in the Shire of Woodanilling
and Roadside Management
Photos: WA Herbarium, taken by E.A.George, N.J.Stevens, R.Smith,
Survey Data Results
6.4 Flora Roads and Roads Important for Conservation
6.6 Special Environment Area Register
Roadside Planning, Strategies and Action Plans
Conservation status of roadsides in the
Shire of Woodanilling
Native vegetation on roadsides
Extent of native vegetation
Number of native species
Value as a biological corridor
Predominant adjoining land use
Marking SEA sites in the field
Colour codes used to depict the conservation
status of roadsides
Summary of roadside conditions in the Shire
Appendix 2. Standard survey sheet
Appendix 3. Raw data used to calculate conservation values
Appendix 4. Plant species in the Shire of Woodanilling
Woodanilling is located 250 km south east of Perth in Western Australia’s south west land
and supports a population of 409 people. The
Seasonal temperatures are characterised by warm summers, with maxima averaging in the
high twenties, and mild winters, with maxima in the mid teens. Mean daily maximum and
minimum temperatures and rainfalls are shown below (Figure 1).
Maximum temperature (0C)
Minimum temperature (0C)
Typical of the region, the major agricultural pursuits are cereal crops, sheep and cattle.
Tourism is also an important industry with the area's spectacular natural resources being a
major attraction. Salient features of the area include a heritage trail, Wingedyne Nature
Reserve, Martup Pool, Queerearrup Lake and the wildflowers that abound in the area.
Based on WA Herbarium records, almost 400 species of plants have been recorded from the
Shire of Woodanilling. These include 14 species of Acacia, 23 species of Orchids, 21 species
of Eucalypt and 17 species of Verticordia, see Appendix 4.
A survey of the roadside conservation values in the Shire of Woodanilling and roadside management guidelines
significance and should be treated with special care when road and utility service, construction
or maintenance is undertaken. Populations of DRF along roadsides are designated Special
Environment Area’s (SEA’s), and are marked out by yellow stakes with an identification plate
welded on, see section 6.5 and figure 9.
Photo-WA Herbarium, taken by C. Broex
Based on information from the Department of
Conservation and Land Management (DCLM), there
are nine populations of rare and priority flora on
roadsides in the Shire of Woodanilling. Seven of these
locations are vested in the Shire, and two are vested
in Main Roads WA.
Species of declared rare, or priority flora, in the Shire
Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. fimbrilepis
Photo- WA Herbarium, taken by S.D. Hopper
Photos- WA Herbarium, taken by J.A.Cochrane, M.Hancock, M.Pieroni
a number of threatened species of fauna have also been recorded and/or observed in the
Photo by Bert and Babs Wells
Chuditch (Dasyurus geoffroii)
Western Brush Wallaby
Carpet Python (Morelia spilota
Weed invasion along roadsides is an important issue, as they impact on many aspects and
roadsides, often increasing the fire risk, degrading biodiversity values or interfering with the
road and its infrastructure. The effect of weed infestations on native plant populations can be
severe, often with flow on effects for native fauna, such as diminished habitat or food
Stinkwort (Dittrichia graveolens) is a common
Photo- WA Herbarium, taken by K.C. Richardson
WA Herbarium records indicate 12 main
Woodanilling, see next page.
Please note - this should not be
collectors often overlook weeds as
legitimate botanical specimens.
A survey of the roadside conservation values in the Shire of Woodanilling and roadside management guidelines
Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. Monilifera
Boneseed, bitou bush
Lolium perenne x rigidum
Photo- WA Herbarium, taken by R.Randall
Photo- Western Weeds (1997)
Since the settlement of Western Australia by Europeans, large areas of native vegetation in
the south west of the state have been cleared to make way for agriculture and other
development ventures. The fragmentation of the more or less continuous tracts of native
vegetation suites by clearing has resulted in the isolation of plant and animal populations and
communities. Populations of flora and fauna restricted to these man-made biogeographical
islands of small remnants are prone to food shortages, disease and reduced genetic diversity.
However, the presence of native vegetation along roadsides can often assist in alleviating this
isolation effect by providing corridors between bush remnants, thereby facilitating the
movement of biota across the landscape. Unfortunately the protective mantle afforded by the
native flora has been badly depleted with now only approximately 14,367 ha, or 12.9%
Remnant native vegetation includes more than just trees. Trees, shrubs and ground covers
of wildlife. Existing native vegetation will require less maintenance if left undisturbed.
Native trees, shrubs and grasses on the roadside are valuable because they:
- Often are the only remaining example of original vegetation within cleared areas;
- Are easier to maintain and generally less fire prone than introduced vegetation;
- Provide habitat for many native species of plants, mammals, reptiles amphibians and
- Provide wildlife corridors linking other areas of native vegetation;
- Often contain rare and endangered plants and animals;
- Provide the basis for our important wildflower tourism industry; the aesthetic appeal of well-
maintained roadsides should not be overlooked and they have the potential to improve local
tourism and provide a sense of place. As well as creating a more favourable impression of
an area, roadsides attract tourists who visit specifically to view wildflowers.
- Often contain sites of historical or cultural significance;
- Provide windbreaks and stock shelter areas for adjoining farmland; (This can help stabilise
temperature and reduce evaporation, and thereby providing microhabitat more suitable to
higher levels of productivity. Well-conserved roadsides also assist with erosion and salinity
control. In addition, native vegetation on roadsides is generally far less of a fire threat than
annual weeds. Undisturbed roadsides provide a benchmark for the study of soil change
during agricultural development).
- Are a vital source of local seed for revegetation projects. In lieu of other alternatives and
cognisant of limitations; road reserves can also provide a valuable source of seed for
beneath farm trees often removes this layer. Approval of the local shire and a CALM
that there is a coordinated management of lands across all tenures to ensure the sustainability
and integrity of the natural biota and processes, agricultural lands and service infrastructure. It
is somewhat ironic that the reserves established to cater for a transport system in a modern
world are now an integral component of this coordinated management approach.
Uncertainty often exists in the minds of many with regard to the ‘ownership’, control and
reference to activities within a transport corridor.
The Department of Conservation and Land Management (DCLM) has the legislative
important to note that all flora and fauna is protected under provisions of the Wildlife
to the general provisions relating to protected flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act, special
protection is afforded to flora that is declared as rare or threatened under section 23F of the
Wildlife Conservation Act.
The legislation pertaining to the management of road reserves is complex and includes those
Agriculture and Related Resources Protection Act 1976
Bush Fires Act 1954
Conservation and Land Management Act 1984
Environmental Protection Act 1986
Heritage of WA Act 1990
Land Act 1933
Local Government Act 1995
Main Roads Act 1930
Mining Act 1978
Soil and Land Conservation Act 1945
State Energy Commission Supply Act 1979
Water Authority Act 1987
Wildlife Conservation Act 1950-1979
It is recommended that a cautionary approach be taken when working within roadsides, and
protection of heritage or conservation values present in the roadsides.
The Environmental Protection Amendment Bill 2002 is currently before parliament and it is
envisaged that this will require greater adherence to legislative requirements before native
vegetation is cleared. This legislation will provide for two types of permits which will provide
for permission to clear native vegetation, however they will have certain conditions attached to
them. One of these will be to prepare, implement and adhere to a roadside or specific tenure
management plan. Before any native vegetation clearing is undertaken it is emcumbent on the
project manager or land manager to ensure that the proposed clearing is being carried out
under the terms and conditions of the pending legislation, as there are transitional provisions
within it, which are retrospective from 26
The methods to assess and calculate the conservation value of the roadside reserves are
described in Jackson (2002). The process involves scoring a set of pre-selected attributes,
which, when combined, represent a roadside's conservation status. A list of these attributes is
presented on a standard survey sheet, see Appendix 2. This provides both a convenient and
uniform method of scoring. Ideally, the survey is undertaken by a group of local volunteers,
who, aided by their knowledge of the area, are able to provide an accurate and cost effective
method of data collection. Community participation also ensures a sense of 'ownership' of the
end product, which increases the likelihood of its acceptance and use by the local community
and road managers. Lamont and Blyth (1995).
Fieldwork was conducted by David Lamont and RCC volunteer Siusan Campbell-Lamont
It is now hoped that the data collected will be used
interest in the roadside environment.
4.2 Quantifying Conservation Values
- native vegetation on roadside;
- extent of native vegetation along length of roadside;
- number of different native species;
- predominant adjoining land use.
Each of these attributes was given a score ranging from 0 to 2 points. The combined scores
conservation status categories, are represented by the following colour codes
9 - 12
5 – 6
0 - 4
Table 1: Colour codes used to depict the conservation status of roadsides.
The following attributes were also noted but did not contribute to the conservation value score:
width of road reserve;
width of vegetated roadside;
presence of utilities/disturbances;
dominant native species;
It is felt that the recording of these attributes will provide a community database that would
provide information useful in many spheres local government and community interest.
4.3 Mapping Conservation Values
A computer generated (GIS Arc Info) map, at a scale of 1:100 000, depicting the conservation
status of the roadside vegetation and the width of the road reserves within the Shire of
Woodanilling was produced. The data used to produce both the map and the following figures
and tables are presented in Appendix 3.
The roadside conservation value map initially provides an inventory of the status quo of the
data and map can be incorporated as a management and planning tool for managing the
roadsides per se, as it enables the condition of roadside vegetation to be easily assessed.
This information can then be used to identify environmentally sensitive areas, high
conservation roadsides or strategically important areas, and thus ensure their conservation.
Conversely it enables degraded areas to be identified as areas important for strategic
rehabilitation, or in need of specific fire management techniques or regimes and weed control
The map can also be used as a reference to overlay transparencies of other information
Agriculture WA can been used to produce an overlay map that depicts the location of remnant
vegetation on both the Crown estate and privately owned land. This enables the roadside
vegetation to be assessed in the context of its importance to the shire’s overall conservation
network. Other transparencies, such as the degree of weed infestation, or the location of
environmentally sensitive areas or future planned developments, could also be produced as
an aid to roadside management.
As well as providing a road reserve planning and management tool, the survey data can also
Tourist routes - roads depicted as high conservation value would provide visitors to the
Landcare/Bushcare projects - would be able to incorporate the information from this survey