7
Learner’s Material
Module 2
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Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines
Mathematics – Grade 7
Learner’s Material
First Edition, 2013
ISBN: 9789719990604
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Published by the Department of Education
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Undersecretary: Yolanda S. Quijano, Ph.D.
Assistant Secretary: Elena R. Ruiz, Ph.D.
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Authors: Elizabeth R. Aseron, Angelo D. Armas, Allan M. Canonigo, Ms. Jasmin T. Dullete, Flordeliza F. Francisco, Ph.D., Ian June L. Garces, Ph.D., Eugenia V. Guerra, Phoebe V. Guerra, Almira D. Lacsina, Rhett Anthony C. Latonio, Lambert G. Quesada, Ma. Christy R. Reyes, Rechilda P. Villame, Debbie Marie B. Verzosa, Ph.D., and Catherine P. VistroYu, Ph.D.
Editor: Catherine P. VistroYu, Ph.D.
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Table of Contents
Measurement
Lesson 15:

Measurement and Measuring Length ………………...

91

Lesson 16:

Measuring Weight/Mass and Volume ………………...

99

Lesson 17:

Measuring Angles, Time, and Temperature …………

106

Lesson 15: Measurement and Measuring Length
Prerequisite Concepts: Real Numbers and Operations
About the Lesson:
This is a lesson on the English and Metric System of Measurement and using these systems to measure length. Since these systems are widely used in our community, a good grasp of this concept will help you be more accurate in dealing with concepts involving length such as distance, perimeter, and area.
Objective
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

Describe what it means to measure;

Describe the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of unit;

Estimate or approximate length;

Use appropriate instruments to measure length;

Convert length measurement from one unit to another, including the English system;

Solve problems involving length, perimeter and area.
Lesson Proper
A.
I. Activity:
Determine the dimension of the following using only parts of your arms. Record your results in the table below. Choose a classmate and compare your results.

Sheet of Intermediate Paper

Teacher’s Table

Classroom

Length

Width

Length

Width

Length

Width

Arm part used*







Measurement







Comparison to:
(classmate’s name)







* For the arm part, please use any of the following only: the palm, the handspan, and the forearm length
Important Terms to Remember:

palm – the width of one’s hand excluding the thumb

handspan – the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger of one’s hand with fingers spread apart.

forearm length – the length of one’s forearm: the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger.
Answer the following questions:
1. What was your reason for choosing which arm part to use? Why?
2. Did you experience any difficulty when you were doing the actual measuring?
3. Were there differences in your data and your classmate’s data? Were the differences significant? What do you think caused those differences?
II. Questions to Ponder (PostActivity Discussion)
Let us answer the questions in the opening activity:
1. What is the appropriate arm part to use in measuring the length and width of the
sheet of paper? of the teacher’s table? Of the classroom? What was your reason
for choosing which arm part to use? Why?

While all of the units may be used, there are appropriate units of
measurement to be used depending on the length you are trying to measure.
handspan and the forearm length is too long.

For the teacher’s table, either the palm or the handspan will do but the
forearm length might be too long to get an accurate measurement.

For the classroom, the palm and handspan may be used but you may end up
with a lot of repetitions. The best unit to use would be the forearm length.
2. Did you experience any difficulty when you were doing the actual measuring?
The difficulties you may have experienced might include having to use too many
repetitions.
3. Were there differences in your data and your classmate’s data? Were the
differences significant? What do you think caused those differences?
If you and your partner vary a lot in height, then chances are your forearm length, handspan, and palm may also vary, leading to different measurements of the same thing.
History of Measurement
One of the earliest tools that human beings invented was the unit of measurement. In olden times, people needed measurement to determine how long or wide things are; things they needed to build their houses or make their clothes. Later, units of measurement were used in trade and commerce. In the 3^{rd} century BC Egypt, people used their body parts to determine measurements of things; the same body parts that you used to measure the assigned things to you.
The forearm length, as described in the table below, was called a cubit. The handspan was considered a half cubit while the palm was considered 1/6 of a cubit. Go ahead, check out how many handspans your forearm length is. The Egyptians came up with these units to be more accurate in measuring different lengths.
However, using these units of measurement had a disadvantage. Not everyone had the same forearm length. Discrepancies arose when the people started comparing their measurements to one another because measurements of the same thing differed, depending on who was measuring it. Because of this, these units of measurement are called nonstandard units of measurement which later on evolved into what is now the inch, foot and yard, basic units of length in the English system of measurement.
III. Exercise:
1. Can you name other body measurements which could have been used as a nonstandard unit of measurement? Do some research on other nonstandard units of measurement used by people other than the Egyptians.
2. Can you relate an experience in your community where a nonstandard unit of measurement was used?
B.
I. Activity
Determine the dimension of the following using the specified English units only. Record your results in the table below. Choose a classmate and compare your results.

Sheet of Intermediate Paper

Teacher’s Table

Classroom

Length

Width

Length

Width

Length

Width

Arm part used*







Measurement







Comparison to:
(classmate’s name)







For the unit used, choose which of the following SHOULD be used: inch or foot.
Answer the following questions:
1. What was your reason for choosing which unit to use? Why?
2. Did you experience any difficulty when you were doing the actual measuring?
3. Were there differences in your data and your classmate’s data? Were the
differences as big as the differences when you used nonstandard units of
measurement? What do you think caused those differences?
II. Questions to Ponder (PostActivity Discussion)
Let us answer the questions in the activity above:
1. What was your reason for choosing which unit to use? Why?

For the sheet of paper, the appropriate unit to use is inches since its length and width might be shorter than a foot.

For the table and the classroom, a combination of both inches and feet may be used for accuracy and convenience of not having to deal with a large number.
2. What difficulty, if any, did you experience when you were doing the actual
measuring?
3. Were there differences in your data and your classmate’s data? Were the
differences as big as the differences when you used nonstandard units of
measurement? What do you think caused those differences?

If you and your partner used the steel tape correctly, both your data should have little or no difference at all. The difference should not be as big or as significant as the difference when nonstandard units of measurement were used. The slight difference might be caused by how accurately you tried to measure each dimension or by how you read the ticks on the steel tape. In doing actual measurement, a margin of error should be considered.
History of Measurement (Continued)
As mentioned in the first activity, the inch, foot and yard are said to be based on the cubit. They are the basic units of length of the English System of Measurement, which also includes units for mass, volume, time, temperature and angle. Since the inch and foot are both units of length, each can be converted into the other. Here are the conversion factors, as you may recall from previous lessons:
1 foot = 12 inches
1 yard = 3 feet
For long distances, the mile is used:
1 mile = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet
Converting from one unit to another might be tricky at first, so an organized way of doing it would be a good starting point. As the identity property of multiplication states, the product of any value and 1 is the value itself. Consequently, dividing a value by the same value would be equal to one. Thus, dividing a unit by its equivalent in another unit is equal to 1. For example:
1 foot / 12 inches = 1
3 feet / 1 yard = 1
These conversion factors may be used to convert from one unit to another. Just remember that you’re converting from one unit to another so cancelling same units would guide you in how to use your conversion factors. For example:
1. Convert 36 inches into feet:
2. Convert 2 miles into inches:
Again, since the given measurement was multiplied by conversion factors which are equal to 1, only the unit was converted but the given length was not changed.
Try it yourself.
III. Exercise:
Convert the following lengths into the desired unit:
1. Convert 30 inches to feet
2. Convert 130 yards to inches
3. Sarah is running in a 42mile marathon. How many more feet does Sarah need
to run if she has already covered 64,240 yards?
C.
I. Activity:
Answer the following questions:
1. When a Filipina girl is described as 1.7 meters tall, would she be considered tall or short? How about if the Filipina girl is described as 5 ft, 7 inches tall, would she be considered tall or short?
2. Which particular unit of height were you more familiar with? Why?
II. Questions to Ponder (PostActivity Discussion)
Let us answer the questions in the activity above:
1. When a Filipina girl is described as 1.7 meters tall, would she be considered tall or short? How about if the Filipina girl is described as 5 ft, 7 inches tall, would she be considered tall or short?

Chances are, you would find it difficult to answer the first question. As for the second question, a Filipina girl with a height of 5 feet, 7 inches would be considered tall by Filipino standards.
2. Which particular unit of height were you more familiar with? Why?

Again, chances are you would be more familiar with feet and inches since feet and inches are still being widely used in measuring and describing height here in the Philippines.
History of Measurement (Continued)
The English System of Measurement was widely used until the 1800s and the 1900s when the Metric System of Measurement started to gain ground and became the most used system of measurement worldwide. First described by Belgian Mathematician Simon Stevin in his booklet, De Thiende (The Art of Tenths) and proposed by English philosopher, John Wilkins, the Metric System of Measurement was first adopted by France in 1799. In 1875, the General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence générale des poids et mesures or CGPM) was tasked to define the different measurements. By 1960, CGPM released the International System of Units (SI) which is now being used by majority of the countries with the biggest exception being the United States of America. Since our country used to be a colony of the United States, the Filipino people were schooled in the use of the English instead of the Metric System of Measurement. Thus, the older generation of Filipinos is more comfortable with English System rather than the Metric System although the Philippines have already adopted the Metric System as its official system of measurement.
The Metric System of Measurement is easier to use than the English System of Measurement since its conversion factors would consistently be in the decimal system, unlike the English System of Measurement where units of lengths have different conversion factors. Check out the units used in your steep tape measure, most likely they are inches and centimeters. The base unit for length is the meter and units longer or shorter than the meter would be achieved by adding prefixes to the base unit. These prefixes may also be used for the base units for mass, volume, time and other measurements. Here are the common prefixes used in the Metric System:
Prefix

Symbol

Factor

tera

T

x 1,000,000,000,000

giga

G

x 1,000,000,000

mega

M

x 1,000,000

kilo

k

x 1,000

hecto

h

x 100

deka

da

x 10

deci

d

x 1/10

centi

c

x 1/100

milli

m

x 1/1,000

micro

µ

x 1/1,000,000

nano

n

x 1/1,000,000,000

For example:
1 kilometer = 1000 meters
1 millimeter = 1/1000 meter or 1000 millimeters = 1 meter
These conversion factors may be used to convert from big to small units or vice versa. For example:
1. Convert 3 km to m:
2. Convert 10 mm to m:
As you can see in the examples above, any length or distance may be measured using the appropriate English or Metric units. In the question about the Filipina girl whose height was expressed in meters, her height can be converted to the more familiar feet and inches. So, in the Philippines where the official system of measurements is the Metric System yet the English System continues to be used, or as long as we have relatives and friends residing in the United States, knowing how to convert from the English System to the Metric System (or vice versa) would be useful. The following are common conversion factors for length:
1 inch = 2.54 cm
3.3 feet ≈ 1 meter
For example:
Convert 20 inches to cm:
III. Exercise:
1. Using the tape measure, determine the length of each of the following in cm.
Convert these lengths to meters.

Palm

Handspan

Forearm Length

Centimeters




Meters




2. Using the data in the table above, estimate the lengths of the following without
using the steel tape measure or ruler:

Ballpen

Length of Window Pane

Length of your Foot from the Tip of your Heel to the Tip of your Toes

Height of the Chalkboard

Length of the Chalkboard

Nonstandard Unit






Metric Unit






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