6000 – 7000 species Ectothermic Pulmonary respiration



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  • 6000 – 7000 species

  • Ectothermic

  • Pulmonary respiration

  • Amniotes

  • Epidermal scales



  • 3 – 4 chambered hearts

  • Tetropods

  • Internal fertilization

  • No sweat glands

  • All continents except Antarctica



250 – 300 species

  • 250 – 300 species

    • Appeared 215 million years ago
  • Long lived

  • Varied habitats

  • Turtle vs Tortoise vs Terrapin



Order: Chelonia/Testudines

  • Order: Chelonia/Testudines

  • 2 Suborders:

    • Pleurodira ( 2 families, approx. 75 spp.)
      • Side-neck turtles: unable to retract neck
      • Aquatic – semi aquatic
    • Cryptodira ( 11 families, approx. 200 spp.)
      • Able to retract neck straight back into shell
      • Terrestrial, aquatic, and semi-aquatic


  • Suborder Pleurodira

    • Pelomedusidae
    • Chelidae


  • Suborder Cryptodira

    • Chelonidae: marine turtles
    • Chelydridae: snapping turtles
    • Emydidae: pond & river turtles
    • Kinosternidae: mud & musk turtles
    • Testunidae: land/true tortoises
    • Trionychidae: soft-shelled turtles


  • Suborder Cryptodira

    • Chelonidae: marine turtles
    • Chelydridae: snapping turtles
    • Emydidae: pond & river turtles
    • Kinosternidae: mud & musk turtles
    • Testunidae: land/true tortoises
    • Trionychidae: soft-shelled turtles


  • Suborder Cryptodira

    • Chelonidae: marine turtles
    • Chelydridae: snapping turtles
    • Emydidae: pond & river turtles
    • Kinosternidae: mud & musk turtles
    • Testunidae: land/true tortoises
    • Trionychidae: soft-shelled turtles


  • Suborder Cryptodira

    • Chelonidae: marine turtles
    • Chelydridae: snapping turtles
    • Emydidae: pond & river turtles
    • Kinosternidae: mud & musk turtles
    • Testunidae: land/true tortoises
    • Trionychidae: soft-shelled turtles


  • Suborder Cryptodira

    • Chelonidae: marine turtles
    • Chelydridae: snapping turtles
    • Emydidae: pond & river turtles
    • Kinosternidae: mud & musk turtles
    • Testunidae: land/true tortoises
    • Trionychidae: soft-shelled turtles


  • Suborder Cryptodira

    • Chelonidae: marine turtles
    • Chelydridae: snapping turtles
    • Emydidae: pond & river turtles
    • Kinosternidae: mud & musk turtles
    • Testunidae: land/true tortoises
    • Trionychidae: soft-shelled turtles


Shell

  • Shell

    • 50 – 60 bones
    • Fused w/ ribs & vertebrae
    • Scutes
  • Shell variations

    • Trionyx spp. (softshells)
    • Pancake tortoise
    • Box and Mud turtles
    • African hingebacks


Shell

  • Shell

    • 50 – 60 bones
    • Fused w/ ribs & vertebrae
    • Scutes
  • Shell variations

    • Softshells
    • Pancake tortoise
    • Box and Mud turtles
    • African hingebacks


Shell

  • Shell

    • 50 – 60 bones
    • Fused w/ ribs & vertebrae
    • Scutes
  • Shell variations

    • Trionyx spp. (softshells)
    • Pancake tortoise
    • Box and Mud turtles
    • African hingebacks


Shell

  • Shell

    • 50 – 60 bones
    • Fused w/ ribs & vertebrae
    • Scutes
  • Shell variations

    • Trionyx spp. (softshells)
    • Pancake tortoise
    • Box and Mud turtles
    • African hingebacks


Shell

  • Shell

    • 50 – 60 bones
    • Fused w/ ribs & vertebrae
    • Scutes
  • Shell variations

    • Trionyx spp. (softshells)
    • Pancake tortoise
    • Box and Mud turtles
    • African hingebacks


Coelomic cavity

  • Coelomic cavity

  • Respiration

  • Rhampotheca/Tomium

  • Skin

    • Scaled vs. scale-less
  • Uncoordinated shedding

  • No external ears

  • Oviparous



~ 4,500 spp

  • ~ 4,500 spp

  • Appeared ~ 200 mya

  • Life span

    • Smaller < Larger
    • 3-6 years, 10-15 years
  • Large size variations

    • Caribbean Gecko: 3-4 cm
    • Komodo Dragon: 3 m (10ft)


  • Order: Squamata

  • Suborder: Sauria/Lacertilia



5 Infraorders:

  • 5 Infraorders:

    • Iguania (10-14 families)
    • Gekkota (3 families)
    • Scincomorpha (11 families)
    • Diploglossa (3 families)
    • Platynota (4 families)


5 Infraorders:

  • 5 Infraorders:

    • Iguania (10-14 families)
    • Gekkota (3 families)
    • Scincomorpha (11 families)
    • Diploglossa (3 families)
    • Platynota (4 families)


5 Infraorders:

  • 5 Infraorders:

    • Iguania (10-14 families)
    • Gekkota (3 families)
    • Scincomorpha (11 families)
    • Diploglossa (3 families)
    • Platynota (4 families)


5 Infraorders:

  • 5 Infraorders:

    • Iguania (10-14 families)
    • Gekkota (3 families)
    • Scincomorpha (11 families)
    • Diploglossa (3 families)
    • Platynota (4 families)


5 Infraorders:

  • 5 Infraorders:

    • Iguania (10-14 families)
    • Gekkota (3 families)
    • Scincomorpha (11 families)
    • Diploglossa (3 families)
    • Platynota (4 families)


5 Infraorders:

  • 5 Infraorders:

    • Iguania (10-14 families)
    • Gekkota (3 families)
    • Scincomorpha (11 families)
    • Diploglossa (3 families)
    • Platynota (4 families)


Epidermal scales

  • Epidermal scales

  • Vomeronasal (Jacobson’s) organ

  • Oviparous vs. Viviparous

  • Not shared by all:

    • External ear openings
    • Tail autonomy
    • Eyelids


  • Enclosures

  • Substrates

  • Temperature

  • Photoperiod

  • Light Quality

  • Humidity



Size

  • Size

    • ~5L x 5L: length x width
  • Terrestrial

    • Plastic containers, aquariums, outdoor pins
  • Semi-aquatic & Aquatic

    • Aquariums, ponds
    • Haul out & basking areas
  • Hiding places



Size

  • Size

    • ~5L x 5L: length x width
  • Terrestrial

    • Plastic containers, aquariums, outdoor pins
  • Semi-aquatic & Aquatic

    • Aquariums, ponds
    • Haul out & basking areas
  • Hiding places



Size

  • Size

    • ~5L x 5L: length x width
  • Terrestrial

    • Plastic containers, aquariums, outdoor pins
  • Semi-aquatic & Aquatic

    • Aquariums, ponds
    • Haul out & basking areas
  • Hiding places



Size: 3L x 3L

  • Size: 3L x 3L

  • glass, plastic, plexiglass, wood

  • Climbing spaces: branches, rocks, plants

  • Basking sites

  • Hiding places

  • Escape proof!!!



Size: 3L x 3L

  • Size: 3L x 3L

  • glass, plastic, plexiglass, wood

  • Climbing spaces: branches, rocks, plants

  • Basking sites

  • Hiding places

  • Escape proof!!!

    • Tight lids w/ ventilation


Can be artificial or natural

  • Can be artificial or natural

  • Should be: Inexpensive, easily cleaned, absorbent, digestible, physical support, psychological security

  • Should not: cause impaction, dermatological disease, respiratory disease



Newspaper

  • Newspaper

  • Cypress chips/mulch

  • Coconut Shells (shredded)

  • Large rocks

  • Astroturf

  • Clean Water



Gravel &small stones

  • Gravel &small stones

  • Rabbit pellets

  • Sand

  • Dirty Water



Cedar shavings

  • Cedar shavings

  • Crushed corn cob

  • Pecan/walnut shells

  • Cat litter



Provide temperature gradients!

  • Provide temperature gradients!

    • Behavioral thermoregulators
  • Preferred Optimal Temperature Range (POTR)

  • Necessary for proper:

    • Metabolic rate
    • Digestion
    • Growth
    • CV function
    • Immune function
    • Reproductive performance


Diurnal spp - daytime temp

  • Diurnal spp - daytime temp

      • Ambient temp: 27-35oC
      • Basking area: 49-54oC
  • Nocturnal spp – daytime

      • Ambient temp: 21-27oC
      • Warmer area: 32-35oC
  • Water temp: 24-30oC

  • 5-7oC< for nighttime temp

  • Seasonal fluctuations may be necessary



Sources of Heat

  • Sources of Heat

    • Ambient heat
      • Central heat/AC
    • Basking area
    • Water
      • Submersible aquarium heater


  • * Always monitor heat with an in cage thermometer!



General rule:

  • General rule:

    • 14 hrs during summer
    • 12 hrs during winter
  • Temperate zone reptiles:

    • 15 hrs – summer
    • 12 hrs – spring/fall
    • 9 hrs – winter
  • Tropical spp

    • 13 hrs – summer
    • 11 hrs – winter


Quality very important

  • Quality very important

    • UVB – Vitamin D3
    • UVA – Behavior
  • Natural vs. Artificial

  • Can also provide heat



In general: 35% – 70%

  • In general: 35% – 70%

  • If too low:

    • Dysecdysis, Dehydration
  • If too high:

    • Respiratory infections, Dermatitis


Humidity boxes

  • Humidity boxes

  • Water bowls

  • Damp substrate

  • Humidifiers, Fogging devices

  • Misting

  • Monitor with gauges



May be required for temperate and sub-tropical species

  • May be required for temperate and sub-tropical species

  • General:

    • Lower temperatures gradually
    • 35 – 50oF for min. of 10 wks
    • Access to heat source for sub-tropicals
    • No feeding
    • Avoid false hibernation


Always provide fresh water!

  • Always provide fresh water!

  • Soak terrestrial chelonians daily or EOD

  • Dehydration, gout, renal disease



~ 95% vegetables

  • ~ 95% vegetables

    • Mustard & collard greens, dandelions, kale, parsley, watercress
  • ~ 5% fruit

    • Grapes, apples, tomatoes, mangos, stawberries
  • Need vitamin & mineral supplements

  • Blend together!



50% animal/high protein foods

  • 50% animal/high protein foods

    • Earthworms, crickets, slugs, snails, pinkies
  • 50% plant material

    • 75% vegetables
    • 25% fruit


Turtles:

  • Turtles:

    • Whole fish, skinned mice & pinkies, shrimp (w/shells)
    • Insects in moderation
    • Many omnivorous w/ age
  • Lizards: pre-killed whole prey

    • Rodents > chicks > fish
  • Ca supplement?



Most Lizard species!

  • Most Lizard species!

  • Common types:

    • Crickets, meal worms, wax worms, earthworms, grasshoppers
  • Captive raised - low Ca

    • Dusting or “Gut loading”


Most tortoises and lizards: Daily

  • Most tortoises and lizards: Daily

  • Aquatic/Semi-Aquatic chelonians: 2-3x a week

  • Large carnivorous lizards: 2-3x a week



Daily/EOD:

  • Daily/EOD:

    • Remove feces and wash bowls
  • Monthly:

    • Disinfect entire cage and furnishings
    • Clean or change substrate
  • Bleach (1:30 dilution)

  • Roccal-D (1:200 dilution)



Provide proper thermal gradient and photoperiod

  • Provide proper thermal gradient and photoperiod

  • Provide a variety of foods and clean water!

  • Clean regularly

  • Be familiar with your species!!!



Ackerman L (1997). The Biology, Husbandry, and Health Care of Reptiles. Volume I: Biology of Reptiles. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications, Inc.

  • Ackerman L (1997). The Biology, Husbandry, and Health Care of Reptiles. Volume I: Biology of Reptiles. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications, Inc.

  • Ackerman L (1997). The Biology, Husbandry, and Health Care of Reptiles. Volume II: Husbandry of Reptiles. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications, Inc.

  • Barnard SM (1996). Reptile Keeper’s Handbook. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing

  • Ernst CH, Barbour RW (1989). Turtles of the World. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press

  • Flank L (1998). Herp Help. New York: Howell Book House

  • Madar DR (2006). Reptile Medicine and Surgery, Second Edition. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Inc.

  • Mattison C (1992). The Care of Reptiles and Amphibians in Captivity, Revised Third Edition. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing

  • McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J (2004). Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing



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