which are held within the flower tube.  The fruit is ovoid in shape, beaked, with a papery, buff-

coloured coat, splitting at the apex.  This species is similar to



 Eremophila eriocalyx, but differs in the more

dense tomentum, the hairless corolla, open corolla throat, shorter pedicels and sepals.  



E. nivea has been

cultivated mainly by enthusiasts under the name



 E. margarethae.  

This species is one of several endangered 



Eremophila species for which the population dynamics and seed

biology have been studied as part of a Ph.D. thesis at Curtin University.  It is also the subject of an Interim

Recovery Plan being written by CALM.

Flowering Period:  August-October

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

The species is known from six populations which occur over a range of less than 5 km to the north of Three

Springs.  All but one are on narrow, weed infested road reserves in a heavily cleared area of the northern

wheatbelt.  The largest population is on uncleared, fenced private land and is in good condition apart from

some weed infestation.  Although much of the area is cleared there may be further populations on private

land in suitable habitat.  There is also a collection made from 40 km to the south-east of the present known

occurrence but this was made over 30 years ago and the species has not been refound in that area.  It has

also been found to the north-east in the Geraldton District.



E. nivea grows in red-brown sandy loam and lateritic gravel, or in clayey loam, usually near the edge of

seasonal creeks, in open York gum woodland and open scrub.  Associated species include



 Acacia

acuminata, Eremophila glabra, Enchylaena tomentosa, Melaleuca, Maireana and Ptilotus species.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1. Dudawa Road

TS

Shire Road Reserve



Private

11.6.1993

1 & 28

Weed infested, three



mature, 26 seedlings

2. Campbell Road

TS

Shire Road Reserve



11.6.1993 

20

Weed infested



3. Three Springs-

Morawa Road

TS

Shire Road Reserve



11.6.1993

86

Weeds, nearby



rubbish dumping,

proposed road

widening

4. Simpson Road

TS

Shire Road Reserve



11.6.1993

1

Plant damaged



52

5. S of Simpson Road

TS

Private


18.8.1993

285


Plants healthy, some

weed infestation

6.* Ca. 30 km E of Three

Springs


-

-

23.8.1960



-

-

Response to Disturbance

The species has been reported to be a disturbance opportunist and the seed is thought to germinate in

disturbed sites, possibly following fire.  An experimental burn has been conducted at one population which

should provide further information on the response of the species to fire.  All populations have some weed

infestation



  and those on road reserves are surviving with some recruitment.  Thought to be short-lived,

surviving in low numbers once associated vegetation has reached maturity.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Unknown


Management Requirements

-  Rehabilitation of associated vegetation and weed control is required for population 5.

-  Weed control also required for severely degraded road reserve populations.

-  Monitor all populations regularly.

-  Ensure that markers are in place at all road reserve populations.

-  Maintain liaison with land owners and managers of land on which the populations occur.

-  Protect from fire, where possible, until fire response is known.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements

-  Further survey is required in the area between the present known populations and the earlier occurrence

30 km east of Three Springs.

-  Monitor the effect of road widening at population 3.

-  Continue research on population biology and fire response and susceptibility to Phytophthora species.

References

Chinnock (1985), Elliot and Jones (1984), Papenfus 



et al. (1996), G. Richmond (personal communication).

53

Eucalyptus absita P.M.Grayling & Brooker

MYRTACEAE

[

Eucalyptus sp. Badgingarra (M.I.H.Brooker 9026)]

Badgingarra Box

A mallee to 4 m tall, smooth-stemmed or rough-barked at the base, with fibrous grey-brown to yellowish

bark for up to 2 m.  Above this the bark is smooth grey over coppery or greenish bark beneath.  The

seedling leaves are opposite, dull, glaucous, and ovate to deltoid in shape.  The adult leaves are glossy, with

a dense vein network and are apparently glandless.  The inflorescence is apparently terminal, the shoot

apex growing out after flowering.  It is 7-flowered.  The buds are club-shaped to 5 mm long, the operculum

hemispherical in shape.  The stamens are bent inwards, with an inner ring of fertile stamens and an outer

ring of staminodes without anthers, which are longer than the fertile inner stamens.  The fruits are

obconical to cup-shaped, with a thin rim and the disc inward sloping, enclosing the four valves, which have

fused tips and are shed as a lid.  The seeds are dark grey-brown, compressed ovoid in shape.

The most northerly population consists of mallees to 2 m which differ from the type population in their

smooth bark, and features of the leaves including the presence of oil glands.  This population produces few

flowers and no viable seeds have been collected.  It is considered that this population is closely related to



Eucalyptus absita and may consist of a single clonal individual.  Further studies are being conducted.  E.

absita has an affinity to E. cuprea, from which it differs in the glaucous juvenile leaves, the thin-rimmed

fruit with an inward sloping disc and the winter flowering period.  



E. loxophleba sometimes occurs with

this species and at some populations hybrids are present.



Flowering Period:  April-July

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Occurs in the Badgingarra area over a 15 km range.  Grows as an emergent mallee in dense heath on white

sand with lateritic gravel or clayey sand on sandy flats.  Associated species include 

Eucalyptus loxophleba,

E. rudis, E. wandoo, Allocasuarina humilis and species of Calothamnus,  Melaleuca, Hakea, Acacia and

Petrophile.  The most northerly population occurs on the floodplain of the Hill River on dark grey sandy

loam.


Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.  NW of Badgingarra

D

Nature Reserve



29.9.1991

4

Undisturbed



2.  SE of Old Badgingarra

D

Shire Road Reserve



1.5.1991

1

Undisturbed since



1986 when plant at

road edge was

damaged by road

works


3.  SE of Old Badgingarra

D

Private



27.12.1990

20 est.


Area grazed,

requires fencing



54

4.  S of Dunearn (Koonah

Road

D

Private



3.7.1992

1

Area grazed and



requires fencing,

road verge partly

disturbed

Response to Disturbance

Bulldozed plants produced lignotuberous resprouts at population 2.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed not susceptible



Management Requirements

-  Ensure that populations on private land are fenced.

-  Monitor populations regularly.

-  Maintain liaison with landowners and land managers.

-  Ensure that markers are in place at population 2.

-  Protect from fire, where possible, until fire response is known.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.

Research Requirements

-  Further survey particularly in reserves to the north of Badgingarra.

-  Further investigation is required on the relationships between populations.

-  Conduct research on the fire response of the species.



References

Brooker and Kleinig (1990), Grayling (1989), Grayling and Brooker (1992), Kelly 



et al. (1995), Napier et

al. (1988a).

55

Eucalyptus argutifolia P.M.Grayling & Brooker

MYRTACEAE

[

Eucalyptus sp. Yanchep (M.I.H.Brooker 8608)]

Yanchep Mallee, Wabling Hill Mallee

A mallee to 3 m in height, with smooth grey and pale coppery bark.  The leaves are thick and glossy, ovate

to broad lanceolate in shape.  The buds are sessile or shortly pedicellate in 7-11 flowered inflorescences.

Each bud is ovoid to cylindrical, to 1.2 x 0.6 cm, with a hemispherical cap.  The fruits have stout peduncles

and are cup-shaped to cylindrical, often with ribs extending onto the pedicel.  The seed is shiny, ruby-red to

red-brown in colour.  This species is closely related to 

Eucalyptus obtusiflora which has narrower, dull

leaves and buds and fruits with distinct stalks.



Flowering Period:  March-April

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

This species is known from fifteen populations between Wanneroo and Guilderton in the Swan Region.

Two populations from near Seabird and the Hill River (the latter in the Moora District), resemble

 E.

argutifolia in some characteristics but are probably more closely related to E. obtusiflora.  Populations

south of the District grow in shallow sand on limestone ridges and slopes, the mallees growing emergent

from heath and thicket with 

Dryandra sessilis and Melaleuca huegelii.  Population 4 grows on limestone in

a small gully close to a river, on a cliff amongst low shrubs with 



Grevillea thelemannianaHardenbergia

comptoniana, Melaleuca huegelii and Acacia sp.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

4.  Hill River

D

Nature Reserve



10.4.1992

2

Area undisturbed



Response to Disturbance

The species regenerates by lignotuberous growth after fire.  The Hill River population had been burnt 3-4

years previous to the inspection and was producing its first buds since the fire.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed not susceptible.



Management Requirements 

-  Monitor the population regularly.

-  Implement appropriate fire management.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at population.



56

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.

Research Requirements

-  Further survey is required to record the full extent of the known population and to find further

populations in the District.

-  Further research is necessary to determine the taxonomic status of the species in the District.



References

Brooker and Kleinig (1990), Grayling and Brooker (1992), Kelly 



et al. (1990, 1995), Napier et al. (1988b).

57

Eucalyptus balanites P.M.Grayling & Brooker 

MYRTACEAE

[

Eucalyptus sp. E. Nambung (M.I.H.Brooker 9025)]

Cadda Road Mallee

This species was discovered in 1985 but no further populations have been found and it is known only from

the original stand. 



Eucalyptus balanites is an erect mallee to 5 m with rough, corky basal bark.  The seedling leaves are

oblong to elliptic, opposite and dull green in colour.  The adult leaves are lanceolate, dull to slightly glossy,

yellow-green in colour, with a dense vein network and oil glands.  The inflorescences are axillary and

unbranched, 11-flowered.  The buds are on short stout stalks, the outer operculum shedding early to leave a

scar.  The inner operculum is hemispherical, narrower than the hypanthium.  The buds are 1 x 0.7 cm.  The

stamens are inflexed and all are fertile.  The fruit is hemispherical to cup-shaped with a thick rim, annular

disc and four valves which are slightly exserted.  The fruits are 0.9 x 0.9 cm.

This species is related to



 Eucalyptus decipiens, but differs in the corky, rough, basal bark, elliptical juvenile

leaves and larger, acorn-like buds in which the operculum is hemispherical and narrower than the

hypanthium at the join, and in the larger cup-shaped fruit

.  E. decipiens has spindle-shaped buds with an

acute, conical or beaked operculum, heart-shaped juvenile leaves and rough bark over part or all of the

trunk, and is usually found on calcareous soils.  Recent studies suggest that 

E. balanites may be of hybrid

origin, with 



E. decipiens and E. lane-poolei as the most likely parents (Grayling 1989), but, from study of

seedlings, it appears to be stabilised and complies with guidelines for inclusion as DRF.  However, few

mature fruits and fertile seeds are produced.  The stand has been shown to consist of at least two genetically

distinct individuals.



Flowering Period:  October-January

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known only from a single population on the northern edge of Badgingarra National Park, where it grows as

an emergent above low, dense heath.  Associated species include 

Eucalyptus todtiana, E. lane-poolei,

Nuytsia floribunda, Banksia candolleana, Lambertia multiflora and Hakea conchifolia.  Grows in grey-

brown sandy loam with lateritic gravel on south-facing slopes.





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