A preliminary World-wide Key to the Lichen Genus



Yüklə 374,5 Kb.
səhifə2/3
tarix30.08.2017
ölçüsü374,5 Kb.
1   2   3


7b. Lichexanthone and dihydropertusaric acid; Fiji P. cisalbescens Elix & A.W. Archer
8. Lichexanthone and thamnolic acid present; Australia, PNG, Sri Lanka

P. leucosorodes Nyl.

8a. Lichexanthone and confluentic acid present; Australia, Thailand



P..confluentica Jariangprasert

8b. Lichexanthone and stictic acid present; Hawaii P. oahuensis H. Magn.


9(1a). Fatty acids present 10

9a. Depsides or depsidones present 11



9b. Lichen compounds absent; Norfolk Island P. heinarii A.W. Archer & Elix
10. Allopertusaric acid present; Northern Hemisphere P. albescens (Huds.) Choisy & Werner

10a. Lichesterinic acid present; Central Africa P. krogiae A.W. Archer et al.

10b. Isomyelochroic acid present P. ophthalmiza (Nyl.) Nyl.
11(9a).Depsidones present 12

11a. Depsides or picrolichenic acid present or lichen compounds absent 18


12. Norstictic, stictic or fumarprotocetraric acid present 13

12a. Psoromic acid present; Australia & NZ P. psoromica A.W. Archer & Elix


13. Stictic acid present; Australia P. albopunctata A.W. Archer & Elix

13a. Norstictic or fumarprotocetraric acid present 14


14. Fumarprotocetraric acid present; Eur, N.Am; also fertile P. borealis Erichs.

14a. Norstictic acid present 15


15. Australia; soralia white 16

15a. Elswhere 17


16. Soralia 0.5-1 mm diam., well-defined; stictic acid absent. P. erythrella Müll. Arg.

16a. Soralia to 2 mm diam, ill-defined; with additional stictic acid; P." alloerythrella"


17a. India; soralia ochraceous to ochraceous red, 0.5-2 mm diam.

P. colorata Awasthi & Srivastava

17b. West Indies; K+ red; soralia 0.4-2 mm diam. P. torulosa Vain.


18(11a).Lichen compounds absent; Philippines P. amara var. philippinensis Räs.
18a. Depsides or depsone present 19
19. Thamnolic or 2'-O-methylperlatolic or hypothamnolic acid present 20

19a Lecanoric or picrolichenic acids present 21


20. Thamnolic acid present; Japan; Aus. P. violacea Oshio

20a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; Thailand P. uttaraditensis Jariangprasert

20b. Hypothamnolic and cryptothamnolic acids present. P. subviolacea Q. Ren
21. Lecanoric and variolaric acids present P. hemisphaerica (Flörke) Erichs.

21a. Picrolichenic acid present 22


22. Picrolichenic ± protocetraric acids present; ± fertile P. amara (Ach.) Nyl.

22a. ?Picrolichenic acid only present; K-, C-, KC+ reddish; Hawaii P. molokaiensis H. Magn.

22b. Picrolichenic and subpicrolichenic acids present; PNG

P. buloloensis A.W. Archer, Elix & Streimann

Group 5. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 1 per ascus; on rock


1. Norstictic acid present; spores 170-395 µm long; NZ P. otagoana Galloway

1a. Protocetraric acid present; spores ca. 140 µ long; Antarctic; also sterile



P. corallophora Vain.

1b. 5-O-Methylhiasic acid present; spores 130-20 µm P. flavoexpansa Kantvilas & Elix


Group 6. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 1 per ascus; on wood
1. Xanthones present 3

1a. Xanthones absent; protocetraric or fumarprotocetraric acid present 2


2. Protocetraric acid present; thallus not isidiate; spores 220-225 µm long; Indonesia

P. leeuwenii Zahlbr.

2a. Fumarprotocetraric acid present; thallus isidiate; spores 160-280 µm long; Greece



P. graeca Erichs.
3. Thiophaninic acid present 4

3a. Lichexanthone or 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone present 7


4. Thiophaninic acid only present; spores 142-187 µm long; ostioles black, disciform; Canary Is,

P. calderae Hern.-Padr et al.,

4a. Thiophaninic acid and 2'-O-methylperlatolic or confluentic acids present 5


5. Confluentic acid present; spores 150-250 µm long; Greece P. corinthiaca Erichs.

5a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 120-220 mm long 6


6. Spores 180-220 µm long; Eur P. caesioalba (Flot.) Nyl.

6a. Spores 120-150µm long; ± planaic acid; Turkey P. paramerae A.Crespo & Vĕzda

7. Lichexanthone present; spores 170-225 µm long; S.Am. [also 2/ascus]

P. tetrathalamia var major Müll. Arg.

7a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present; spores rarely 1 per ascus, 262 x 45 µm,

usually 4 per ascus (q.v.); West Indies P. ascidioides Vain.

Group 7. Apothecia present, disciform; ascospores 1 per ascus; on rock or plant debris


1. Thallus isidiate 2

1a Thallus not isidiate 8


2. Fatty acids or 5-O-methylhiascic acid present; fumarprotocetraric acid absent 3

2a. Fumarprotocetraric acid present 5


3. Fatty acids present 4

3a. 5-O-Methylhiascic acid present; spores 150-200 µm long; on soil or rock; Tas

[pseudodisciform; see Group 5] P. flavoexpansa Kantvilas & Elix
4. On rock; spores 200 µm long; Ireland P. polythecia (Taylor) Erichs.

4a. On rock; spores 122-183 µm long; Eurasian P. ocellata Wallr. ex Körb

4b. On plant débris; spores 80-165 µm long; N. hemisphere P. panyrga (Ach.) Massal

On moss; spores 80-165 µm long; Ireland P. hutchinsiae (Borrer) Leight.


5. Isidia well-defined 6

5a Isidia becoming sorediate; spores 180-200 µm long; France P. mammosa Harm.


6. Apothecia terminal in isidia; spores 100-270 µm long; circumpolar P. dactylina (Ach.) Nyl.

6a. Apothecia not terminal in isidia 7


7. Isidia short, blunt, crowded; ?spores; Eur P. stalactiza Nyl.

7a. Isidia tall, scattered; spores 115-140 µm long; N.Am P. andersonii Lendemer


8(1a). Lichexanthone present 9

8a. Lichexanthone absent 14


9. Picrolichenic acid present 10

9a Picrolichenic acid absent 11


10. Lichexanthone and picrolichenic acid present; spores 125-180 µm long; N.Am, S.Am

P. ventosa Malme

10a. Lichexanthone, picrolichenic and thamnolic acids present; spores 120-160 µm long;

Aus., S.Am P. subventosa Malme
11. Hypothamnolic acid present; spores 110-160 µm long; S.Am

P. hossei (Räs.) A.W. Archer & Osorio

11a. Hypothamnolic acid absent 12


12. Lecanoric acid present; spores 170-220 µm long; Juan Fernandez P. skottsbergii Zahlbr.

[also on wood]

12a. Lecanoric acid absent 13
13. Haemathamnolic acid present; spores not reported; Brazil P. xantholeucoides Müll.Arg.

13a. Squamatic acid present; spores 100-130 µm long; Socotra P. xantholeuca Müll. Arg.


14(8a).Lichen compounds absent; spores 90-140 µm long; Lapland P. tornensis H.Magn.

14a. Lichen compounds present 15


15. Spores 150-180 µm; K-ve, C-ve [2 unidentified compounds, hplc] Mexico

P. velata f. liebmannii Vain.

15a. Other compounds present 16


16. Norstictic acid present 17

16a. Norstictic acid absent 19


17. Norstictic acid only present; spores 100-300 µm long; Eur P. monogona Nyl.

17a. Norstictic and picrolichenic acids present 18


18. Spores 150-160 µm long [usually 2 per ascus]; disc dull fawn to brown; S.Am.

P. alterimosa Darb.

18a. Spores 100-150 µm long; disc black, white pruinose; Eur. P. ludovicae Werner


19(16a).Picrolichenic and protocetraric acids present; spores 180-250 µm long; [rarely on wood]

P. melanochlora (DC) Nyl.

19b. Picrolichenic acid absent 20


20. Thamnolic, cryptothamnolic or hypothamnolic acids present 21

20a. Lecanoric, protocetraric or gyrophoric acids present 23


21. Thamnolic acid present 22

21a. Cryptothamnolic and hypothamnolic acids present; spores 153-204 µm long; China;

[also on wood] P. leptospora Nitschke ex Lahm
22. Spores 95-175 µm long; S.Afr. P. wawreana A.Massal.

22a. Spores "ca.200 µm long" [fide Müll. Arg.]; Eur. P. clementiana Müll. Arg.


23. Lecanoric or gyrophoric acid present 24

23a. Protocetraric acid present; spores 145-185 µm long; S.Am & NZ P. macloviana Müll. Arg.

spores 135-240 µm long; Arctic Russia P. cribellata Branth(1887)

Spores 160-180 µm; China P. setschwanica Zahlbr.

23b. Spores 195-280 µm long; Tasmania P. parathalassica Kantvilas & Elix
24. Lecanoric acid present 25

24a. Gyrophoric acid present 26


25. Lecanoric acid only present; spores 100-200(-275) µm long; NZ P. obvelata Nyl.

Spores 200-270 µm long; France P. conglobata (Ach.) Fr.

25a. Lecanoric and variolaric acids present; spores 180-240 µm long; Eur P. lactea (L.) Arn.
26. Spores 135-150 µm long; S.Am P. microcarpa Nyl.

26a. Spores 150-230 µm long; circumarctic P. bryontha (Ach.) Nyl.

Group 8. Apothecia present, disciform; ascospores 1 per ascus; on wood
1. Xanthones present 2

1a. Xanthones absent 11


2. Chloroxanthones present 3

2a. Lichexanthone present 4


3. 5,7-Dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone present; spores 125-165 µm long; NZ

P. glaucomopsis Nyl.

3a. 2-Chlorolichexanthone and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 100-130 µm long; NZ



P. circumcincta Stirt.
4. Lichexanthone and picrolichenic acid present 5

4a. Lichexanthone and depsides present 6

4b. Lichexanthone only present; spores 100-150 µm long; PNG P. asterella Aptroot
5. Spores 160-195 µm long; picrolichenic acid present; PNG

P. myola A.W. Archer & Elix

5a. Spores 135-175 µm long; picrolichenic acid and homologues present; Aus.



P. clarkeana A.W. Archer
6. Lecanoric acid present; spores 110-175 µm long [120-315 µm (Dibben)]; cosmopolitan

P. velata (Turner) Nyl.

6a. Baeomycesic, thamnolic, hypothamnolic or haemathamnolic acid present 7


7. Thallus K+ violet, Pd-ve; hypothamnolic acid present; spores 115-150 µm long; Africa P. tropica Vain.

Spores 153-204 µm; China; [Pd+yellow!]; also on rock P. leptospora Nitschke ex Lahm


7a. Thallus K+ yellow, Pd+ yellow 8
8. Baeomycesic acid present; spores 68-198 µm long; N.Am P. floridana Dibben

Baeomycesic and hypothamnolic acids present; spores 120-150 µm long; Brazil

P. elizabethae A.W. Archer & Elix

8a. Thamnolic or haemathamnolic acid present 9


9. Haemathamnolic acid present 10

9a. Thamnolic acid present; spores 100-130 µm long; Australia P. miscella A.W. Archer


10. Spores 100-150 µm long; circumtropical P. commutata Müll. Arg.

10a. Spores150-170 µm long; S.Am. P. superans Müll. Arg.


11(1a). Fatty acids present; spores 100-200 µm long; N Eur & N.Am

P. panyrga (Ach.) Massal.

11a. Depsides, depsidones or picrolichenic acid present 12


12. Depsidones present 13

12a. Depsides or picrolichenic acid present 18


13. Norstictic acid present 14

13a. Physodalic acid present; spores 90-170 µm long [-242 µm, China]; Eur.;



P. multipuncta (Turner) Nyl.

13b. Fumarprotocetraric acid present; spores 110-160 µm long; N.Am, Eur



P. multipunctoides Dibben

13c. Protocetraric acid and thamnolic acids present; spores 125-180 µm long; China



P. huangshanensis S.Yu & J.Wu ex Q. Ren
14. Norstictic and salazinic acids present; spores 120-150 µm long; S.Afr. P. casta Zahlbr.

14a. Norstictic acid present; salazinic acid absent 15


15. Spores 200-300 µm long; thallus sorediate; Eur. P. monogoniza Nyl.

15a. Spores <200 µm long 16


16. Spores 150-175 µm long; disc white pruinose; apothecia pustulate; Aus, PNG

P. sublacerans A.W. Archer

16a. Spores < 160 µm long 17


17. Discs black, epruinose; spores 100-160 µm long; Japan; China P. submultipuncta Nyl.

17a. Discs black or pink, pruinose; spores 70-150 µm long; Eur & N.Am. P. waghornei Hult.

Discs black; spores 30-80 µm long; Finland P. atropallida Vain.
18(12a). Lecanoric or picrolichenic acid present 19

18a. Thamnolic, haemathamolic, hypothamnolic or squamatic acids present 24


19. Lecanoric acid present; spores 125-160 µm long; S.Afr. P. subvelatula Vain.

Spores 300-325 µm; C+ red; Hawaii P. contraria H.Magn.

Spores 134-236 µm; C+ rose; Hawaii P. hawaiiensis Erichs.


19a. Picrolichenic ± protocetraric acid present or spores >150 µm long 20
20. Spores 130-150µm long; ± protocetraric acid; also saxicolous and/or sterile

P. amara (Ach.) Nyl.

20a. Spores >150 µm long 21


21. Atranorin present 22

21a. Atranorin absent 23


22. Spores 150-170 µm long; Aus; apothecia dish-shaped. P. patellifera A.W. Archer

22a. Spores 137-180 µm long; S.Am; apothecia hemispherical. P. grassiae Messuti & A.W. Archer


23. Epithecia yellow; spores 150-200 µm; NZ P. flavovelata Elix & Malcolm

23a. Epithecia not yellow; spores 170-225 µm; Australia, PNG, Brazil, Fiji, Sri Lanka



P. lacerans Müll. Arg.
24(18a). Squamatic acid present; spores 112-140 µm long; Indonesia P. gedehana Zahlbr.

24a. Thamnolic, haemathamolic or hypothamnolic present 25


25. Thallus Pd-ve, K+ violet; hypothamnolic acid present; spores 140-170 µm long

Australia, NZ P. novaezelandiae Szatala

25a. Thallus Pd+ yellow, K+ yellow 26
26. Haemathamnolic acid present 27

26a. Thamnolic acid present 29


27. Spores 105-150 µm long; S.Am; Japan P. aggregata Müll. Arg.

27a. Spores140-200 µm long 28


28. Disc pallid; spores 140-200 µm long; S.Am. P. variolosa (Kremp.) Vain.
28a. Disc black; spores 162-190 µm long; S,Am. P. ornatula Müll. Arg
29. Spores usually < 150 µm long 30

29a. Spores usually >150 µm long 31


30. Spores 112-132 µm long; disc black, pruinose; PNG P. yupna A.W. Archer & Elix

30a. Spores 100-150 µm long, soredia yellow; Lappland P. efflorescens Vain.

30b. Spores 100-140 µm long; soredia white; Japan P. variolina Nyl.
31. Disc orange, pruinose; spores 150-185 µm long; NZ

P scutellifera A.W. Archer & Elix

31a. Disc black, epruinose; spores 140-230 µm long; Japan P. nigrodisca Oshio

Group 9. Apothecia present, disciform; ascospores 2 per ascus; on wood
1. Xanthones present 2

1a. Xanthones absent 4


2. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and perlatolic acid derivs. present; N.Am. P. sulcata Dibben

2a. Thiophaninic acid present 3


3. Thiophaninic acid only present; spores 125-182 µm long; Canary Islands

P. aceroae C.Hdez.-Padr. et al.

3a. Thiophaninic and norstictic acids present; spores 90-155 µm long; N.Am. P. lecanina Tuck.


4. Lichen compounds absent 5

4a. Lichen compounds present 6


5. Spores 70-115 µm long; N. hemisphere, ?boreal P. stenhamerii Helb.

5a. Spores 75-90 µm long; S.Am. P. kalbii A.W. Archer & Messuti

5b. Spores 80-110 µm long; epithecia K+violet; N.Am P. rhexostoma Nyl. ex Hue
6. Depsidones [protocetraric, norstictic or salazinic acids] present 7

6a. Depsides [2-O-methylconfluentic, gyrophoric, lecanoric, planaic, thamnolic acids] present

11
7. Protocetraric acid present; spores 70-156 µm long; Japan, China P. composita Zahlbr.

7a. Norstictic acid present 8

7b. Salazinic acid present [trace]; spores 50-55 µm long; China P. bambusetorum Zahlbr.
8. Spores to 120-300 µm long; disc black; Eur. P. rhodiensis Erichs.

8a. Spores shorter 9


9. Spores 110-145 µm long 10

9a. Spores 80-100 µm long; Aus P. amnicola Elix & A.W. Archer


10. Spores 120-145 µm long; discs 0.8-1.3 mm diam.; Aus. Thailand

P. asiana Vain.

10a. Spores 110-135 µm long; discs 0.5-0.75 mm diam.; S.Am. P. purpurascens Müll. Arg.


11(6a). Thallus K-, KC+ red, C+red 12

11a. Thallus K-, KC-, C- 13

11b. Thallus K+ yellow, thamnolic acid present; spores 100-140 µm long; Japan

P. subcomposita Oshio
12. Lecanoric acid?[KC++ red]; spores 105-125 µm long; Philippines P. philippina Vain.

12a. Gyrophoric acid present; spores 130-162 µm long; NZ P. murrayi Elix & A.W. Archer


13. Planaic acid present; spores 100-180 µm long; China

P. paraquilianensis Q. Ren & Z.T. Zhao

13a. 2-O-Methylconfluentic acid present; spores 50-140 µm long; Arctic alpine



P. saximontana Wetmore

Group 10 Apothecia, present disciform; ascospores 2 per ascus; on rock


1. Thiophaninic and stictic acids present 2

1a. Thiophaninic acid absent; depsidones or depsides present 3


2. Spores 100-180 µm long, 'transvesely striate"; Eur. P. pluripuncta Nyl.

Spores rough walled, 100-180 µm long; France P. gallica de Lesd

Spores 60-80 µm long; on moss; N.Am P. flavicunda Tuck.

2a. Spores 48-60 µm long; on moss; N.Am Arctic P. atra Lynge
3. Depsidones [norstictic, protocetraric or salazinic acids] present 4

3a. Depsides [lecanoric, 2-O-methylperlatolic or thamnolic acids] present 14


4. Protocetraric acid present; spores 100-126 µm long; disc white pruinose; thallus esorediate;

Eur. P. pseudoparotica Sipman

Spores 100-150 µm long; thallus sorediate; Eur P. digrediens Nyl.

4a. Norstictic or salazinic acid present 5


5. Salazinic acid present; spores 120-150 µm long; Greece P. parotica Sipman

5a. Norstictic acid present 6


6. Norstictic acid only present 7

6a. Norstictic and protocetraric or picrolichenic acids present 10


7. Spores ≥110µm long 8

7a. Spores ≤110 µm long 9


8. Spores 120-175 µm long; S.Am. P. albidopallens Nyl.

8a. Spores 110-115 µm long; S.Am. P. scutellina Nyl

8b. Spores 110-160 µm long; Eur. P. pentelici J. Steiner
9. Spores 80-100 µm long, becoming grey brown; Eur P. lactescens Mudd

9a. Spores 88-92 µm long; S.Am P. lecanorina Nyl.

9b. Spores 75-110 µm long; N.Am P. brattiae Lumbsch & T.H. Nash
10(6a).Norstictic and protocetraric acids present; spores 80-150 µm long; N. Afr

P. fdoulesiana Harm.

10a. Norstictic and picrolichenic acids present 11


11. Spores ca. < 80 µm long 12

11a. Spores .> 80 µm long 13


12. Spores 67-70 µm long; S.Afr. P. wawreanoides Nyl.

12a. Spores 46-56 µm long; S.Afr., S.Am P. subdealbata Nyl.

12b. Spores 70-85 µm long [110-115 µm long, H-NYL 23820]; S.Afr. P. leonina Stizenb.
13. Spores 84-125(-150) µm long; S.Am. P. alterimosa Darbishire

13a. Spores 80-150 µm long; N.Afr. P. fdoulesiana Harm.

13b. Spores 162-250 µm long; S.Am. P. rugifera Müll. Arg.
14(3a) Thamnolic acid present; spores 80-110 µm long; N.Am, China, Eur. P. trachythallina Erichs.
14a. Lecanoric acid or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 15
15. Lecanoric acid present[?]C+red; spores 140-160 µm long; Asia P. haematommoides Zahlbr.

15a. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; on soil, moss; spores 50-160 µm long; Arctic alpine



P saximontana Wetmore

Group 11. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 2 per ascus, smooth; on rock


1. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, thuringione [2,4,5-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone] or

thiophaninic acid present 2

1a. Chlorinated xanthones absent 6
2. Thuringione present; spores 110-150 µm long; Japan P. astomoides Nyl.

2a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic or norstictic acids present 3


2b. Thiophaninic and norstictic acids present; spores 175–250 x 70–100 µm; SW Afr.

P. salax Brusse
3. Norstictic acid present; spores 97-105 µm long; ostioles black, conspicuous; West Indies

P. praetervisa var. expallens Vain

3a. Stictic acid present 4


4. Thallus isidiate; spores 170-230 µm long; Eur P. areolata (Ach.) A. Massal.

4a. Thallus not isidiate 5


5. Spores 140-175 µm long; ostioles black; Aus, PNG P. vulpina A.W. Archer

5a. Spores 95-115 µm long; ostioles black; PNG P. atrospilota A.W. Archer & Elix

Spores 82-112 µm long; ostioles translucent; West Indies P. praetervisa var. pileolata Vain.

Spores 92-102 µm long; ostioles black, punctiform; West Indies



P. praetervisa var. straminea Vain.

Spores 100-170 µm long; Russia P. globulata Oxner & A.M. Volkova



Spores 155-230 µm long; ostioles black; Eur, Japan; also on wood P. pertusa (L) Tuck.

Spores 170-215 µm; medulla I+blue; Corsica P. subrupestris Zschacke


6(1a). K+ red and C- or K+ red and C+ red 7

6a. K-; 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present 8


7. K+ red, C-ve; norstictic acid present 9

7a. K+ red, C+ red; alectorialic acid present; spores 22-40 µm; Arctic alpine



P. geminipara (Th.Fr.) C.Knight ex Brodo
8. Spores 130-150 µm long; thallus isidiate; Antarctic P. signyae Øvstedal

8a. Spores 100-150 µm long; thallus non-isidiate; alectorialic, confluentic and planaic acids

present; India P. indica Srivasrava & Awasthi

?syn:P. kodaikanalensis Choisy


9(7). Norstictic acid only present 10

9a. Norstictic and protocetraric acids present; spores 80-150 µ long; N.Afr. P. fdoulesiana Harm.


10. Spores 100-140 µm long; S.Am. P. tesselaria Müll. Arg.

10a. Spores 70-100 µm; Japan P. pachyplaca Nyl.

Spores 110-150 µm; Japan P. rhagadoplaca Nyl.

10b. Spores 120-250 µm long; 11


11. Spores 145-270 µm long; thallus shiny; US. P. californica Dibben

11a. Spores 150-250µm long; thallus nonshiny; Eur. P. apennina Bagl.

Spores 125-200 µm long; isidiate; Eur. P. pseudocorallina (Lilj.) Arnold

11b. Spores 140-200 µm long; Hawaii P. zahlbruckneri H. Magn.

Spores 150-210 µm; India, with atranorin Pertusaria sp. Singh & Sinha

Spores120-200 µm long [85-245 µm, Dibben]; on moss; N.Am, Arctic



P. coriacea (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr.

Group 12. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 2 per ascus, rough; on rock


1. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 2

1a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone absent 4


2. Divaricatic acid present; spores 120-192 µm long P. flindersiana Kantvilas & Elix

2a. Norstictic or stictic acids present 3


3. Norstictic acid present; spores spores 140-200 µm long; Aus, NZ P. knightiana Müll. Arg.

3a. Stictic acid present; spores spores 150-180 µm long; Indonesia



P. tjibodana Zahlbr.
4. Norstictic acid present 5

4a. Norstictic acid absent; perlatolic and stenosporic acids present; spores 175-210 µm long; NZ

cf. corticolous P. sorodes Stirt. P. allanii Zahlbr.
5. Norstictic acid only present 6

5a. Norstictic and stenosporic acids present; spores 153-223 µm long; N.Am; China



P. plittiana Erichs.
6. Spores 190-245(-280) µm long; NZ P. subverrucosa Nyl.

6a. Spores 150-250 µm long; epithecium K+ violet; Eur. P. appenina Bagl. ex Massal.

Group 13. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 2 per ascus, smooth; on wood
1. Xanthones present 2

1a. Xanthones absent 30


2. Lichexanthone or derivatives present 3

2a. Norlichexanthone derivatives or thiophaninic acid derivatives present 6


3. Lichexanthone and depsidones ±depsides present 4

3a. Lichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 80-95 µm long; Aus

P 971 Pertusaria sp.

3a. Chlorinated lichexanthones present 20


4. Thallus isidiate 5

4a. Thallus not isidiate; with stictic acid; spores 73-106 µm long; ostioles black; China



P. chinensis Müll. Arg.
5. Spores 100-112 µm long, 2'-O-methylperlatolic and stictic acids present; Aus.

P. isidiosa A.W. Archer

5a. Spores 110-190 µm long; stictic acid present; Thailand P. allomicrostoma Jariangprasert


6. Norlichexanthone derivatives [thiophanic acid, arthothelin, 6-O-methylarthothelin or

4,5,7-trichloronorlichexanthone] present 7

6a. Thiophaninic acid and/or2-chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present 8
7. Thiophanic acid, 6-O-methylarthothelin and stictic acid present; spores 90-100 µm long; LHI

P. malabara A.W. Archer & Elix

7a. Thiophanic acid, arthothelin and 4,5,7-trichloronorlichexanthone present

spores 105-117 µm long; Aus. P. saltuensis A.W. Archer & Elix
8. Thiophaninic acid present 9

8a. 2-Chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present 19


9. Thiophaninic acid only present 10

9a. Thiophaninic acid and depsidones present 11

9b. Thiophaninic acid and 2'-O-methylperlatolic present; spores 87-110 µm long; S.Am.

P. cinerella Müll. Arg.
10. Spores 87-102 µm long; ostioles black, conspicuous; NZ P. alboatra Zahlbr.

Spores 85 µm [Müll. Arg.]; ostioles black, punctiform P. carneola (Eschw.) Müll. Arg.

Spores 75-95 µm; ostioles pale; Aus. P. thiophaninica A.W. Archer

10a. Spores 100-180 µm; N.Afr, Canary Is.. P. tazzekensis Werner

Spores 125-182 µm; Canary Is. P. aceroae Hern.-Padr.e al.
11. Thiophaninic and norstictic acids present 12

11a. Thiophaninic and stictic acids present 14


12. Thiophaninic and norstictic acids ±depsides present; spores 70-110 µm; Aus.

[also 3-4 per ascus] P. trimera (Müll. Arg.) A.W. Archer

12a. Thiophaninic and norstictic acids present 13
13. Spores 70-95 µm long; Spain P. luteola Boqueras

13a. Spores 86-118 µm long; N.Am P. neolecanina Lumbsch & Nash


14. Spores 80-105 µm long; Aus P. thiospoda C. Knight

14a. Spores otherwise 15


15. Spores >100 µm long 16

15a. Spores 70-110 µm long; Japan P. subrugosa Nyl.


16. Spores 140-145 µm long; Eur, Macaronesia P. ficorum Zahlbr.

Spores 100-145 µm long; Socotra "P. cicatricosa Müll.Arg."

Spores 145-187 µm long; Socotra P. schizostoma Müll. Arg.

16a. Spores <100 µm or hypostictic acid present 17


17. Spores 75-82 µm long; S.Am. P. montevidensis Zahlbr.

17a. Thiophaninic and stictic acids with additional hypostictic acid present 18


18. Spores 87-125 µm long; S.Afr. P. dispersa Vain.

18a. Spores 60-90 µm long; West Indies P. antillarum Vain.

18c. Spores 125-150 µm long; Aus. P. epacrospora A.W. Archer
19(8a) 2-Chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present;

spores 80-100 µm; S.Am. P. cinerella var. pampeana A.W. Archer & Messuti

19a. 2-Chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone and stictic acid present; spores 87-100 µm long;

widely distributed P. pustulata (Ach.) Duby


20(3a) 2,4- & 2,5-dichlorolichexanthones & 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present 21

20a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 23


21. Polychlorolichexanthones only present; spores 110-130 µm; Aus.

P. xanthonaria A.W. Archer & Elix

21a. 2’-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 75-160 µm; Japan P. denotanda Nyl.

21b. Stictic acid present 22


22. Soredia absent:

Spores 100-150 µm; pantropical? P. pertusella Müll. Arg.



Spores 90-110 µm; Cook Islands P. homilocarpa A.W. Acher & Elix

Soredia present; spores 140-168 µm; Thailand P. pertusella var. sorediata Jariang.

22a. 2-Chlorolichexanthone, 4,5- & 2,5- dichlorolichexanthones, 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone,

stictic and 2-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 80-120 µm long; PNG

P. damiensis A.W. Archer & Elix
23. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone only present; spores 120-155 µm long; Aus.

P. irregularis Müll. Arg.

23a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, norstictic acid, stictic acid ± depsides, or depsides present

24
24. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and norstictic acid present; spores 86-122 µm long; Thailand

P. neoknightiana Jariangprasert

[cf. saxicolous P. praetervisa var. expallescens Vain. West Indies]

With additional 2-O-methylstenosporic and 2-O-methylperlatolic acids;

spores 130-150 µm long; 53470 (M) P. "chiodectonoides"

24a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid ± depsides or depsides present 25
25. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides present 26

25a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid ± depsides present 27


26. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone:

with 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid

Spores 110-135 µm long; Aus, PNG, New Cal., China P. pycnothelia Nyl.

26a. Spores 105-135 µm long; ostioles translucent; Aus. P. meeana A.W. Archer & Elix

Spores 105-137 µm long; ostioles black; Thailand P. parameeana Jariangprasert

26b. Spores 65-95 µm long; Israel; P. carmelii Reichert & Galun

with 2'-O-methylstenosporic acid

26c. Spores 100-110 µm long; Qld. P. stenospora A.W. Archer & Elix

27. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present;

spores 137-160 µm long; Aus; WHE 8708 (CANB) Pertusaria sp.

Spores 65-80 µm long; Philippines P. striolata Räsänen

27a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present 28
28(27a). Spores 145-230 µm; Eur. ?widespread; also on rock P. pertusa (Weigel) Tuck.

28a. Spores shorter 29


29. Ostioles black; spores 82-112 µm long; Aus, PNG, Sri Lanka P. pseudococcodes Müll. Arg.

29a. Ostioles black; spores 120-180 µm long; N.Am. P. consocians Dibben



29b. Ostioles pale; spores120-150 µm long; Qld. P. quadraginta A.W. Archer & Elix
30(1a) Lichen compounds absent 31

30a. Lichen compounds present 34


31. Spores <100 µm long 32

31a. Spores >100µm long 33


32. Spores 64-100 µm long; S.Am. P. albidella Nyl.

32a. Spores 50-60 µm long; S.Am. P. cryptocarpoides Vain.


33. Spores 110-125 µm long; Aus, NZ P. melaleucoides Müll. Arg.

33a. Spores 60-120 µm long; circumboreal P. stenhammerii Hellb.

33b. Spores 210-250 µm long; NZ P. hadrospora A.W. Archer & Elix
34. Depsides and/or depside methyl esters present 35

34a. Depsidones [fumarprotocetraric, norstictic, protocetraric, stictic acids] present 38

34b. Norstictic and divaricatic acids present; spores 75-100 µm long; China

P. subrosacea Zahlbr.

35. Methyl 2'-O-methylstenosporate present; spores 140-174 µm; Thailand



P. archeri Jariangprasert

35a. Divaricatic acid and methyl 2,2'-di-O-methyldivaricatate present; spores 90-105 µm long;

Taiwan

P. platycarpiza Zahlbr.

35b. Depsides present; depside methyl esters absent 36


36. Planaic acid present; spores 90-130 µm long; China P. paraquilianensis Q.Ren & Z.T. Zhao

36a. Stenosporic acid derivatives or 2'-O-methylhyperphyllinic acid present 37


37. 2'-O-Methylstenosporic, 2'-O-methyldivaricatic and 2,2'-di-O-methyldivaricatic acids present;

spores 165-215 µm long; N.Am P. velloziae (Vain.) Erichs.

37a. 2'-O-Methylhyperphyllinic acid present; spores 100-135 µm long; Japan P. yasudae Vain.
38(34a).Protocetraric or fumarprotocetraric acid present; 39

38a Norstictic or stictic acid present 40


39. Protocetraric acid present; spores 100-120 µm long; Aus.

P. aphelospora (A.W. Archer) A.W. Archer & Elix

spores 40-70 µm long [fide Nyl.]; Japan P. diffidens Nyl.

39a. Fumarprotocetraric acid present; spores 105-120 µm long; Japan P. subpustulata Nyl.
40. Stictic acid present 41

40a. Norstictic acid present 42


41. Spores 80-120 µm long; ostioles translucent; Aus, Mexico P. porinella Nyl.

41a. Stictic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 100-170 µm long; Thailand



P. subcopelandii Jariangprasert
42. Norstictic acid only present 43

42a. Norstictic acid and depsides present 44


43. Spores 200-360 µm long; Asia P. oshioi Wei

43a. Spores 110-140 µm long; K+ red (fide Vainio 1900) S.Am P. pycnothelioides Vain.

43b. Spores 70-157µm long; India; [+atranorin] P. hirtella Singh & Sinha

43c. Spores 130-145 µm long; Japan P. mendax Müll. Arg.

43d Spores 110-195 µm long; thallus sorediate; Eur P. servitiana Erichs.
44. Norstictic and 2-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 110-137 µm long; India

P. wattiana Müll. Arg.

44a. Norstictic and divaricatic acids present; spores 75-100 µm long; China



P. subrosacea Zahlbr.

44b. Norstictic and perlatolic acids present 45


45. Spores 120-170 µm long; Aus P. hartmannii Müll. Arg.

45a. Spores 120-125 µm long; Japan, China; rarely ± perlatolic acid

cf. P. mendax, supra P. subobductans Nyl.

Group 14. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 2 per ascus, rough; on wood


1. Xanthones present 2

1a. Xanthones absent 11


2. Norlichexanthone derivatives present 3

2a. Lichexanthone and derivatives present 5


3. Arthothelin and 6-O-methylarthothelin present; spores 80-110 µm long; Eur.

P. dispar J. Steiner

3a. Thiophaninic and stictic acids present 4


4. Spores 70-150 µm long; N.Am, China P. xanthodes Müll. Arg.

4a. Spores 90-120 µm long; Eur. P. heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Erichs.

4b. Spores 140-165 µm long; Socotra P. subflavens Müll. Arg.
5. Lichexanthone present; spores 170-225 µm long; S.Am. P. tetrathalamia var. major Müll. Arg.

[also 1 per ascus]

5a. Chlorolichexanthones present 6
6. 4-Chlorolichexanthone and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 190-250 µm long; NZ

P."communis" sens. Knight (M)

6a. Polychlorolichexanthones present 7


7. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, perlatolic and stenosporic acids present; spores 160-240 µm long;

NZ; cf. saxicolous P. allani Zahlbr. P. sorodes Stirt.

7a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 95-120 µm long.

Australia P. trachyspora A.W. Archer

7b. Other polychlorolichexanthones present 8
8. 2,4- & 2,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present 9

8a. 2,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone, 2'-O-methylperlatolic and

2-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 140-175 µm long; Aus.

P. elliptica Müll. Arg. var. bispora Elix & A.W. Archer
9. Thallus lacking isidia & soredia; spores 100-150 µm long; ?circumtropical

P. cicatricosa Müll. Arg.

9a. Thallus with isidia or soralia 10


10. Thallus isidiate; spores 116-180 µm long; Thailand P. takensis Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer

10a. Thallus sorediate; spores 126-204 µm long; Thailand



P. langsangensis Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer
11(1a) Depsidones and ±depsides present 12

11a. Depsidones absent; depsides present 20


12. Depsidones [stictic or norstictic acid] and depsides present 13

12a. Depsidones only present 15


13. Stictic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 150-175µm long; PNG

P. bundiensis A.W. Archer & Elix

13a. Norstictic acid present 14


14. Norstictic and divaricatic acids present; spores 120-166 µm long; PNG, Thailand

P. allothwaitesii Jariangpraseret & A.W. Archer

14a. Norstictic ±planaic acids present; spores 100-160 µm long; N.Am P. neoscotia Lamb

14b. Norstictic and 2-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 120-137 µm long, rough; India

P. wattiana Müll. Arg.

14c. Norstictic acid and atranorin present; spores 70-157 µm long; India



P. hirtella Singh & Sinha
15. Fumarprotocetraric, protocetraric or hypoprotocetraric acids present 16

15a. Stictic, norstictic acid or variolaric acids present 18


16. Hypoprotocetraric acid present; spores 125-175 µm long; NZ P. vallicola Elix & Malcolm

16a. Fumarprotocetraric or protocetraric acids present 17


17. Fumarprotocetraric acid present; spores 75-135 µm long; N.Am, China P. subpertusa Brodo

17a. Protocetraric acid present; spores 110-160 µm long; Aus, PNG, Asia P. thwaitesii Müll. Arg.18. Variolaric acid present; spores 100-120 µm long; N.Am P. obruta Harris

18a. Stictic or norstictic acids present 19
19. Stictic acid present; spores 110-125 µm long; PNG

P. cicatricosa Müll. Arg. var. deficiens A..W. Archer & Elix

Stictic and menegazziaic acids present; spores 150-175 µm long; India



P. neilgherrensis (Müll. Arg.) Awasthi & Srivastava

19a. Norstictic acid present; spores 150-200 µm long; PNG P. perthwaitesii A.W. Archer & Elix


20(11a).Methyl 2-O-methyldivaricatate and 2-O-methyldivaricatic acid present;

spores 86-150 µm long; Thailand P. litchicola Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer

20a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 185-250 µm long; PNG

P. subsorodes Elix & A.W. Archer

Group 15. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 4 per ascus, smooth; on rock

or moss
1. Chlorinated xanthones present 2

1a. Chlorinated xanthones absent 9


2. 2-Chlorolichexanthone, stictic and 2-O-methylsuperlatolic acids present;

spores 108-125 µm long; PNG P. aptrootii A.W. Archer & Elix

2a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone or 4-chlorolichexanthone present 3

2b. Thiophaninic and stictic acids present; spores 100-130 µm long; Japan

P. boninensis Shibuchi

2c. Thiophaninic and stictic acids present + an anthraquinone; spores 100-160 µm long; Japan



P. kashiwadanii Shibuchi

3. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 4

3a. 4-Chlorolichexanthone present; spores 100-120 µm long; Antarctic, Marion Is.

[? not published] "P. gremmenii Øvstd."


4. On moss 5

4a. On rock 7


5. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic and 2-O-methylperlatolic acids present;

spores 140-175 µm long; S.Am. P. tapadensis Elix & A.W. Archer

5a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present 6
6. Spores 93-104 µm long; Japan, China P. quartans Nyl.

6a. Spores 42-96 µm long; Arctic P. trochisea Norm.


7(4a) 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone only present; spores 2-4 per ascus, 70-90 µm long; Cape Verde Is

P. aleianta Nyl.

7a. Stictic or norstictic acids present 8


8. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present; spores 80-105 µm long; Aus.

P. trevethensis A.W. Archer

8a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and norstictic acid present; spores 80-90 µm long; S.Am



P. rudecta Müll. Arg.
9(1a). On moss; norstictic acid present; spores 50-180 µm long; circumpolar P. glomerata (Ach.) Schaer.

On moss and rock; [also 2,3 or 5/ascus]; polar P. alaskensis Erichs.

Spores (1-)2(-3); also on wood; N.Am, arctic P. subobducens Nyl.

9a. On rock 10


10. 2-O-Methylperlatolic or confluentic acid present 11

10a. Norstictic or stictic acids present 12


11. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 145-185 µm long; S.Am.

P. spegazzinii Müll. Arg.

11a. Confluentic acid present; spores 108-130 µm long; S.Am



P. malvinae Messuti & A.W. Archer
12. Norstictic acid present 13

12a. Stictic acid and lichexanthone present; spores 70-85 µm long; Central Afr.



P. rhodesica Vain.
13. Spores 55-75 µm long; Mauritius P. hymenelioides J.C. David

13a. Spores 60-90 µm long; NZ P. graphica C. Knight

Group 16. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 4 per ascus, rough; on rock

So far, no taxa are known in this Group.

Group 17. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 4 per ascus, smooth; on wood

1. Xanthones present 2

1a. Xanthones absent 38
2. Lichexanthone or derivatives present 3

2a. Norlichexanthone derivatives present [including thiophaninic acid] 29


3. Lichexanthone present 4

3a. Chlorinated lichexanthone derivatives present 11


4. Lichexanthone only present; spores 80-120 µm long; N.Am, Central Afr. P. valliculata Dibben

4a. Lichexanthone and stictic acid ± depsides or 2-chlorolichexanthone present 5


5. Lichexanthone and 2-chlorolichexanthone present 6

5a. Lichexanthone and stictic acid ± depsides present 7


6. With additional 2-O-methylsuperlatolic and 2-O-methylhyperlatolic acids;

spores 90-115 µm long; Aus, S.Am, Cuba, PNG P. depressa (Fée) Müll. Arg.

6a, With additional stictic acid; spores 85-120 µm long; Aus.

P. atromaculata A.W. Archer & Elix
7. Lichexanthone, constictic and stictic acids present; spores 75-130 µm long; S.Am

P. rhodiza Nyl.

7a. Lichexanthone, stictic acid and depsides present 8


8. Confluentic acid present 9

8a. Stenosporic acid derivatives present 10


9. Spores 2-4/ascus, 80-176 µm long; Thailand P. inthanonensis Jariangprasert

9a. Spores 4-6-8/ascus, 87-110 µm long; S.Am. P. gracilis var. heteromera Müll. Arg.


10. 2'-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 90-110 µm long; Thailand

P. elixii Jariangprasert

10a. 2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores (3-)4/ascus 76-92 µm long; Thailand



P. alboaspera var. tetraspora Jariangprasert
11(3a). 2-Chlorolichexanthone, stictic, 2-O-methylisohyperlatolic and 2-O-methylsuperlatolic acids

present; spores 105-125 µm long; Aus. P. follmanniana A.W. Archer & Elix

2-Chlorolichexanthone and 2-O-methylsuperlatolic acid present; spores 100-120 µm long

P438; var. nov. “P. follmanniana var. toonumbarensis"

11a. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone or 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present 12
12. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 13

12a. 2,4,5-Trichlorolichexanthone present 26


13. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone only present; spores 75-110 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous,

pale brown, translucent; S.Am . P. platystoma Malme

Spores 75-100 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous, black; S.Am P. simulans Malme

13a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsidones and/or depsides present 14


14. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and norstictic acid present; spores 80-110 µm long; S.Am;

[H-NYL 3702 pm] P. "rhodiza" Nyl.

14a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid or depsides present 15
15. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides or constictic acid present 16

15a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid ± depsides present 18


16. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-3(-4)/ascus

84-142 µm long; Thailand



P. subplanaica var. tetraspora Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer

16a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 2'-O-methylstenosporic acid; spores 80-100 µm;

Thailand P. kansrii Jariangprasert

16b. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and perlatolic acid derivatives present 17



16c. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and constictic acid present; spores 100-125 µm ; Brazil

P. marcellii A.W. Archer & Elix
17. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and planaic acid present; spores (1-)2-3/ascus 90-174 µm long;

Thailand P. siamensis Jariangprasert

4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, planaic and 2-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 4/ascus,

95-125 µm long; Aus P. doradorensis Elix & A.W. Archer

17a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 80-94 µm long;

Aus, S.Am P. malmeii Elix & A.W. Archer

Spores 64-78 µm long; Aus.?? P. wilsoneana A.W. Archer & Elix

17b. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 2'-O-methylanziaic acid present; spores 84-146 µm long;

Thailand P. phusoidaoensis Jariangprasert.

17c. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 2-O-methylisohyperlatolic; spores 105-115 µm; PNG



P. streimannii Elix & A.W. Archer

17d. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 4-O-demethylplanaic acid present; spores 100-156 µm long;

Thailand; P. khuntanensis Jariang.
18. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid only present 19

18a 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and depsides present 21


19. Thallus isidiate; spores 90-160 µm long; Eur. P. coronata (Ach.) Th.Fr.

19a, Thallus not isidiate 20


20 Spores 2-3(-4)/ascus; 75-100 µm long; Tahiti; verrucae confluent P. hypochrysea Vain.

Spores 2-4/ascus, 51-140 µm long; pantemperate, N. hemisphere; Hawaii

verrucae flattened P. leucostoma (Bernh.) Massal.

20a. Spores 60-90 µm; verrucae contricted at base P. caesioumbrina Eitner

20b. Spores 150-185 µm long, (2-)4(-5) per ascus; Japan P. glauca Zahlbr.

20c. Spores 112-142 µm; Fiji P. athrocarpar var. deficiens.Elix & A.W. Archer
21. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives present

22

21a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and 2-O-methylconfluentic acid present;



spores (3-)4/ascus, 85-125 µm long; PNG P. bogia A.W. Archer & Elix

21b. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and confluentic acid present; spores 75-90 µm long;

India P. cinchonae Müll. Arg.
22. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and perlatolic acid derivatives present 23

22a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and 2'-O-methylstenosporic acid present;

spores 3-4/ascus, 80-108 µm long P. thailandica Jariangprasert
23. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and planaic acid present; spores 82-100 µm long; S.Am.

P. bonariensis Malme

23a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and 2-O-methylperlatolic or 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid

present 24
24. Containing 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid:

Spores 90-150 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous; Aus P. hermaka A.W. Archer



Spores 130-152 µm; ostioles black, conspicuous; Fiji P. athrocarpa Elix & A.W. Archer
24a. Containing 2-O-methylperlatolic acid 25
25. Spores (2-)4/ascus, 163-200 µm long; PNG, Philippines P. copelandii Vain.

25a. Spores 4/ascus, 100-120 µm long; PNG P. laeana A.W. Archer & Elix


26(12a) 2,4,5-Trichlorolichexanthone, 2-O-methylperlatolic and stictic acids; spores (2-)3(-4)/ascus,

70-100 µm long; Aus P. tjaetabensis A.W. Archer & Elix

2,4,5-Trichlorolichexanthone, 2'-O-methylperlatolic and stictic acids; spores 100-130 µm long

P 360 Pertusaria sp.

26a. 2,4,5-Trichlorolichexanthone and 2,5-dichlorolichexanthone present 27
27. Additional 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 70-80 µm; Aus

P. aquilonia A.W. Archer & Elix

27a. Additional stictic acid present 28


28. Additional confluentic acid present; spores (3-)4/ascus, 64-75 µm long; Aus

P. ewersii A.W. Archer & Elix

28a. Depsides absent; spores 95-125 µm long; Sri Lanka, Java, PNG, Aus.



P. ceylonica Müll. Arg.
29(2a) Arthothelin and derivatives present 30

29a. Thiophaninic acid present 31


30. 6-O-Methylarthothelin, arthothelin and stictic acid present; spores 117-125 µm long

circumtropical ? P. quasiae (Fée) Nyl.

30a. 6-O-Methylarthothelin and arthothelin present; spores 45-62 µm long; PNG

P. inconspicua A.W. Archer & Elix
31. Stictic or norstictic acid present, or stictic acid absent 32

31a. Depsides or anthraquinone present 37


32. Thiophaninic and norstictic acids present 33

32a. Stictic acid present or absent 34


33. Spores 68-110 µm long; N.Am P. wulfenoides de Lesd.

33a. Spores 85-120 µm long; Socotra P. socotrana Müll. Arg.


34. Lacking stictic acid 35

34a. With stictic acid 36


35. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 4/ascus, 95-120 µm long: PNG

P. rechingeri Zahlbr.

35a. Glomelliferic acid present; spores (2-)3/ascus, 80-120 µm long; Aus



P. glomellerifica Elix & A.W. Archer

35b. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid or 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid or confluentic acid present;

spores 70-110 µm long; ostioles black, conspicuous; Aus P. trimera (Müll. Arg.) A.W. Archer

35c Thiophaninic acid only present; spores 4/ascus, 70-80 µm; New Caledonia, Thailand



P. endochroma Müll. Arg.
36. Spores (3-)4/ascus, 75-90 µm long; Aus, China P. abberans Müll. Arg.

36a. Spores 3(-4)/ascus,100-20 µm long; Qld. P. ternata A.W. Archer & Elix
37(31a).Unknown anthraquinone present [K+violet]; spores 4/ascus, 100-160 µm long; Japan

also saxicolous P. kashiwadanii Shibuichi

37a. 4-O-Methylisocryptochloropheaic acid present; spores 4/ascus, 95-125(-145) µm long

P. paradoxica A.W. Archer & Elix var. tetraspora A.W. Archer & Elix
38(1a)Stictic or norstictic acid present 39

38a. Stictic and norstictic acid absent 44


39. Stictic acid present 40

39a. Norstictic acid present 43


40. Spores 75-82 µm long, Qld. P. dayi A.W. Archer & Elix

Spores 140-160 µm; West Indies P. dussii Vain.

40a. Stictic acid and perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives 41
41. Perlatolic acid derivatives present 42

41a. Methyl 2'-O-methylstenosporate present; spores 2-3/ascus 118-150 µm long; Thailand



P. methylstenosporica Jariangprasert
42. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-(3-4)/ascus, 84-130 µm long; Thailand; Aus

P. loeiensis Jariangprasert

42a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 115-150 µm long; PNG



P. novaeguineae A.W. Archer & Elix
43(39a).Spores 85-110 µm long; Hawaii [K++red] P. ruboreagens H. Magn.

43a. Spores 62-85 µm; ostioles pale; S.Am, P. cryptocarpa Nyl.

Spores 65-85 µm; ostioles black; PNG P. naduriensis A.W. Archer & Elix
44(38a).Lichen compounds present 45

44a. Atranorin present; spores 88-104 µm long; Thailand P. phukaensis Jariang.

44b. Lichen compounds absent 50


45. 2-O-Methylsuperlatolic, 2'-O-methylisohyperlatolic or protocetraric acid present 46

45a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic or confluentic acid present 49


46. Protocetraric acid present; spores 16-22 µm long; S.Am

P. huanicola Messuti & A.W. Archer

46a. Perlatolic acid or its derivatives present 47


47. Perlatolic acid and fumarprotocetraric acid present; spores 90-150 µm long; Japan

P. nakamurae (Räs.) Dibben

47a. Derivatives of perlatolic acid present 48


48. 2-O-Methylsuperlatolic acid present; spores 3-(4)/ascus, 80-100 µm long; PNG

P. manamensis A.W. Archer & Elix

48a. 2'-O-methylisohyperlatolic acid present; spores 65-69 µm long; Mexico



P. polystictoides Vain.
49. Confluentic acid present; spores 2-3(-4)/ascus, 72-134 µm long; Thailand

P. orientalis Jariangprasert

49a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present:

Spores (2-)3/ascus, 140-168 µm long; China P. parapycnothelia Q. Ren & Z.T. Zhao

Spores 90-120 µm long; Cook Islands P. atroguttata A.W. Archer & Elix
50(44a).In S.Am; spores 80-100 µm long; P. polita var. tetramera Müll. Arg.

50a. In Australasia 51


51. In PNG; spores 90-110 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous, translucent

P. plethocarpa A.W. Archer, Elix & Streimann

51a. In Norfolk Island; spores 95-115 µm long; ostioles black, lacking a hyaline margin



P. nebulosa A.W. Archer



Group 18. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 4 per ascus, rough; on wood


1. Xanthones absent 2

1a, Xanthones present 4
2. Norstictic acid present; spores 84-144 µm long; S.Am.

P. reagens (Zahlbr.) Redinger

Spores 90-120 µm long; ostioles black; West Indies P. plana Vain.

2a. Atranorin only present; spores 88-104 µm long; Thailand “P. phukaensis”

[Jarinagprasert 5512.1]

2a. Stictic acid present 3


3. Stictic acid only present; spores 87-137(-165) µm long; ostioles punctiform; Java

P. javanica Müll. Arg.

Spores 140-160 µm long; ostioles becoming disciform; West Indies P. dussii Vain.



Spores 100-150 µm long; Japan P. radiata Oshio

3a. Stictic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 100-130 µm long; Aus; P360



Pertusaria sp.

Spores 70-80 x 36-40 µm; Qld. P. gadgarrensis A.W. Archer & Elix
4. Lichexanthone present 5

4a. Chlorinated lichexanthones present 9


5. Lichexanthone and stictic or constictic acids present 6

5a. Fatty acids present or lichexanthone alone 8


6. Lichexanthone and stictic acid present 7

6a. Lichexanthone and constictic acid present; spores [sl. rough]125-160 µm long; S.Am



P. ochrostoma Müll. Arg.
7. Spores 97-125 µm long; S.Am. P. tenella Müll. Arg.

7a. Spores 135-165 µm long; S.Am P. tetrathalamia var. plicatula Müll. Arg.

7b. Spores 70-90 µm long; with additional confluentic acid; Tahiti P. trypetheliformis Nyl

7c. Spores 115-138 µm; with additional 2-O-methyl- and 2,4-di-O-methylolivetoric acid

S.Am P. ochrotheliza Nyl.
8. Lichexanthone and fatty acids present; spores 125-165(-200) µm long; S.Am.

P. anisospora Müll. Arg.

8a. Lichexanthone alone; spores 90-95 µm long; Aus. P. subcerussata A.W. Archer

Spores 125-155 µm long; S.Am P. tetrathalamia var. confirmans Müll. Arg.
9(4a). 2-Chlorolichexanthone present 10

9a. Polychlorinated lichexanthones present 11


10. Additional stictic acid present; spores 120-165 µm long; Java

P. placentiformis (Mont. & Bosch) Müll. Arg.

10a. Additional stictic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 115-125 µm long; Aus



P. pallida A.W. Archer & Elix
11. 2,4-, 2,5- Dichlorolichexanthones and 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present 12

11a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 13

12. Thallus not isidiate; with additional 2-O- and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids;

spores 80-110 µm long; Aus, PNG, New Caledonia [±stictic acid] P. elliptica Müll. Arg.



12a. Thalus not isidiate; with stictic acid; spores 55-75 µm long; Qld.

P. glabra A.W. Archer & Elix

12b. Thallus isidiate; with stictic acid; spores 80-95 µm long; Aus, NZ



P. subisidiosa A.W. Archer
13. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone only present; spores 80-110 µm long; Aus.

P. leucophaea Elix & A.W. Archer

13a 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and additional compounds present 14


14. Additional planaic acid present; spores 75-97 µm long; Aus P. leucothelia Müll. Arg.

Additional confluentic acid present; spores 74-100 µm; Cook Islands

P. rarotongensis A.W. Archer & Elix

14a. Additional stictic acid present 15


15. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present 16

15a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and additional compounds present 17


16. Spores 75-150 µm long; N.Am, S.Am. P. tetrathalamia (Fée) Nyl.

16a. Spores 130-150 µm long; West Indies P. ascisidioides Vain


17. Stictic acid, ±2-chlorolichexanthone ±4-chlorolichexanthone present; spores 100-135 µm long;

S.Am. P. tetrathalamia var. decipiens Müll. Arg.



Stictic and confluentic acids present; spores 105-130 µm; Cook Islands

P. rarotongensis var. stictica A.W. Archer & Elix

17a. Stictic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 80-106 µm long 18


18. Thallus isidiate; Thailand P. microstoma Müll. Arg. var. isidiata Jariangprasert

18a. Thallus not isidiate; Aus, Java, PNG, New Caledonia P. microstoma Müll. Arg.


Group 19. Apothecia present, disciform; ascospores 8 per ascus, on rock



1. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 45-55 µm long;

on moss; NZ P. scottii Elix & A.W. Archer

1a. Depsidones present 2


2. Fumarprotocetraric or salazinic acid present 3

2a. Norstictic or stictic acid present 4


3. Fumarprotocetraric acid present; spores 23-28 µm long; thallus isidiate; Eur

P. oculata (Dickson) Th. Fr.

3a. Salazinic acid present; 24-39 µm long; thallus lacking isidia; Falkland Is.



P. salacinifera Messuti & A.W. Archer
4. Stictic acid present 5

4a. Norstictic acid present 6


5. On moss; spores 80-120 µm long; NZ P. tyloplaca Nyl.

5a. On rock; spores 25-42 µm long; Eur, N.Am. P. chiodectonoides Bagl. ex Massal.


6. Spores 18-24 µm long; NZ, S.Am. P. monticola Messuti & A.W. Archer

6a. Spores 30-40(-47) µm long; S. Hemisphere P. erubescens (Taylor) Nyl.

Group 20. Apothecia present, disciform; ascospores 8 per ascus, on wood

1. Lichen compounds absent 2

1a. Lichen compounds present 3
2. Spores 15-20 µm long; disc black, white pruinose; NZ P. sporellula A.W. Archer & Elix

2a. Spores 34-41 µm long; disc pale grey, epruinose; NZ P. duppensis A.W. Archer & Malcolm



2b. Spores 35 x 19 µm [chemistry unclear] P.diluta C.Björk, G. Thor & T. Wheeler
3. Thiophaninic or picrolichenic acid present 4

3a. Depsidones or depsides present 5


4. Thiophaninic acid present; spores 60-110 µm long; Eur, N.Am. P. hymenea (Ach.) Schaer.

4a. Picrolichenic acid present; spores 19-27 µm long; Aus, NZ P. truncata Kremp.


5. Depsidones present 6

5a. Depsides present 11

5b. 5-O-Methylhiascic acid ± stictic acid; spores 33-54 µm long; Alaska

P. mccroryae Börk, Goward & Sprib

6. Fumarprotcetraric acid present 7

6a. Norstictic or psoromic acid present 9
7. Fumarprotocetraric acid only present 8

7a. Fumarprotocetraric and gyrophoric acid; spores 22-30 µm; N.Am



P. suboculata Brodo & Dibben

Fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acid present; spores 18-20 µm long;

Eur, N. Am; also sterile and sorediate P. borealis Erichs.
8. Spores 10-14 µm long; Eur P. pupillaris(Nyl.) Th.Fr.

8a. Spores 12-22 µm long; N.Am P. subambigens Dibben


9. Psoromic acid present; spores 27-40 µm long; China P. wulingensis Z.T. Zhao & Z.S. Sun

9a. Norstictic acid present 10


10. Lichexanthone absent; spores 12-22 µm long; S.Afr P. ambigens Nyl.

Spores 20-32 µm long; S.Afr. P. elatior Stirt.

10a. Lichexanthone present; spores 16-22 µm long; S.Am P. phlyctaenula Nyl.
11(5a). Lecanoric or gyrophoric acid present 12

11a. Thamnolic acid present 14


12. Gyrophoric acid present; spores 20-40 µm long; N. Hemisphere,

P. carneopallida (Nyl.) Anzi ex Nyl.

12a. Lecanoric acid present 13


13. Spores 58-75 µm long; PNG P. kaindiensis A.W. Archer, Elix & Streimann

13a. Spores 14-22 µm long; with additional gyrophoric acid; N.Am P. glaucomela (Tuck.) Nyl.

13b. With additional lichexanthone; spores 1-seriate, 30-47 µm; S.Am P. pycnophora Nyl.
14(11a).Spores globular, 20-25 µm diam.; PNG P. gongylospora Elix & A.W. Archer

14a. Spores ellipsoid 15


15. Spores 22-32 µm long; Aus, NZ P. thamnolica A.W. Archer

15a. Spores 30-50 µm long; Malaysia, PNG P. epitheciifera Sipman

Group 21. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores 8 per ascus, on rock
1. Xanthones present 2

1a. Xanthones absent 19


2. Lichexanthone or derivatives present 3

2a. Arthothelin, thiophanic or thiophaninic acids present 10


3. Lichexanthone present 4

3a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 7



3b. 2-Chlorolichexanthone and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 75-90 µm; Brazil

P. saxatilis A.W. Archer & Elix
4. Lichexanthone and stictic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 115-150 µm long; Aus, Easter Island

P. hadrocarpa Zahlbr.

4a. Lichexanthone and depsides ± protocetraric acid present 5


5. Lichexanthone and depsides present 6

5a. Lichexanthone, planaic and protocetraric acids present; spores rough walled, 1-seriate

80-125 µm long; Central Afr P. lambionii A.W. Archer et al.
6. Lichexanthone and 2-O-methylconfluentic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-70 µm long;

Central Afr P. clercii Messuti & A.W. Archer

6a. Lichexanthone and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present: spores 1-seriate, 75-105 µm long

Aus, PNG, S.Am, Mexico P. consanguinea Müll. Arg.

On dead moss; spores 80-95 µm long; Japan P. nagasakensis Nyl.
7(3a) 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and 4-chlorolichexanthone present; on moss; spores 2-seriate,

150-185 µm long; S.Am P. confundens Nyl.

7a. 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone and norstictic acid or 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present 15
8. Norstictic acid present; spores 70-85 µm long, irreg. 2-seriate; Ins. Rodrigues

P. impallescens Nyl.

8a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 16


9. Spores 2-seriate, 85-105 µm; Aus P. lavata Müll. Arg.

9a. Spores 1-seriate, 45-75 µm; Aus, NZ P. lophocarpa Körber


10(2a). Thiophaninic acid present 11

10a. Arthothelin or thiophanic acid present 17


11. Thiophaninic acid only present; spores 2-seriate, 62-75 µm long; S.Afr.

P. diaziana A. Massal.

Spores 65 µm long; Eur, Asia P. flavicans Lamy

11a. Additional depsidones or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 12
12. Additional 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-85 µm long;

Aus, NZ, PNG, Zimbabwe. P. petrophyes C. Knight

12a. Additional norstictic or stictic acids present 13
13. Thiophaninic acid and norstictic acid present; spores 85-110 µm long; Eur;

P. huneckiana Feige & Lumbsch

13a. Thiophaninic acid and stictic acid present 14


14. Thallus lacking isidia and soredia 15

14a. Thallus isidiate or sorediate 16


15. Spores 2-seriate, 70-90 µm long; Aus P. dissita Elix & A.W. Archer

15a. Spores 1-seriate, 65-80 µm long; S.Am P. hypoxantha Malme

15b. Spores 70-100 µm long ?seriate; Eur. P. rupicola (Fr.) Harm.
16. Thallus isidiate; spores 1-seriate, 50-90 µm long; Aus

P. xanthodactylina A.W. Archer & Elix

16a. Thallus sorediate; spores 50-75 µm long, 1-seriate; Aus, NZ, PNG



P. xanthoplaca Müll. Arg.
17(10a) Thiophanic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 60-85 µm long; Aus P. thula A.W. Archer

17a. Arthothelin present 18


18. Spores subglobose, hyaline to brown, 1-seriate, 12-30 µm long; SW US

P. occidentalis Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt

18a. Spores ellipsoid, hyaline to pale grey, 2-seriate, 60-75 µm long; Aus, NZ S.Afr. S.Am.



P. melanospora Nyl.
19(1a) Lichen compounds absent; spores 2-seriate, 37-55 µm long; Aus. P. paratropa Müll. Arg.

Spores 1-seriate, 50-58 µm long; S.Afr. P. pseudomelanospora V. Wirth & Elix


19a. Lichen compounds present 20
20. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 21

20a. Norstictic, stictic or virensic acid present 22


21. Spores hyaline, 1-seriate, 65-85 µm long; S.Am P. cerebrinula Zahlbr.

21a. Spores hyaline to brown, 2-seriate, 55-80 µm long; N.Am



P. islandica Bratt, Lumbsch & Schmitt
22. Stictic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 30-36 µm long; Aus P. macra Müll. Arg.

Spores 25-45 µm long; Eur. P. eiteriana Erichs.

22a. Norstictic or virensic acid present 23
23. Virensic acid present; spores 80-125 µm long; S.Am P. rochae Räsänen

23a. Norstictic acid present 24


24. Spores 1-seriate, 80-135 µm long; ± virensic acid; S.Am P. patagonica Müll. Arg.

Spores 50-70µm long, N.Am, Arctic P. octomela (Norm.) Erichs

24a. Spores 2-seriate 25
25. Spores 115-150 µm long; NZ, S.Am. P. perrimosa Nyl.

25a. Spores 87-112 µm long; S.Am P. colorans Malme



Group 22. Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores (6-)8 per ascus, on wood



1. Xanthones present 2

1a. Xanthones absent 79
2. Lichexanthone or chlorinated derivatives present 3

2a. Norlichexanthone derivatives or thiophaninic acid or its derivatives present 55


3. Lichexanthone present 4

3a. Chlorinated lichexanthone derivatives present 19


4. Lichexanthone only present; spores 2-seriate, 120-140 µm; S.Am

P. phaeostoma Müll. Arg.

4a. Lichexanthone with depsides and/or depsidones present 5


5. Lichexanthone and stictic or norstictic or protocetraric acid present 6

5a. Lichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic and 2-O-methylstenosporic acids

present; spores 64-78 µm long; Thailand

P. alboaspera var. deficiens Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer

Lichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; 2-O-methylstenosporic

acid absent; spores 52 x 27 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; Central Afr.

P. subareolata Müll. Arg.
6. Lichexanthone and protocetraric acid present 7

6a. Lichexanthone and stictic acid present 10

6b. Lichexanthone and norstictic acid ± stictic acid; spores 16-22 µm long; S.Am

P. phlyctaenula Nyl.
7. Lichexanthone and protocetraric acid; spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; S.Am

P. rhodostomoides Vain.

7a. Lichexanthone, protocetraric acid and depsides present 8


8. Lichexanthone, protocetraric and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present 9

8a. Lichexanthone, protocetraric and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acids present;

spores 2-seriate, 60-100 µm long; Thailand P. nanensis Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer
9. Spores 1-seriate, 80-125 µm long, rough-walled, with additional planaic acid;

Central Afr. P. lambionii A.W. Archer et al.

9a. Spores 55-60 µm long, smooth-walled; S.Am P. curatellae Malme
10. Lichexanthone and stictic acid present 11

10a. Lichexanthone, stictic acid and depsides present 14


11. Thallus sorediate or spores rough-walled 12

11a. Thallus esorediate and spores smooth-walled 13


12. Thallus sorediate; spores 98-111 µm long; Central Afr.

P. fosseyae A.W. Archer et al.

12a. Thallus esorediate; spores 125-175 µm long; West Indies



P. parnassia Vain.
13. Spores 2-seriate, 100-140 µm long; Aus, S.Am, India, Sri Lanka

P. nigrata Kremp.

13a. Spores 1-seriate, 75-87 µm long; S.Am. P. tuberculifera var. ferax Müll. Arg.


14.(10a) Sekikaic or confluentic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acids present 15

14a. Stenosporic acid derivatives present 16


15. Sekikaic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 100-140 µm long; Aus

P. dehiscens var. sekikaica A.W. Archer & Elix

15a. Confluentic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 87-110 µm long



P. gracilis f. heteromera Müll. Arg.

15b. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present:

Spores 1-seriate, 75-105 µm long; Aus P. leucostigma Müll. Arg.

Spores 1-seriate, 60-90 µm long; N.Am P. paratuberculifera Dibben

Spores 40-52 µm long, 1-seriate; additional planaic acid present; Aus P490

Pertusaria sp.
16. Lichexanthone, stictic and 2'-O-methylstenosporic acids present:

Spores 2-seriate, 70-110 µm long; Thailand P. platycarpa Jariangprasert

Spores 1-seriate, 56-62 µm long; Qld. P. montoensis A.W. Archer & Elix

16a. Lichexanthone, stictic and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acids present 17


17. Spores 1-seriate, 50-67 µm long; Brazil P. verruculifera Vain.

Spores 1-seriate, 60-84 µm long; Colombia P. leioplaca var. pycnocarpa Nyl.

17a. Spores 2-seriate 18
18. Spores 90-100 µm long; Aus[ostioles pale] P. alboaspera A.W. Archer & Elix

18a. Spores 75-85 µm long; S.Afr.[ostioles pale] P. glaucocinerea Vain.

Spores 62-75 µm long; S.Afr [ostioles black] P. congesta Vain.
19(3a) 4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 20

19a. 2-Chlorolichexanthone or 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorolichexanthones and

2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present 44
20. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone only present; 21

20a. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsidones and/or depsides present 24


21. Spores 150-200 µm long; [± 4-chlorolichexanthone]; S.Am P. confundens Nyl.

21a. Spores <100 µm long 22


22. Spores 1-seriate, 30-37 µm long; NZ P. parvula A.W. Archer & Elix

22a. Spores 2-seriate, >50 µm long 23


23. Spores 60-90 µm long; Aus, Asia, Central Afr. P. rigida Müll. Arg.

Finland; 6/ascus [also + stictic acid] P. rasanenii Erichs.

23a. Spores 55-70 µm long; S.Am; ostioles conspicuous, black, 1-4, in translucent zones

P. mundula Müll. Arg.

Spores 50-62 µm long; Aus; ostioles inconspicuous, 1,black, punctiform NSW 156055

Spores 54-60 µm long; China; ostioles 2-4, black, punctiform

P. subrosaceae var. octospora Zahlbr.
24. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsidones present 25

24a. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides present, ±stictic acid 30


25. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and norstictic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 67-85 µm long;

Aus P. undulata Müll. Arg.

25a. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present 26
26. Spores 1-seriate 27

26a. Spores 2-seriate 114


27. Species circumboreal 28

27a. Species in Southern Hemisphere 29


28. Spores 18-46 µm long; P. sommerfeltii (Flörke) Fr.

28a. Spores 40-70 µm long; also in Japan P. alpina Hepp ex Ahles

28b. Spores 30-60 µm long; S Eur. P. constricta Erichs.

Spores 60-90 µm long; central Eur P. caesioumbrina Eitner


29. Spores 65-70 µm long; ostioles white; Aus P. leucostomoides Zahlbr.

29a. Spores 48-72 µm long; ostioles black; S.Am P. melanostoma Kremp.


30. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and stenosporic acid derivatives present 31

30a. 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides or 9-O-methylalternariol present 32


31. 2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 80-94 µm long; Thailand

P. kansriae var. stictica Jariangprasert

31a. 2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic & 2,2'-di-O-methyldivaricatic acids present;

spores 64-102 µm long; Thailand P. subplanaica var. stictica Jariangprasert
32. With perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives 33

32a. With 9-O-methylalternariol; spores 2-seriate, 75-87 µm long; PNG



P. praecipua A.W. Archer & Elix
33. With stenosporic acid derivatives present 34

33a. With perlatolic acid derivatives or confluentic, miriquidic or divaricatic acids present

36
34. 2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2 seriate, 64-80 µm long; India

P. rimosa Awasti & Srivastava

34a. 2'-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 1 seriate, 70-80 µm long; Aus



P. praetermissa A.W. Archer & Elix

34b. With 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid 35


35. Spores 1-seriate, 70-110 µm long; Aus, NZ P. subplanaica A.W. Archer & Elix

35a. Spores 2-seriate, 60-78 µm long; Thailand P. boklueaensis Jariangprasert


36. Miriquidic or confluentic acid present 37

36a. Perlatolic acid, perlatolic acid derivatives or divaricatic acid present 38


37. Miriquidic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 75-95 µm long; Aus

P. novaehollandiae A.W. Archer

37a. Confluentic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-75 µm long; PNG



P. weberi A.W. Archer & Elix

37b. Confluentic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 50-60 µm long; Eur



P. werneriana Boqueras

38. Perlatolic or divaricatic acid present 39

38a. Perlatolic acid derivatives present 40
39. Perlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 50-60 µm long; Aus

P. minispora A.W. Archer & Elix

39a. Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 75-82 µm long; Aus



P. pseudothwaitesii A.W. Archer & Elix
40. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 41

40a. Planaic acid present 43


41. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid and methyl 2-O-methylperlatolate present;

spores 1-seriate, 50-60 µm long; Aus. P. xenismota A.W. Archer & Elix

41a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 42
42. Spores 1-seriate, 32-65 µm long; Aus P. pertractata Stirt.

With additional 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone; PNG



P. allogiberosa A.W. Archer & Elix

42a. Spores 2-seriate, 55-110 µm long; Aus, Sri Lanka, N.Am P. mesotropa Müll. Arg.


43. Spores 80-100 µm; E.Aus P. planaica A.W. Archer & Elix

43a. Spores 40-65 µm; W.Aus P. subarida A.W. Archer & Elix


44(19a) 2-Chlorolichexanthone present 45

44a. 2,4- and 2,5-Dichlorolichexanthones and 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present 48


45. 2-Chlorolichexanthone and depsidones present 46

45a. 2-Chlorolichexanthone and depsides present 47

45b. 2-Chlorolichexanthone only present; spores 45-50 µm long; S.Am

P. torquatella Müll. Arg.
46. Stictic acid (major) and constictic acid (minor) present; spores 2-seriate,

65-80 µm long; S. hemisphere; ostioles pale P. cryptostoma Müll. Arg.

46a. Constictic acid (major) and stictic acid (minor) present; spores 2-seriate,

55-66 µm long; S.Am P. delicatula Müll. Arg.


47. 2'-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-70 µm long: Aus

P. boweniana A.W.Archer & Elix

47a. Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-92 µm long: Aus



P. orarensis A.W. Archer & Elix
48(44a). Xanthones only present 49

48a. Xanthones and stictic acid and/or depsides present 52


49. Spores 105-135 µm long; 2-seriate, rough-walled; PNG

P. anomalospora A.W. Archer, Elix & Streimann

49a. Spores <100 µm long, 2-seriate 50


50. Spores 50-75 µm long 51

50a. Spores 70-100 µm long; N.Am "xanthone X-2" P. ostiolata Dibben



50b. Spores 40-54 µm long: S.Am. P. ferax (Müll. Arg.) A.W. Archer & Elix

basionym: P. torquatella var. ferax Müll. Arg.
51. Spores 62-75 µm long; ostioles brown, conspicuous; S.Am

P. paraguayensis Müll. Arg.

51a. Spores 48-60 µm long; ostioles pale grey, translucent; West Indies



P. glaucopunctata Vain.
52(48a). Stictic acid present 53

52a. Stictic acid absent 54


53. Spores 2-seriate, 50-75 µm long; Aus P. lordhowensis A.W. Archer & Elix;

53a. Additional 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 45-50 µm long; Aus



P. gundermanica A.W. Archer & Elix,
54. Additional 2-O-methyl- & 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 1-seriate,

45-50 µm long; Aus P. complanata A.W. Archer & Elix

54a. Additional2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 85-112 µm long; S.Am

.[syntype, leg. Schenk 1891] P. "polita" Müll. Arg


55(2a). Arthothelin, 6-O-methylarthothelin or thiophanic acid present 56

55a. Thiophaninic acid or 4-chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present 59


56. Arthothelin and thiophanic acid present 57

56a. 6-O-Methylarthothelin and arthothelin present; spores 2-seriate 58


57. Spores 60-75 µm long; NZ P. bartlettii A.W. Archer & Elix

57a. Spores 80-95µm long; PNG P. karkarensis A.W. Archer & Elix


58. Spores 100-125 µm long; S.Am P. papillulata Nyl.

58a. Spores 60-87 µm long; S.Am & Aus P. oblongata Müll. Arg.

58b. Spores 55-60 µm; 6-O-methylarthothelin only; S.Am. P. candida Müll. Arg.

58c. Spores 56-80 µm long; arthothelin only; N. Am. P. appalachensis Lendemer

59(55a). 4-Chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present; spores 1-seriate, 70-87 µm long;

Sri Lanka P. subdepressa Müll. Arg.

59a. Thiophaninic acid present 60


60. Thiophaninic acid only present 61

60a. Thiophaninic and depsides and/or depsidones present 66


61. Spores 1-seriate, 50-70 µm long; ostioles black; NZ P. laevis C.Knight

61a. Spores 2-seriate 62


62. Spores 85-115 µm long; ostioles black; NZ P. theochroa Kremp.

62a. Spores 50-95 µm long 63


63. Spores 75-95 µm; ostioles brown; Aus P. thiophaninica A.W. Archer

63a. Spores ≤ 70 µm 64


64. Spores 50-70 µm long; S.Am and New Caledonia 65

64a. Spores 52-65 µm long; French Antilles P. flavens Nyl.

64b. Spores 30-70 µm long; 1-2 seriate; Eur. P. plombii B. de Lesd.
65. Spores 8/ascus; S.Am P. meridionalis var ochrostoma Müll. Arg.

65a. Spores 4? 8? /ascus; New Caledonia P. endochroma Müll. Arg.


66(60a).Depsidones ± depsides present 67

66a. Depsides present, depsidones absent 73


67. Norstictic or protocetraric acid present 68

67a. Stictic or variolaric or virensic acid present 69


68. Norstictic acid present; spores 55-110 µm long; N.Am P. rubefacta Erichs.

Spores 52-68 µm; N. Africa P. praelutescens Werner [nom. inval.]

68a. Protocetraric acid present; spores 55-85 µm long; S.Am P. glaziovii Müll. Arg.
69. Thiophaninic, stictic, variolaric or virensic acids present; depsides absent 70

69a. Thiophaninic and stictic acid with depsides or protocetraric acid present 77


70. Additional constictic and hypoconsticic acids present; spores 1-seriate,

50-75 µm long; S.Am P. rhodostoma Nyl.

70a. Thiophaninic acid, stictic or variolaric or virensic acids present 71
71. Stictic acid present; thallus sorediate; spores 2-seriate, 60-65 µm long; Aus

P. xanthosorediata A.W. Archer

Thallus isidiate; spores 60-100 µm long; widespread; ± 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid

Rarely fertile P. flavida (DC.) Laundon

71a. Thallus lacking soredia and isidia 72


72. Spores 1-seriate, 52-72 µm long; S. Hemisphere P. leioplacella Nyl.

72a. Spores 2-seriate, 50-80 µm long; ostioles not mammiform; N.Am, Aus, Seychelles



P. texana Müll. Arg.

Spores 2-seriate, 56-80 µm long; ostioles mammiform, pale yellow; E.Afr.



P. xanthothelia Müll. Arg.

Japan; spores 48-80 µm P. obsolescens Nyl.

72b Stictic and constictic acids present; spores 70 x 28 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; E. Afr.

ostioles black, punctiform P. cinctula Müll. Arg.

72c. With variolaric acid; spores 65-90 µm long; N.Am P. epixantha R.C. Harris

72d. With virensic acid; spores 60-70 µm long; N.Am P. virensica R.C. Harris


73(66a). Gyrophoric acid present; spores 2-seriate, 60-130 µm long; N.Am, Eur

P. hymenea (Ach.) Schaer.

73a. Perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives present 74


74. 2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; S.Am.

[tlc only] P. araucariae Müll. Arg.

74a. Perlatolic acid or its derivatives present 75
75. Perlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-70 µm long; Aus

P. injuneana A.W. Archer & Elix

75a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 76


76. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 40-80 µm long; Argentina

P. formosensis Messuti & A.W. Archer

76a. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-82 µm long; Aus



P. xylophyes A.W. Archer

Spores 52-72 µm long, 1-seriate; India; 2-O-methylperlatolic acid and traces

thiophaninic acid present; India ?syn: P. amarkantakana Srivastava & Awasthi
77(69a). Thiophaninic, stictic and protocetraric acids; spores 1-seriate, 50-62 µm long; S.Am

P. lignicola Malme

77a. Thiophaninic and stictic acids with depsides present 78


78. 4-O-Methylisocryptochlorophaeic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 75-100 µm long; Aus

P. paradoxica A.W. Archer & Elix

78a. Perlatolic & hyperlatolic acids present; spores 2-seriate, spores 64-90 µm long;

Thailand P. hylocola Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer
79(1a). Lichen compounds absent 80

79a. Lichen compounds present 86


80. Spores 2-seriate 81

80a. Spores 1-seriate 83


81. Spores 120-150 µm; rough; Cook Islands P. megacarpa A.W. Archer & Elix

Spores 70-110 µm long; smooth; Aus., S.Am, Cent. Afr. P. subrigida Müll. Arg.

81a. Spores≤ 70 µm long 82
82. Spores 35-55 µm; China P. subochracea Stirton
82a. Spores 48-70 µm long; ostioles red-black; NZ, Chile P. leucodes C. Knight

82b. Spores 45-50 µm long; ostioles small, black, conspicuous; S.Am



P. melaleuca var. octospora Müll. Arg.

82c. Spores 45-56 µm long; ostioles large, black, conspicuous; ?N.Am.



P. gonolobina Müll. Arg.
83. Spores 70-100 µm long; ostioles conspicuous, black; NZ P. micropora Kremp.

Spores 75-105 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous, black; S.Am P. dilatata Müll. Arg.

83a. Spores 50-75 µm long 84
84. Apothecia flattened; ostioles black, inconspicuous; S.Am, S.Afr, NZ

P. cryptocarpoides Vain.

84a. Apothecia flattened; ostioles conspicuous, black; S.Am P. brasiliana Zahlbr.

84b. Apothecia flattened hemispherical 85
85. Ostioles translucent; NZ P. albissima Müll. Arg.

85a. Ostioles conspicuous, black; S.Am P. acromelana Müll. Arg.

86(79a). Depsidones and depsides present 87

86a. Depsides present 103


87. Depsidones [stictic, constictic, norstictic, salazinic, protocetraric] present, depsides

absent 88

87a. Stictic acid and depsides present 99
88. Stictic, constictic or norstictic acid present 89

88a. Salazinic or protocetraric acid present 90


89. Stictic or constictic acid present; spores 2-seriate 91

89a. Norstictic acid present 93


90. Salazinic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 90-120 µm long; NZ

P. celata A.W. Archer & Elix

90a. Protocetraric acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-95 µm long; Aus



P. errinundrensis A.W. Archer
91. Constictic acid present; spores 80 x 30 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; E. Afr.

P. aspera Müll. Arg.

91a. Stictic acid present 92

91b. Stictic and 5-O-methylhiasic acids present; spores 43 x 18 µm; US

P. mccroryae C.R. Björk, Goward & T. Sprib.
92. Spores 37-48 µm long; Marquesas Is. P. dermatodes Nyl.

92a. Spores 145-170 µm long; Guadalupe P. gibberosula Nyl.


93. Spores 2-seriate 94

93a. Spores 1-seriate 96


94. Spores 180-210 µm long; PNG P. sipmanii A.W. Archer & Elix

94a. Spores <150 µm 95


95. Spores 80-105 µm; ostioles becoming pseudolecanorine; N.Am, S.Am.

P. propinqua Müll. Arg.

Spores 75-88 µm long; India, China P. himalayensis Awasti & Srivastava

95a. Spores 45-55 µm long; Norfolk Is P. norfolkensis A.W. Archer
96. Spores 95-115 µm long; S.Am. P. patagonica Müll. Arg.

96a. Spores <100 µm long 97


97. Spores 17-20 µm diam; [?not Pertusaria]; Norfolk Is P. globospora A.W. Archer,

97a. Spores 50-95µm long; 98


98. Spores 60-95 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous; E.Afr P. endoxantha Vain.

98a Spores 60 µm long; ostioles, black, conspicuous; W.Afr. P. personata Müll. Arg.

98b. Spores 50-70 µm long; Arctic P. octomela (Norm.) Erichs.

98c. Spores 50-75 µm long; India; + unidentified spot ?depside P. maculata Singh & Sinha


99(87a). 2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 68-85 µm long; Thailand

P. alboaspera var. disflavens Jariangprasert

99a. Perlatolic acid derivatives or divaricatic acid present 100


100. Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 75-100 µm long; Aus

P. sydneyensis A.W. Archer & Elix

100a. Perlatolic acid derivatives present 101

101. 2-O-Methylsuperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-100 µm long; Thailand

P. krabiensis Jariangprasert

101a. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 102


102. Spores 1-seriate, 74-110 µm long; Thailand

P. phulhuangensis Jariangprasert

102a. Spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; Java P. minor Müll. Arg.


103(86a). Stenosporic acid derivatives present 104

103a. Perlatolic acid or other compounds present 106


104. 2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 100-120 µm long; S.Am

[cf. syntype with chloroxanthones, supra] P. polita Müll. Arg.

104a. 2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present 105
105. Spores 1-seriate, 60-75 µm long; PNG P. kagamugana Elix & A.W. Archer

105a. Spores 2-seriate, 70-90 µm long; Aus, S.Am, NZ, India P. leucoplaca Müll. Arg.


106. Gyrophoric or divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate 107

106a. Perlatolic acid derivatives present 108


107. Divaricatic acid present; spores 65-75µm; ostioles inconspicuous, pale brown,

translucent; PNG P. papuana A.W. Archer & Elix

Spores 56-85 µm; ostioles conspicuous, black; Sri Lanka P. melastomella Nyl.

107a. Gyrophoric acid present; spores 40-64 µm; N.Am P. papillata (Ach.) Tuck.


108. Confluentic acid present 109

108a. Perlatolic acid derivatives present 110


109. Additional atranorin present; spores 2-seriate, 50-60 µm long

PNG P. gorokorana Elix & A.W. Archer

109a. Additional 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 40-50 µm long: S.Am

P. nana Müll. Arg.
110. 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 111

110a. 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 112

110b. Glomellerific acid present; spores 80-90 µm long; S.Am P. corrugata Kremp.
111. Spores 62-90 µm long; S.Am. P. cerussata Malme

1101a. Spores 85-102 µm long; Central Afr. P. kigomensis Dodge

111b. Additional stictic acid present; spores 92-120 µm long; S.Am P. ampliata Erichs.
112. Spores 92-120 µm long; S.Am P. tuberculifera Nyl.

112a. Spores ≤ 100 µm long 113


113. Spores 75-100 µm long; S.Am P. achroiza Nyl.

113a. Spores 65-85 µm long; S.Am; Aus P. mattogrossensis Malme


114(26a). Spores 55-80 µm long; Aus, PNG, China, Japan P. leiocarpella Müll. Arg.

114a. Spores > 100 µm long 115


115. Spores < 150 µm long 116

115a. Spores > 150 µm long

Spores 180-270 µm long P. akagiensis Vain.
116. Spores 100-130 µm long; West Indies P. polysticta Vain.

116a. Spores 130-140 µm long; Japan P. laeviganda Nyl.








Yüklə 374,5 Kb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
1   2   3




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə