Ruslan Maksyutov, Elena Solovieva,
Moscow state university of technology and management “Kiril Razumovsky”,
Received in revised form
Introduction. The purpose of this work is to develop
the production technology and trade analysis assessment
of kumis drink, which is functional food product.
Materials and methods. The mare's milk, kumis,
kumis drink made of cow's milk rich in iodine and inulin
was investigated. The content of mass concentration of
iodine, lead, copper, zinc and cadmium in them using
"Ecotest-VA" was determined. The antioxidant properties
of inulin and inulin-iodine complex were determined by
the chemiluminescence analysis.
Results and discussion. New objective measure of
quality trade analysis of kumis and kumis drinks is
developed. There has been developed a modified method
for the chemiluminescence analysis using 1·10
free radical lipid peroxidation. The method of rapid
assessment of qualitative characteristics of kumis by
chemiluminescence analysis has been given scientific
credence – it determines light sum and the maximum
chemiluminescence luminosity in kumis. With the values
ranging from 0,93 ± 0,07 pH to 2,17 ± 0,26 pH and from
0,57 ± 0,05 pH to 1,92 ± 0,41 pH, the product is assessed
as a quality product having preserved a biological value.
Production technology of kumis drink enriched with
inulin and iodine is developed. For this technology there
has been carried out laboratory and industrial testing.
Experimental models of iodine deficiency in rats show
that kumis drink rich in iodine and inulin, gives
physiological activity. The calculation of economic
efficiency for kumis drink production is defined.
Implementation of development in dairy plants will allow
to provide the population by health functional food.
Development of technologies for industrial production of functional food products is
25.10.2010 "On the State Policy of the Russian Federation in the field of healthy nutrition
for the period up to 2020".
Lack of protein, vitamins, dietary fiber, macro- and micronutrients in the diet causes
the growth of socially dangerous diseases. It is known that insufficient intake of iodine in
the human body leads to violations in the structure and function of the thyroid gland,
inadequate production of thyroid hormones and the emergence of endemic goiter and
diseases associated with dysfunction of various organs and systems, an imbalance of the
immune system. Thus, malfunction of the thyroid gland causes diseases of the upper
respiratory tract, and pulmonary tuberculosis particularly.
It is known that kumis being a product of therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, refers
to a high-performance antituberculous means. Unfortunately, mare's milk kumis is
produced only in the areas of Russian horse herd farming. In other areas mare’s milk is not
produced due to lack of raw materials and the impossibility of its long-term storage, though
the need for kumis is very substantial. Therefore, the development of production
technology of iodinated kumis drink, as close as possible to the natural, is of great and
social importance. Making kumis drink along with the organization of industrial production
has broad prospects for its use as an effective functional beverage.
The aim of this work is the development of production technology and trade analysis of
iodinated kumis drink.
In accordance with the purpose of the investigation, the aims of the study are stated as
- developing a method for rapid assessment of the quality characteristics of kumis and
kumis drinks by chemiluminescence analysis;
- investigating the intensity dynamics of lipid peroxidation in kumis drink by
chemiluminescence analysis, determining the concentration of malondialdehyde;
- developing the formulation and production technology of iodinated kumis beverage;
- carrying out a comprehensive trade analysis of kumis beverage;
- assessing the economic efficiency of production of iodinated kumis beverage;
- developing scientific and technical documentation for the iodinated kumis drink.
Materials and methods
This work has been carried out at the Branch of Razumovsky Moscow State University
accredited according to the analytical laboratory accreditation system GOST R ISO / IEC
17025-2006 (International Standard ISO / IEC 17025:2005), on the basis of Production
Laboratory of JSC "Meleuz Milk Factory" and the joint expert laboratory of the National
Union of Milk Producers "Soyuzmoloko". The objects of study are: mare's milk, kumis,
kumis drink made of bovine milk, rich in iodine and inulin. The content of the mass
concentration of iodine, lead, copper, zinc and cadmium has been determined in the mare's
milk, kumis and kumis drink, it was done with the device "Ecotest-BA" (Guidelines №
001-110-01, 001-91-00). To evaluate the antioxidative properties of inulin and inulin-iodine
complex by the chemiluminescence analysis there were used model test systems that
simulated formation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation reactions. As the
model system 1, there were used 20 ml of phosphate buffer with the addition of sodium
suspension of egg-yolk lipoproteins containing lipoprotein complexes (G. Klebanov et al,
Results and discussion
In developing the method of rapid assessment of kumis quality, we have chosen a
method based on the study of super-weak luminescence intensity of the objects under
In order to conduct trade analysis there were produced experimental batches of kumis
beverage under JSC "Meleuz Milk Factory" – kumis drink with potassium iodide and inulin
1.5% fat content - recipe number 1 (sample number 1), kumis drink with potassium iodide
and inulin 0.05% fat - recipe number 2 (sample number 2). As a control there were used
kumis drinks fat 0.05% (sample number 3) and 1.5% (sample number 4), prepared
according to the same recipes, but without adding potassium iodide and inulin.
Kumis drinks were stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 4 ± 2ºC. Physical,
chemical and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated in the samples, their safety was
determined on the basis of microbiological research, as well as the intensity of lipid
As seen in Figure 1, inulin has a significant effect on the titratable acidity in kumis
drinks. So, if indicators of acidity in kumis drinks 1.5% fat and 0.05% without introducing
inulin increased by 45.64 % and 44.2 %, in kumis drinks containing inulin the similar
figure increased respectively by 57.1 % and 55.4 % on the 10th day. Consequently, inulin
has an inhibitory effect on the formation of free fatty acids and other acidic compounds in
the functional food product.
Figure 1. Titratable acidity indicators.
Results of studies for determining fat, protein, MSNF (milk solids non-fat) and density
on the 10th day of storage showed that they did not significantly change during storage,
remaining within a similar data determined on the 5th day of storage. Consequently, the
introduction of inulin and potassium iodide in the kumis drinks 1.5% fat and 0.05%
contributes to the preservation of physical and chemical parameters.
recipes number 1 and number 2 on the 10th day of storage are as follows: the taste is
specific, fermented, refreshing, with the flavour and smell of yeast, a little spicy, nipping,
without foreign tastes and odors; the consistency presents homogeneous, aerated and
slightly foaming liquid with impaired clot. Kumis drinks without inulin, that is samples 3
and 4, had a sour taste and smell.
From the results obtained in determining the level of toxic elements, aflatoxin M
iodine and inulin is safe to use and meets the Sanitary Standards 2.3.2. - 1078 - 2003.
Kumis drink enriched with potassium iodide and inulin is produced by the reservoir
method. The main technological stages of production are: acceptance, preparation of kumis
mixture, homogenization, pasteurization, enrichment of kumis mixture with potassium
iodide and inulin, fermentation, acidification, filling, packing, cooling and maturation.
Milk is separated and then sent for recycling. Dry cheese whey is reduced in the
drinking water, heated to 50-55 °C until the mass fraction of solids comprises at least 9.5
%. After that it is pasteurized at a temperature of 70-74 °C with exposure to 15-20. Other
raw milk is pasteurized at a temperature of 83-87 °C with exposure to 15-20.
Homogenization of the mixture takes place at a temperature of 61- 65 °C and at pressure of
10-12 mPas. Potassium iodide and inulin are introduced into the mixture cooled to 31-35
For fermentation the production fermentation mixture is applied, it consists of
in an amount of 0.9 liters per 3.0 liters of the mixture (from 20 % to 30% of the weight of
the fermenting mixture) with the expectation that the acidity of fermented mixture makes
T. Fermentation continues till acidity rises to 68-70
T maintaining temperature of
placed on a maturation period of 2-2.5 hours at a temperature of (28 ± 2)°C. Ripened
product in a consumer package is placed in a cooling chamber for cooling to the
temperature of (2-4) °C. When this temperature is reached, the shelf life of the product
makes 10 days.
Studies on the development of production technology of iodinated kumis drink lead to
1. A new objective trade index for making quality analysis of kumis and kumis drinks
is suggested, it is based on the study of super-weak luminescence intensity of the product.
The modified method of the chemiluminescence assay has been worked out. This method
M solution of azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator of free radical lipid peroxidation.
chemiluminescence analysis is given scientific credence: the light sum and maximum
luminosity of kumis chemiluminescence is determined. Ranging from 0,93 ± 0,07 pH to
2,17 ± 0,26 pH and from 0,57 ± 0,05 pH to 1,92 ± 0,41pH the product is evaluated as a
quality product having a definite biological value.
3. In experimental models of iodine deficiency in rats, it is shown that kumis beverage
enriched with inulin and iodine is characterized by a physiological activity.
4. The choice of inulin for giving antioxidant properties to kumis drinks is proved. It is
found that inulin inhibits the processes of formation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in
the model test system, reducing the light sum emission by 40.4 %, the amplitude of the
used as a test system containing no inulin.
5. Laboratory and industrial testing of developed technology of kumis drinks enriched
with inulin and iodine is carried out under JSC "Meleuz Milk Factory".
6. There has been developed and approved regulatory and technical documentation for
kumis drink, rich in iodine and inulin, in "Bashkir center for certification and expertise"
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