1. Determining Priorities ...............................594
2. Management and Research Actions...........594
Transport Corridors....................... 596
(viii) Mining........................................... 597
Recreation ..................................... 598
Habitat Degradation ...................... 598
Ex situ Germ Plasm Collections.... 598
Re-introduction ............................. 598
(xiii) Liaison........................................... 599
(xiv) Monitoring .................................... 599
Research ........................................ 599
(xvii) Environmental Weeds ................... 601
(xviii) Fire Regimes ................................. 601
3. Priority Flora in the Moora District.......... 601
4. Implementation and Term of the
Management Program.......................... 601
1. Moora District Declared Rare Flora
scored (1-3) according to the
degree of threat or urgency for
management and research action ......... 602
2. Moora District Declared Rare Flora
ranked in priority order for
management and research action ......... 604
3. Priority One, Two and Three species
lists with recommended status
indicated .............................................. 605
4. Changes in conservation status ................. 610
5. Declared Rare and Poorly Known
Flora in the Moora District.
Conservation Status updated to
December 1999................................... 611
6. Taxa in the Moora District added to the
CALM Priority Flora List updated to
December 1999................................... 615
1. Location of the Moora District in
relation to other CALM Management
Regions of the State................................. 2
2. The Moora District covered by this
Program ................................................... 4
Work on this document has taken place over several years and a large number of people have provided advice
and assistance during that time.
Ray Cranfield and Phil Spencer of the Western Australian Herbarium, CALM carried out numerous field surveys,
mainly during 1991-1992. Consultant Ted Griffin provided much population information and valuable
At the Western Australian Herbarium, identification, taxonomic advice and other information was provided by
Anne Cochrane, Richard Cowan, Anne Kelly, Brendan Lepschi, Neville Marchant, Terry Macfarlane, Bruce
Maslin, Diana Papenfus, Barbara Rye and Paul Wilson. David Coates also gave much advice on the Program
and Angie Walker edited the document with advice from Vicki Hamley.
CALM Moora District staff, Matt Warnock, Ken Borland and David Rose, also provided much help and
information for the fieldwork.
Greg Keighery and Bronwyn Keighery were most helpful with discussion and information on many taxa.
Alex George, Elizabeth George and Margaret Pieroni provided much information, particularly for species of
Other specialist advice was given by the following: Jeni Alford (
Sterculiaceae), Jenny Chappill (
Daviesia), Steve Hopper (Eucalyptus), Christina Lemsom (Andersonia), Allen Lowrie (Drosera, Stylidium),
Bob Makinson, Peter Olde (
Grevillea), Kelly Shepherd, Carol Wilkins (Sterculiaceae) and Annette Wilson
In the field, many people have been very helpful. Alison and John Doley, Bob Scott and Don Williams provided
access to their land and showed us populations of species that occurred there. Charles Straughan of the Three
Springs Shire and Alan Tinker showed us new populations that they had found. Guy Richmond provided new
information on populations of
Estimated number of plants
Kings Park Herbarium
Main Roads W.A.
Three Springs Shire
Vacant Crown land
Victoria Plains Shire
Western Australian Threatened Species and
as stated on WAHERB
WAHERB record only, population not seen more recently
Western Australia has a unique flora world renowned for its diversity and high level of endemism.
WACENSUS, the database of plant names for the State, lists 12 442 current taxa (species, subspecies, varieties
and phrase-names) (July 1997) with the total likely to exceed 13 000 once botanists have completed surveying,
searching and describing the flora. A significant proportion of the Western Australian total is concentrated in the
south-west of the State, where there is also a large number of endemics due to a long history of isolation and
climatic and geological stability (Hopper 1979). According to Briggs and Leigh (1996) the State has 45.9
percent of the Australian total of threatened, rare or poorly known plant taxa, with 79 percent of these restricted
to the south-west. Nearly 2 000 Western Australian taxa are currently listed as threatened or have been placed on
the Department of Conservation and Land Management's (CALM) Priority Flora List because they are rare or
poorly known (K. Atkins, personal communication).
Although some plants are rare because of their requirement for a specific restricted habitat, the majority have
become rare or threatened because of the activities of humans. Extensive land clearing and modification of the
environment have resulted in the extinction of some species and threaten the survival of many others. Continued
land clearing, plant diseases (particularly due to
Phytophthora species), exotic weeds and pests, road works,
urbanisation, grazing by domestic stock and increasing salinity continue to threaten the flora.
The State Conservation Strategy,
Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, and Conservation and Land Management Act
1984 provide the guidelines and legislative basis for the conservation of the State's indigenous plant and animal
species. CALM is responsible for the administration of the Wildlife Conservation Act, and hence, is responsible
for the protection and conservation of flora and fauna on all lands and waters throughout the State. Section 23F
of the Act gives the Minister responsible for the Act statutory responsibility for the protection of those plant taxa
declared to be rare (i.e. threatened taxa).
This Wildlife Management Program collates the available biological and management information on the
Declared Rare Flora, and Priority One, Two and Three (poorly known) taxa of CALM's Moora District, as at
12 August 1994. In 1994, 274 extant taxa were listed as Declared Rare Flora and a further 39 taxa were listed on
the Schedule as Presumed Extinct. In addition to those that were declared rare, 1 582 taxa were listed on CALM's
Priority Flora List as at February 1994. The majority of these taxa require further detailed survey to accurately
assess their conservation status while others are rare, but not currently threatened, and require ongoing
The Moora District covers some 25 000 km
of which much has been cleared for agriculture, particularly on the
The objective of this program for the Moora District is:
To ensure and enhance, by appropriate management, the continued survival in the wild of populations of
Declared Rare Flora and other plants in need of special protection.
It aims to achieve this by:
providing a useful reference for CALM staff and other land managers for the day to day management and
may be at risk;
directing Departmental resources within the Region to those species most urgently in need of attention;
Location of the Moora District in relation to other CALM Management Regions of the State
assisting in the identification of Declared Rare species and other species potentially at risk, and their likely
fostering an appreciation and increased awareness of the importance of protecting and conserving
Spermatophyta - flowering plants, conifers and cycads
Pteridophyta - ferns and fern allies
Bryophyta - mosses and liverworts
Thallophyta - algae, fungi and lichens
Section 23F of the Act provides special protection to those taxa (species, subspecies, varieties, hybrids)
considered by the Minister to be:
In danger of extinction - the taxon is in serious risk of disappearing from the wild state within one or two
Rare - less than a few thousand adult plants of the taxon existing in the wild;
Deemed to be threatened and in need of special protection - the taxon is not presently in danger of
extinction but is at risk over a longer period through continued depletion, or occurs largely on sites likely
to experience changes in land use which could threaten its survival in the wild;
Presumed Extinct - taxa which have not been collected, or otherwise verified over the past 50 years
In addition, hybrids or suspected hybrids which satisfy the above criteria also must be:
a distinct entity, that is, the progeny are consistent with the agreed taxonomic limits for that taxon group;
capable of being self perpetuating, that is, not reliant on the parental taxa for replacement; and
the product of a natural event, that is, both parents are naturally occurring and cross fertilisation was by
Protection under Section 23F is achieved by declaring flora to be 'rare flora' by notice published in the
Government Gazette. CALM's Policy Statement No. 9 discusses the legislation relating to Declared Rare Flora
and outlines the criteria for gazettal.
Under the provisions of Section 23F, the 'taking', by any person, of Declared Rare Flora is prohibited on any
category of land throughout the State without the written consent of the Minister. A person breaching the Act is
liable to a penalty of up to $10,000. The legislation refers only to wild populations and applies equally to
Government officers and private citizens on Crown and private lands.
'To take' in relation to any flora includes 'to gather, pluck, cut, pull up, destroy, dig up, remove or injure the flora
or to cause or permit the same to be done by any means'. This includes not only direct destruction or injury by
human hand or machine but also such activities as allowing grazing by stock, introducing pathogens, altering
water tables so as to inundate or deprive the flora of adequate soil moisture, allowing air pollutants to harm
foliage, and burning.
The Moora District covered by this Program
The Schedule published in the Government Gazette is revised annually to accommodate additions and deletions
to the list of Declared Rare Flora.
The taxon (species, subspecies, variety) is well-defined, readily identified and represented by a voucher
conventions in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, but such a description is preferred and
should be undertaken as soon as possible after listing on the schedule.
Have been searched for thoroughly in the wild by competent botanists during the past five years in most
Searches have established that the plant in the wild is either; rare, in danger of extinction; deemed to be
Plants may be deleted from the Declared Rare Flora Schedule where:
recent botanical survey has shown that the taxon is no longer rare, in danger of extinction or otherwise in
the taxon is shown to be a hybrid that does not comply with the inclusion criteria;
the taxon is no longer threatened because it has been adequately protected by reservation of land where it
occurs, or because its population numbers have increased beyond the danger point.
CALM's Priority Flora List
CALM maintains a Priority Flora List to determine priorities for survey of plants of uncertain conservation status.
The List comprised 1582 taxa (at February 1994) that were poorly known and in need of high priority survey or
are adequately surveyed but in need of monitoring. The poorly known taxa are possibly at risk but do not meet
the survey requirements for gazettal as Declared Rare Flora (DRF), as outlined in Policy Statement No. 9. Only
those plants considered to be threatened or presumed extinct on the basis of thorough survey can be included on
the Declared Rare Flora Schedule.
The Priority Flora List is divided into the following categories according to the number of known populations
and the degree of perceived threat.
Priority One - Poorly known Taxa
small population size, or being on lands under immediate threat, e.g. road verges, urban areas, farmland, active
mineral leases, etc., or the plants are under threat, e.g. from disease, grazing by feral animals, etc. May include
taxa with threatened populations on protected lands. Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare
flora', but are in urgent need of further survey.
Priority Two - Poorly Known Taxa
declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of further survey.
Priority Three - Poorly Known Taxa
Taxa which are known from several populations, and the taxa are not believed to be under immediate
threat (i.e. not currently endangered), either due to the number of known populations (generally >5), or known
populations being large, and either widespread or protected. Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as
'rare flora' but are in need of further survey.
Priority Four - Rare Taxa
Reviewing Departmental policy on Declared Rare Flora is the responsibility of the CALM Corporate
Identification of Declared Rare Flora is the initial responsibility of Herbarium staff, but should, with
Locating Declared Rare Flora is the responsibility of Bioconservation Group (CALMScience) staff,
(Nature Conservation Division) and Regional Services Division staff;
Determination of land status and preparation of material for notification to landowners is the responsibility
Hand-delivered notification to landowners of Declared Rare Flora populations is the responsibility of
Maintenance of Declared Rare Flora information and database, and dissemination of these data are the
Advice on management prescriptions is the responsibility of staff of Bioconservation Group
Coordination of Recovery Plans and Interim Recovery Plans for threatened taxa is the responsibility of
staff of the Moora District;
Enforcement matters relating to the provisions of the Wildlife Conservation Act are the responsibility of
Implementation and revision of the Management Program is the responsibility of the Moora District
The CALM Moora District runs north from Lancelin (110 km north of Perth) along the coast for 200 km to
Dongara. It extends inland on the southern boundary for 120 km to the east and south of Calingiri. On the
eastern side it follows the eastern boundaries of the Moora, Coorow, Carnamah and Three Springs Shires until
south of Mingenew where the Midlands Road forms the northern boundary west to Dongara. The District is
approximately 140 km across at its widest point.
There was formerly an extension 25 km further north of Dongara on the western side, but during the course of
work on this program the northern boundary was rationalised, losing that section and including part of the Shire
CALM’s Swan Region bounds the southern side of the District with the Merredin District of the Wheatbelt
Region to the east and the Geraldton District to the north, which with the Moora District form the southern part
of the Midwest Region. There are nine Shires included within the boundaries of the District, all of the Shires of
Three Springs, Carnamah, Coorow, Dandaragan, Moora and Victoria Plains, and parts of the Shires of Irwin,
Mingenew and Gingin.
The District covers an area of 25 000 km
with eight national parks and more than ninety nature reserves
long recognised (with the Stirling Range and Fitzgerald River areas) for its diverse flora, with an exceptionally
high number of rare and endemic species.
The climate of the Moora District is Mediterranean with cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers, with a
moderately reliable rainfall. Rainfall varies from an average annual rainfall in the south west of the District of
about 600 mm at Lancelin, decreasing northwards to 550 mm at Jurien, and around 500 mm at Dongara. It
increases to over 650 mm along the escarpment from Mt Lesueur to Dandaragan but generally decreases inland
to about 350 mm along the eastern boundary of the District, occurring mainly between May and August. Moora
is situated on the border between the drier wheatbelt climate, with less than four wet months in the year, and the
moister climate towards the coast, with five wet months annually.
Mean maximum temperatures in this area vary from 30.5
C near the coast to 32.5
C inland, with the mean
minimum varying from 9
C to 10
The western part of the District coincides with the Perth Sedimentary Basin, which is separated by the Darling
Fault from the mainly granitic rocks of the Yilgarn Block to the east. The Mesozoic rocks of the Perth Basin are
sedimentary, mainly sandstones and siltstones. These are covered patchily by unconsolidated sediments.
The Darling Fault is the most important geological feature in the District, running in a north-south direction and
seen as an elongated depression, sometimes known as the Urella Trough, running east of the Urella Fault. It is
occupied by a creek originally running south from the Yarra Yarra Lakes south of Three Springs and Lake
Eganu, south west of Coorow, joining the Moore river at Moora, which follows the fault south to Mogumber.
A Tertiary or Pleistocene coastline runs 16-32 km inland of the present coast, and south of Jurien Bay this is
marked by the Gingin Scarp, which separates the plateau from the coastal plain. A band of Proterozoic
sedimentary rocks (the Moora Group) occurs between Moora and Carnamah, immediately east of the fault.
These are made up of sandstones, siltstones, limestone and chert rocks.
The soils of the District west of the Darling fault are principally sands whereas those to the east of the Fault are
generally heavier loams and gravels.
The Moora District can be divided into five regions:
Swan Coastal Plain
Gently undulating, usually less than 100 m above sea level, with westward or internal drainage. The plain
incorporates three subdivisions:
· Coastal Belt
Consists of two Quaternary dune systems. The younger of these, the Quindalup Dune System, is formed of
fixed and mobile sand dunes, forming a narrow band along the coast. The older, the Spearwood Dune
System, consists of dunes lithified to limestone. On the western edge, straight, sandy beaches are separated
by low limestone headlands. Caves on the coastal belt have in some cases been formed by water from ponded
rivers percolating through the dune limestone, and others may have been formed in the same way.
Pleistocene dunes have a subdued topography, with numerous interdunal swamps. They form a plain behind
the coastal belt.
· Eneabba Plain
This includes alluvial fans and part of the coastal belt. The alluvial fans have been built out, particularly in
the Eneabba area, where westward-flowing rivers slowed as they decreased in gradient approaching the
coastal belt. Some sandy stream channels have blown out to produce dunes.
Situated between the Gingin and Dandaragan Scarps, a dissected area with westward drainage and with laterite
capped remnants of an earlier uplifted plain, forming hills 250-300 m in height, with laterite capping over softer
sedimentary rocks. Where the laterite is dissected, breakaways fringe the hills. Resistant Triassic sandstone
inland of Jurien Bay produces the mesas of Mt Peron and Mt Lesueur.
A flat or gently undulating plateau 200-300 m in elevation, with poorly developed drainage and bounded by the
Dandaragan Scarp to the west and the Gingin Scarp to the south west. It is laterite capped, but the laterite on this
plateau is still covered by quartz sand. Erosion around the margins of the plateau has produced breakaways.
Low lying land to the west of the Darling Scarp, with swamps, lake systems, associated dune deposits and
intermittent internal drainage.
The Darling Scarp forms the eroded western edge of the Darling Plateau which is expressed as undulating plains
on the eastern side of the District, drained in this area by the Moore River. Features of the Plateau include low
granitic hills and saline lakes. The Darling Scarp degenerates to a series of low hills by the time it reaches the
southern boundary of the District, and these extend north to beyond Moora.
Baxter and Lipple (1985), Carter and Lipple (1982), Lowry (1974).
The CALM Moora District falls within the South-West Botanical Province (Beard 1980) and includes parts of
the Irwin, Avon and Darling Botanical Districts. The flora of the District is very diverse, with areas of high
species-richness including the northern sandplains and the Gairdner Range.
The Swan Coastal Plain, the Drummond Subdistrict of the Darling Botanical District, extends north from the
Moore River to just south of Green Head. Its eastern boundary is the Darling Scarp. It has mainly yellow sandy
soils and is low lying, with dune systems and swampy areas. Banksia low woodland occurs on leached sands
E. calophylla) woodland on less leached soils, mainly on the eastern side. In the south, there are rare
occurrences of tuart (
E. gomphocephala) woodland. Scrub heath occurs on limestone, heath with patches of
thicket on the sand ridges, and heath in the swamps.
The north east side of the Drummond Subdistrict includes the Dandaragan Plateau which lies between the Gingin
Scarp and the Darling Fault from the southern boundary of the Moora District north to about Dinner Hill. The
sedimentary rocks of the Plateau give rise in the western half, to brownish sands or loamy sands with gravel
beneath, which supported marri woodland, although most has now been cleared as these are good agricultural
soils. The eastern half of the Plateau has deep sands, most of which are covered with banksia low woodland, and
in the southern part where the sand overlies laterite, there are heaths in which
South of Moora and to the east of the Darling Fault, running from Mogumber east to New Norcia, the Moora
District includes a small section of the northern part of the Dale Subdistrict of the Darling Botanical District.
This area has wandoo (
part of the Northern Jarrah Forest Subregion, which does not extend further north due to lower rainfall, jarrah
only extending to about 10 km south of the southern boundary of the Moora District on the Great Northern
Highway. The ridges support dryandra heath.
The north-western part of the District is included in the Irwin Botanical District (the Northern Sandplains
Region). This area is underlain by sedimentary rocks, which form a series of plateaux at the same level as the
Dandaragan Plateau. These have been eroded on the western side and are broken up by rivers, but the uneroded
surfaces form extensive sandplains, supporting rich heathlands, the kwongan or scrub heaths. On the coast, as is
found further south, there are two distinct dune systems, corresponding to the Spearwood and Quindalup
Systems. The consolidated dunes north from Jurien to the Arrowsmith River support scrub heath on the
limestone with illyarrie (
E. erythrocorys). Further north this species occurs in thickets of Acacia, Melaleuca and
Allocasuarina. The Eneabba Plain consists of mineral-rich deposits of beach sands, which support scattered
small trees of pricklybark (
low shrubs predominate.
Within the Irwin Botanical District lies the Lesueur National Park and Coomallo Nature Reserve which are
situated inland from the town of Jurien, ca. 220 km north of Perth. The area has an exceptionally diverse flora,
with 800 species, representing nearly 6.2 percent of the State’s known vascular flora. The Lesueur National Park
has seven species of declared rare flora, nine endemic taxa, 111 regionally endemic taxa and 81 taxa at their
northern or southern limits. The heath on the lateritic uplands and sandstones forms an intricate mosaic of
vegetation units, whilst deeper soils on lower areas support woodland of wandoo, marri and powderbark wandoo
The southern boundary of the Irwin District runs eastwards through the southerly part of the Watheroo National
Park as far east as Dalwallinu. These areas have lower rainfall and on deep sands the
community has shrubs to 3 m (or 6 m if long unburnt) including
woody pear (
Dalwallinu, the eastern boundary of the Irwin District runs north westwards to Coorow then north through Three
Springs. To the east of this boundary lies the Avon Botanical District (the Wheatbelt Region). Two sections of
the Avon District occur on the eastern side of the Moora District, with its western boundary approximately along
the Darling fault. The southerly section runs from Calingiri north to Moora and Watheroo and east to the
Dalwallinu area. Now largely cleared, much of this part of the District originally supported woodland of wandoo
and York gum, or York gum and salmon gum on loams, and scrub heath on the sandplains,
thickets on ironstone gravels and
The northern wheatbelt section occurring in the Moora District is situated from southeast of Coorow, north with
its westerly margin along the Midlands Highway, then north from Three Springs. This is similar to the southern
The District was explored by Europeans as early as 1801, when an expedition in the French ship
under the command of Captain Hamelin, visited the coast, naming Jurien Bay, Mt Lesueur and Mt Peron, after a
naval administrator and the expedition’s artist and naturalist, respectively.
After the foundation of the Swan River Colony in 1829, more extensive exploration took place. John Septimus
Roe, Surveyor General, led an expedition in 1836 from York, reaching the site of New Norcia after travelling
further east. Plant specimens were collected during this expedition.
Capt. George Grey’s exploration party marched south in 1839 along the coastal strip from the Murchison River
to Perth, after losing their boats at the mouth of the Murchison.
Extensive botanical exploration and collecting was first undertaken by James Drummond who arrived with
Captain Stirling’s colonising party as honorary Government Naturalist. He settled at Toodyay where he farmed
and added to his income by collecting botanical specimens for sale to patrons in Europe. In the summer of 1841
he, with his son and two other settlers, went north from Toodyay to the Victoria Plains, which extend from north-
east of New Norcia northwards (Erickson 1969). In 1842 he made two collecting trips to that area, reaching the
site of Moora on the first trip and travelling further east to the Wongan Hills (east of the Moora District) on the
with a party overlanding stock from the Swan to Champion Bay (Geraldton) by way of the Lesueur-Coomallo
area, where he noted the exceptional richness of the area, and the Arrowsmith and Irwin Rivers.
Ludwig Preiss, a German botanist, visited the Victoria Plains in 1839 and made collections which he distributed
to European herbaria on his return to Germany in 1842. They were labelled “Quangen Plains, Victoria”
L. Diels and E. Pritzel, German botanists, visited Moora on a journey to Geraldton early in 1901, and also visited
Dandaragan in December of that year (Diels 1906).
In the east of the District, the Midland Railway reached Moora in 1894, so that land along the line and within
easy reach of it was mostly taken up for agricultural settlement by 1900. This was also the case around
Dandaragan. At that time the sandplains could not be used for crop farming and there was little settlement
between Dandaragan, Watheroo and the coast, apart from fishing settlements at Jurien Bay, Green Head and an
isolated farm at Cockleshell Gully. However, advances in farming techniques allowed the sandplains to be
worked from the 1950s, further decreasing the remaining areas of natural vegetation.
Charles Gardner, who was appointed Government Botanist in 1929, collected extensively in the District over the
next thirty years. He visited the Lesueur area several times between 1931 and 1946 and recommended that the
area should be reserved. This important area was subsequently the subject of several studies (Griffin and
Hopkins 1985 and Martinick and Associates 1988). A comprehensive report on the Lesueur area was published
with much information on the vegetation and flora (Burbidge
et al. 1990) and in 1992 the Lesueur National Park
was gazetted as a Class ‘A’ reserve for national park.
N. Speck carried out fieldwork in the District for his thesis on the vegetation of the Irwin District (Speck 1958)
and John Beard carried out fieldwork for vegetation mapping from 1962 onwards, particularly from 1973-77
(Beard 1976a, 1976b, 1979a, 1979b).
Considerable recent study has been undertaken in the important area of the Northern Sandplains, which is
roughly equivalent to the Irwin Botanical District (George
et al. 1979, Griffin et al. 1983, Griffin and Keighery
1989, Griffin 1990, 1992, 1994).
Numerous other studies have been made on a more local scale, many relating to reserves and areas of potential
mining in the District (e.g. Bell and Loneragan (1985), Burbidge and Boscacci (1989), Crook
Elkington and Griffin (1984), Elkington (1987), Foulds and McMillan (1985), Froend (1988), Griffin (1991),
Hopkins and Hnatiuk (1981) and Lamont (1976).