+Absconditella annexa



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N - TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar (Scheidegger 1993). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical lichen, found on calciferous and base-rich, hard siliceous rocks (e.g. on basalt), both near the coast in Mediterranean Italy, and in dry-warm Alpine valleys.


+Buellia subdisciformis (Leight.) Vain.

Etud. Lich. Bresil, 1: 167, 1890 - Lecidea subdisciformis Leight., Lich. Fl. Gr. Brit.: 308, 1871.

Syn.: Buellia ryssolea (Leight.) A.L.Sm., Buellia sejuncta J.Steiner, Buellia subdisciformis v. skutariensis J.Steiner ?, Lecidea ryssolea Leight.

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Sar (Scheidegger 1993). S - Si (Scheidegger 1993).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species found on siliceous rocks, chiefly mediterranean-atlantic in Europe, and Tyrrhenian in Italy. The records from Lombardy by Valcuvia & al. (2003) and Delucchi & Valcuvia (2004) are dubious.


+Buellia subsquamosa J.Steiner

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 57: 360, 1907.



N - TAA. C - Sar (Scheidegger 1993).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: a rarely collected lichen of porous rocks rich in minerals, both in the Mediterranean area and in dry-continental Alpine valleys.


+Buellia tesserata Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 189, 1860

Syn.: Buellia cerussata Llimona & Werner, Buellia fimbriata (Tuck.) Sheard, Rinodina radiata v. fimbriata Tuck.

C - Tosc, Sar (Scheidegger 1993).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a xeric subtropical, widely distributed lichen, found on porous siliceous rocks, very closely related to Dimelaena radiata.


+Buellia tirolensis Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 460, 1860.

Syn.: Buellia buellioides (Metzler) Buschardt, Buellia cinereomarginata de Lesd., Lecidea luridula Nyl., Lecidea scotochroa Nyl., Rinodina buellioides Metzler in Arnold

N - TAA, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar (Scheidegger 1993).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks in dry-warm areas, related to B. fusca, but chemically different, both in the Mediterranean area and in dry-continental Alpine valleys.


+Buellia triseptata A.Nordin

Bryologist, 102 260, 1999.

Syn.: Buellia triphragmia auct. non (Nyl.) Arnold, Buellia lauricassiae auct. eur. non (Fée) Müll.Arg., Buellia triphragmia v. lividescens Bagl. & Carestia ?, Mannia lauri Trevis., Lecidea triphragmia Nyl.

N - TAA, Piem. S - Camp (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a critical taxon, which needs further study (see Nimis 1993: 145).


+Buellia uberior Anzi

Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 9: 252, 1866.

Syn.: Buellia atrocinerea (Anzi) Zahlbr., Buellia contermina Arnold, Buellia lactea v. atrocinerea Anzi, Buellia malmei auct., Buellia nitida Eitner, Buellia subbadia Anzi

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Ven, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc, Sar (Scheidegger 1993).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Schaereria fuscocinerea/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on hard, lime-free siliceous rocks, predominantly on inclined to subvertical faces wetted by rain, most common in the Alps, facultatively parasitic.


+Buellia vilis Th.Fr.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 7, 2: 44, 1867.

Syn.: Buellia enteroleucoides (Nyl.) Steiner, Buellia modica (Nyl.) Migula, Lecidea enteroleucoides Nyl., Lecidea modica Nyl.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar early colonizer of siliceous pebbles in windy situations, and of recently eroded granitic boulders, more widespread in the Alps but overlooked.


+Bunodophoron melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin

Mycotaxon, 55: 383, 1995 - Lichen melanocarpus Sw., Nov. Gen. Sp. Plant.: 147, 1788.

Syn.: Sphaerophorus compressus Ach., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus (Sw.) DC.

N - Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate species, found on mossy bark and rocks in very moist forests, there is no recent record from Italy.


+Byssoloma croceum Sérus. & Puntillo

[in Sérusiaux] Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 19, 2-3: 204, 1998



S - Cal (Sérusiaux 1998, Puntillo 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Foliic/ 2, 2-3, 1, 1/ Alt.: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a humid subtropical species, hitherto known only from Macaronesia and Calabria, in evergreen humid forests.


+Byssoloma kakouettae (Sérus.) R.Lücking & Sérus.

[in Sérus. & al.] Lichenologist, 34, 3: 187, 2002 - Bapalmuia kakouettae Sérus., Nordic J. Bot., 13: 449, 1993.

Syn.: Byssoloma aptrootii Sérus.

S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000, Sérusiaux & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Foliic/ 2-3, 2-3, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a humid subtropical lichen, found on leaves of evergreen trees and shrubs in very humid, warm situations, known from France, Madeira, the Canary Islands, and from a single station in Italy.


+Byssoloma leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain.

Dansk Bot. Ark., 4: 23, 1926 - Lecidea leucoblephara Nyl. [in Triana & Planch.] Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot., 4, 19: 337, 1863 - em. R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12, 1: 483, 1952.

Syn.: Calidia rhizophora Stirt.

N - Lig (Sérusiaux 1998, Brunialti & al. 1999). S - Camp (Puntillo 2000), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 241, Sérusiaux 1998 Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Foliic/ 2, 3-4, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a pantropical foliicolous species, sometimes occurring also on bark.


+Byssoloma marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.

[in Coppins & al.] Lichenologist, 24, 4: 367, 1992 - Bilimbia marginata Arnold, Flora, 47: 598, 1864.

Syn.: Bacidia marginata (Arnold) Lettau, Bacidia micromma (Stizenb.) Hulting, Tapellaria similis Kalb

S - Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Sérusiaux 1996, 1998, Puntillo 1996, 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Foliic/ 2, 2-3, 1, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate lichen, growing both on bark and on needles of conifers in warm-humid areas.


+Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl.) P.James

Lichenologist, 5: 126, 1971 - Chiodecton subdiscordans Nyl., Flora, 62: 221, 1879.

Syn.: Byssoloma subdiscordans sensu Lettau non (Nyl.) Vain., Byssoloma rotuliforme (Müll.Arg.) R.Sant. & Thorold, Byssoloma tricholomum sensu Lettau non (Mont.) Zahlbr.

S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, 2000, Sérusiaux 1998).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Foliic/ 2, 3, 1, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a humid subtropical to tropical species, with isolated outliers in humid parts of the mild-temperate zone, in the Italian stations it was found on Abies, Buxus and Laurus, to be looked for in the Alps, in montane, humid forests, on twigs of conifers.


+Calicium abietinum Pers.

Tent. Disp. Meth. Fung., Suppl.: 59, 1797.

Syn.: Calicium abietinum v. crustifera Vain., Calicium abietinum v. fuscipes (H.Olivier) Zahlbr., Calicium cervicatulum Ach., Calicium curtum Turner & Borrer ex Sm., Calicium minutum (Körb.) Arnold, Calicium nigrum auct. p.p.

N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Brunialti & al. 2001), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on old wood of conifers, but also on bark, esp. of Abies, much more rarely on deciduous trees (e.g. on Castanea) and, in humid areas, on wooden poles. Old records (Nimis 1993: 148) might refer to C. glaucellum.


+Calicium adspersum Pers.

Icon. et Descript. Fungor. Minus Cognit., 2: 59, 1800.

Syn.: Calicium lenticulare sensu Nádv., Calicium mutabile Ach., Calicium roscidum (Ach.) Flörke

N - Lomb. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a holarctic, temperate species found on bark, rarely on lignum of deciduous trees, esp. oaks, often in fissures of the bark, more rarely on conifers.


+Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 94, 1803 - Lichen corynellus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 85, 1799.

Syn.: Caliciella corynella (Ach.) Vain., Calicium paroicum Ach. non auct., Cyphelium chlorinum auct. ital. non (Ach.) Schaer., Strongyleuma paroicum (Ach.) Vain. non auct.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a temperate, probably holarctic species found on underhanging faces of hard siliceous rocks in humid areas, probably more widespread, but never common.


+Calicium glaucellum Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 97, 1803.

Syn: Calicium discoidale Ach.

N - Frl. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Laz (Ravera 2001), Tosc (Benesperi 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, holarctic species found on lignum and on acid bark, esp. on decorticated stumps of conifers, but also e.g. on Castanea, certainly widespread throughout the Alps (see note on C. abietinum).


+Calicium lenticulare Ach.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 262, 1816.

Syn.: Calicium amylocaule Lettau, Calicium atroviride Körb., Calicium cladoniscum auct. non Ach., Calicium lenticulare v. cladoniscum auct. non (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium quercinum v. lenticulare (Ach.) Nyl., Calicium schaereri sensu Nádv. non De Not., Calicium subquercinum Asahina, Calicium virescens (Schaer.) Hepp

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on lignum of decorticated stumps and trunks of conifers.


+Calicium montanum Tibell

Mycotaxon, 70: 432, 1999.



C - Tosc (Tibell 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: on lignum, esp. on decorticated stumps of Castanea, but also found on conifers in the Alps, a recently-described, rare but widespread species, perhaps more common in Italy.


+Calicium quercinum Pers.

Tent. Disp. Meth. Fung., Suppl.: 59, 1797.

Syn.: Calicium curtiusculum Nyl., Calicium decipiens A.Massal., Calicium decipiens v. brachypus Bagl. & De Not. ?, Calicium lenticulare v. bacillare Ach.

N - Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a holarctic, temperate species found on lignum and bark of deciduous trees, more rarely of conifers, esp. on old oaks aand on Castanea, certainly occurring throughout the Alps.


+Calicium salicinum Pers.

Usteri's Ann. Bot., 7: 20, 1794.

Syn.: Calicium hyperellum v. salicinum (Pers.) Schaer., Calicium lichenoides (L.) Schumach., Calicium sphaerocephalum Ach., Calicium sphaerocephalum v. xylonellum (Ach.) Trevis., Calicium trachelinum (Ach.) Ach., Calicium xylonellum Ach.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997b, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002b), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996), Si (Grillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a holarctic, temperate species, most frequent on dry parts of the boles of deciduous, acid-barked trees, but also on lignum (fence-posts, decorticated stumps).


+Calicium trabinellum (Ach.) Ach.

Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 14, 1803 - Calicium xylonellum v. trabinellum Ach., Meth. Lich.: 93, 1803.

Syn.: Calicium adspersum v. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium incrustans Körb., Calicium validiusculum Trevis.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane species found on hard wood, esp. on old, decorticated stumps, of conifers, more rarely of deciduous or even evergreen broad-leaved trees (e.g. Quercus ilex in montane forests), rarely on bark of conifers, to be looked for in the Apennines. The record from Sardegna, overlooked by Nimis (1993: 150), is from Nimis & Poelt (1987).


+Calicium viride Pers.

Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 7: 20, 1794.

Syn.: Calicium baliolum Ach., Calicium hyperellum (Ach.) Ach., Calicium lygodes Ach., Calicium peltatum Ach., Calicium proboscidale Ach., Calicium trachelinum v. epiphloeum Ach.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb. C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1997b), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen found on Abies and Picea, but also on rough bark of old oaks in humid areas, certainly ranging throughout the Alps, but rarer in the Apenninnes.


+Caloplaca adelphoparasitica Nimis & Poelt

[in Nimis & al.] Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, 45: 250, 1994.



S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 2-3, 2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras C. cretensis/ coast/ Note: a well-distinguished calcicolous species, to be sought for throughout the Mediterranean, in coastal situations, wherever C. cretensis is found, but certainly not common.


+Caloplaca adriatica (Zahlbr.) Servít

Hedwigia, 71: 275, 1931 - Caloplaca schaereri v. adriatica Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ., 7: 181, 1931.



N - VG, Ven (Nascimbene 2003b, 2005c). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen, found on steeply inclined, hard limestone rocks.


+Caloplaca aegatica Giralt, Nimis & Poelt

Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 13, 2: 263, 1992.

Syn.: Caloplaca quercina auct. non Flagey

C - Tosc (Loppi 1996b, Putortì & Loppi 1999), Laz, Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate lichen found on trees and shrubs in open, but humid stands of mediterranean vegetation, a typically Tyrrhenian species in Italy, mostly near the coast.


+Caloplaca aegea Sipman

[in Sipman & Raus) Willdenowia, 32: 366, 2002.



C - Sar (Sipman & Raus 2002).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a recently-described, mostly coastal species, probably more widespread in Mediterranean Italy.


+Caloplaca albolutescens (Nyl.) H.Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 37: 127, 1909 - Lecanora albolutescens Nyl., Flora, 64: 127, 1909.

Syn.: Callopisma albolutescens (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Caloplaca aetnensis de Lesd., Placodium albolutescens (Nyl.) A.L.Sm. non auct. Eur. septentr.

S - Si (Loppi & al. 1997).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 3-4, 4, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean lichen, found on soil deriving from volcanic base-rich rocks, but also on wheathered calciferous sandstone, esp. on walls, common only in parts of S Italy, esp. in the small volcanic islands, clearly related to C. teicholyta.


+Caloplaca albopruinosa (Arnold) H.Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Math. Cherbourg, 37: 147, 1909 - Biatorina albopruinosa Arnold, Flora, 42: 152, 1859.

Syn.: Caloplaca agardhiana auct. non Pyrenodesmia agardhiana (Ach.) A.Massal., Blastenia agardhiana auct., Blastenia agardhiana v. cinereovirens (J.Steiner) Szatala?, Blastenia agardhiana v. minuta (J.Steiner) Szatala?, Callopisma agardhianum auct., Caloplaca agardhiana v. nigricans Jatta?

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Tretiach & Muggia 2006, Muggia & al. 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (TSB), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007b), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: rc, C: c, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on hard limestones and dolomite in sunny, exposed sites, mostly in the mountains. Several earlier records, expecially those from low altitudes, are likely to refer to other species of the Pyrenodesmia-complex, especially to C. alociza. For further details see Muggia & al. (2007).


+Caloplaca alnetorum Giralt, Nimis & Poelt

Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 13, 2: 269, 1992.



N - Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate species growing on broad-leaved trees, most common in humid areas in the mountains, more widespread in the Alps, but overlooked, or confused with other taxa.


+Caloplaca alociza (A.Massal.) Mig.

Kryptogamenfl. Deutschl., 4, 1: 140, 1925 - Biatorina alociza A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 42, 1855.

Syn.: Blastenia albopruinosa (Arnold) Th.Fr., Blastenia alociza (A.Massal.) Werner, Lecaniella alociza (A.Massal.) Jatta, Lecanora variabilis f. ecrustacea Nyl., Placodium variabile v. ecrustaceum (Nyl.) Nyl., Sporoblastia alociza (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - VG (Crisafulli & al. 2006, Piervittori & al. 2006, Tretiach & Muggia 2006), Frl, Ven (Tretiach & al. 2003, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Tretiach & Muggia 2006, Muggia & al. 2007, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Tretiach & Muggia 2006), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: ec, C: ec, D: c, E: r, F: c, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: on hard limestones and dolomite on sunny, exposed cliffs, with a wide altitudinal range. In Italy this is the most frequent species of the Pyrenodesmia-group. For further details see Muggia & al. (2007).


+Caloplaca ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H.Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 37: 136, 1909 - Lecidea ammiospila Wahlenb. [in Ach.] Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 13, 1803.

Syn.: Blastenia ferruginea v. muscicola (Schaer.) A.Massal., Callopisma caesiorufum v. ammiospilum (Wahlenb.) Jatta, Callopisma ferrugineum v. muscicolum (Schaer.) Stein, Caloplaca caesiorufa sensu Jatta p.p., Caloplaca cinnamomea (Th.Fr.) H.Olivier, Caloplaca discoidalis (Vain.) Lynge, Caloplaca ferruginea f. vacillans Th.Fr., Caloplaca ferruginea v. ammiospila (Wahlenb.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca ferruginea v. cinnamomea Th.Fr., Caloplaca ferruginea v. muscicola auct., Caloplaca vacillans (Th.Fr.) H.Magn.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Benesperi & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 2-4, 4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vc, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on terricolous mosses and plant debris, more rarely on decaying, rather soft lignum.


+Caloplaca aractina (Fr.) Häyrén

Landveg. Fl. Tvärminne.: 152, 1914 - Parmelia aractina Fr., Syst. Orb. Veget.: 284, 1825.

Syn.: Caloplaca cerina v. aractina (Fr.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca fuscoatra auct. non (Decuill.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca viridirufa auct. non (Ach.) Zahlbr., Placodium fuscoatrum auct. non (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - Emil. C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical lichen, found on hard siliceous rocks near the coast, to be looked for in other parts of Tyrrhenian Italy. The identity of some montane populations (see Nimis 1993: 153) still awaits reconfirmation.


+Caloplaca arenaria (Pers.) Müll.Arg.

Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16: 387, 1862 - Lichen arenarius Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 1: 27, 1794.

Syn.: Blastenia arenaria (Pers.) A.Massal., Blastenia lamprocheila (DC.) Arnold, Caloplaca craspedia (Ach.) Szatala, Caloplaca ferruginascens H.Olivier, Caloplaca lamprocheila (DC.) Flagey, Caloplaca savonensis de Lesd., Caloplaca spotornonis ("spotornensis") de Lesd., Lecanora lamprocheila (DC.) Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Loppi & al. 1997). C - Tosc, Laz, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: rr, D: rc, E: r, F: rc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: a holarctic lichen found on calciferous siliceous rocks, incl. walls, often overgrowing other crustose lichens, a heterogeneous taxon in need of revision.


+Caloplaca arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr.

[in Ginzb.], Denkschr. math.-naturw. Kl. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 42: 319, 1915 - Lecanora arnoldii Wedd., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 23: 96, 1876.

Syn.: Caloplaca saxicola ssp. arnoldii (Wedd.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca saxicola ssp. biatorinoides Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca saxicola ssp. miniata (Hoffm.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Lecanora miniatula Nyl., Lichen miniatus Hoffm., Placodium miniatulum (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Placodium murorum f. arnoldii (Wedd.) A.L.Sm.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Piem (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 2-4/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: vr, D: rr, E: a, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined calciferous rocks (limestone, dolomite, calcareous schists) in open habitats, a well-distinct taxon of the extremely critical C. saxicola complex, certainly more widespread in Italy.


+Caloplaca assigena (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

Die Flechten v. Tirol: 196, 1902 - Blastenia assigena [J.Lahm ex] Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 46: 124, 1806.

Syn.: Caloplaca asserigena (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on the whole, a poorly understood taxon, which deserves further study.


+Caloplaca athroocarpa (Anzi) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 247, 1900 - Gyalolechia athroocarpa Anzi, Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 38, 1860.

Syn.: Blastenia athroocarpa (Anzi) Arnold, Callopisma athroocarpon (Anzi) Bagl., Lecanora ammiospiloides Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on eutrophicated wood, more rarely on bark, on basal parts of isolated trees, a poorly understood taxon of the Gyalolechia-group, which needs further study.


+Caloplaca atroflava (Turner) Mong.

Bull. Géogr. Bot., 32: 192, 1914 - Lecidea atroflava Turner, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 9: 142, tab. 11, fig. 2, 1808.

Syn.: Caloplaca atroflava v. submersa (Nyl.) H.Magn., Caloplaca ferruginea v. obscura Th.Fr., Caloplaca turneriana (Ach.) H.Olivier, Lecanora pyracea f. submersa Nyl., Placodium atroflavum (Turner) A.L.Sm., Placodium turnerianum (Ach.) A.L.Sm.

C - Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996). S - Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ suboc/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a rather southern species in Europe, found on base-rich or eutrophicated siliceous rocks, esp. on basalt, sometimes periodically submerged in mediterranean creeks and rivulets, all Italian records refer to "v. submersa".


+Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb.

Bih. Kgl. Svensk. Vetesk.-Akad. Handl., 21, 3: 66, 1896 - Lichen aurantius Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 5: 14, 1794.

Syn.: Amphiloma aurantius (Pers.) Müll.Arg., Amphiloma callopismum (Ach.) Bagl., Callopisma vulgaris De Not., Caloplaca aurantia v. intermedia Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurantia v. papillata Poelt, Caloplaca callopisma (Ach.) Th.Fr., Gasparrinia aurantia (Pers.) Syd., Gasparrinia callopisma (Ach.) Syd., Lecanora callopisma Ach., Placodium callopismum (Ach.) Mérat

N - VG (Tretiach & Pecchiari 1995, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, Florio & al. 2004, 2006), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Genco & al. 2007).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: c, E: rr, F: vc, G: ec, H: vc/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical species, found on a wide variety of calciferous substrata, common in the mediterranean-submediterranean belts, rarer at higher altitudes, more helio- and thermophytic than the closely related C. flavescens.


+Caloplaca aurea (Schaer.) Zahlbr.

Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 5: 29, 1890 - Lecidea aurea Schaer., Naturwiss. Anz., 2: 11, 1819.

Syn.: Gyalolechia aurea (Schaer.) A.Massal., Thalloidima aureum (Schaer.) Müll.Arg.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: c, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a species of the southern mountains of Europe, found in fissures and cracks of calcareous rocks and dolomite, but perhaps more widespread. The record from Abruzzi is the southernmost in Europe.


+Caloplaca australis (Arnold) Zahlbr.

Ann. naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 4 : 353, 1889 - Physcia australis Arnold, Flora, 58: 154, 1875.

Syn.: Candelariella australis (Arnold) Zahlbr., Fulgensia australis (Arnold) Poelt, Gasparrinia australis (Arnold) Zahlbr., Gyalolechia australis (Arnold) J.Steiner

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2003, 2004), TAA (Westberg & Kaernefelt 1998), Piem (TSB), VA (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). C - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on exposed calciferous rocks, e.g. on the top of large, isolated boulders, certainly more widespread in the Alps. In my opinion this species, with the closely related C. chanousiae, is better re-instated into Caloplaca s.lat.


+Caloplaca badioreagens Tretiach & Muggia

Lichenologist, 38, 3: 224, 2006.



C - Abr - (Tretiach & Muggia 2006), Sar (Muggia & al. 2007). S - Pugl (Tretiach & Muggia 2006.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a recently-described, rather peculiar species of the mediterranean belt, exceptionally reaching to 1000 m in S-exposed vertical faces, found on calcareous boulders emerging from xerothermic grasslands or maquis in sunny and dry situations. For further details see Tretiach & Muggia (2006) and Muggia & al. (2007).


+Caloplaca biatorina (A.Massal.) J.Steiner

Ann. Mycol., 7: 239, 1910 - Physcia elegans v. biatorina A.Massal., Flora, 35: 565, 1852.

Syn.: Berengeria biatorina (A.Massal.) Trevis., Gasparrinia biatorina (A.Massal.) J.Steiner, Caloplaca baumgartneri Zahlbr., Caloplaca callopiza (Nyl.) Jatta, Caloplaca nideri J.Steiner ?, Placodium callopizum (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Placodium biatorinum (A.Massal.) M.Choisy

N - Frl, Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Ven, Lomb, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: r, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a species of the mountans of southern Europe and adjoining Asia, found on limestone and dolomite, most often on isolated boulders in open situations, esp. common in the Central Apennines, above or near treeline.


+Caloplaca britannnica R.Sant.

[in Laundon] Lichenologist, 24, 1: 2, 1992.

Syn.: Caloplaca citrina f. maritima de Lesd. ?, Caloplaca limonia Nimis & Poelt, Caloplaca maritima (de Lesd.) Lettau ?

S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax-Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ coast/ Note: on calciferous rocks, soil, bryophytes, in open, more or less coastal habitats, in sites visited by birds, sometimes on walls, and there even on vertical, but eutrophicated faces. I have observed C. citrina and C. britannica growing together in S Italy, without intermediate forms, the two species can be distinguished only on the basis of vague morphological characters: a DNA study would be most welcome here.


+Caloplaca bryochrysion Poelt

Feddes Rep. 58: 175, 1955.



N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Piem (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 4-5, 4, 3, 3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on mosses, soil and plant debris over calcareous substrata in sheltered, but light-rich situations. Very much overlooked, or confused with C: citrina, in the Alps, it probably occurs also in Abruzzi (Majella and Gran Sasso Massives), and should be looked for there. According to Søchting & Tønsberg (1997) it is closely related to but distinct from C. xanthostigmoidea.


+Caloplaca cacuminum Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 1: 235, 1953.

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum v. microsporum Arnold, Caloplaca aurantiaca v. microspora (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - Frl, TAA, VA (Favero-Longo & al. 2006). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a probably arctic-alpine species found on limestone and dolomite in exposed habitats, often starting the life-cycle on other lichens, typical of Alpine peaks, probably widespread throughout the Alps.


+Caloplaca calcitrapa Nav.-Ros., Gaya & Cl.Roux

Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, 51: 147, 2000.



N - Lig (Navarro-Rosinés & al. 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3-4, 5/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a: C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a recently-described species, similar to C. inconnexa, but with different spores and different ecology, perhaps more widespread in Mediterranean Italy.


+Caloplaca canariensis (Follmann & Poelt) Breuss

Oesterr. Z. Pilzk., 10: 84, 2001 - Fulgensia canariensis Follmann & Poelt, Philippia, 4/5: 372, 1981.



C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a xeric subtropical lichen found on base-rich clay soil in clearings of grasslands and shrublands, common in Macaronesia and also known from N Africa, in Europe only known from a single station in Central Sardegna.


+Caloplaca carphinea (Fr.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 241, 1900 - Parmelia carphinea Fr., Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 110, 1831.

Syn.: Amphiloma carphineum (Fr.) Bagl., Callopisma carphineum (Fr.) Trevis., Physcia carphinea (Fr.) A.Massal., Squamaria carphinea (Fr.) Boistel

N - Lig. C - Sar. S - Camp, Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a subtropical to mild-temperate, mostly coastal lichen of hard siliceous rocks in exposed situations. The record from Piedmont by Isocrono & Falletti (1999), being very dubious, is not accepted here


+Caloplaca cerina (Hedw.) Th.Fr. v. cerina

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 218, 1861 - Lichen cerinus [Ehrh. ex] Hedw., Descr. Adumbr. Muscor. Frond., 2: 62, 1789.

Syn.: Blastenia ferruginea v. omora A.Massal., Blastenia nivea de Lesd., Callopisma cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Callopisma cerinum v. cyanoleprum (DC.) A.Massal., Callopisma cerinum v. effusum A.Massal., Caloplaca cerina v. cyanolepra (DC.) J. J. Kickx, Caloplaca cerina v. erhartii (Schaer.) Trevis., Caloplaca cerina v. nigromarginata (Bagl. & Carestia) Jatta, Caloplaca gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca gilvolutea (Nyl.) Jatta, Lecanora gilvolutea Nyl., Patellaria cerina v. cyanolepra DC., Placodium cerinum (Hedw.) Hepp, Placodium cerinum f. cyanoleprum (DC.) Anzi

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996b, 1997, 1998, 1998b, Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi 1996b, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 3-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: rr, D: rc, E: vr, F: c, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a holarctic, subtropical to boreal-montane lichen, with optimum on smooth, mineral-rich bark (e.g. of Acer, Fraxinus, Juglans) but also on moderately eutrophicated bark of other trees, rare in polluted areas. The whole complex of C. cerina s.lat. (incl. C. haematites) is well worthy of a DNA analysis: morphological differences among taxa are slight, while ecological and distributional differences are often remarkably clear.


+Caloplaca cerina v. chloroleuca (Sm.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 174, 1871 - Caloplaca cerina f. chloroleuca Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 20, tab. 1737, 1805.

Syn.: Caloplaca cerina v. stillicidiorum (Vahl) Th.Fr., Caloplaca stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge, Placodium cerinum v. stillicidiorum (Vahl) Hepp, Placodium cerinum v. stillicidiorum f. chloroleucum (Sm.) Anzi

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc, Laz (Ravera 2006), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vc, A1: ec, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen found on mosses and plant debris in tundra-like habitats, esp. in areas with calcareous or basic siliceous rocks , to be looked for in the mountains of Sicilia. This is the only vaiety hosting the parasite Stigmidium cerinae, which suggests that it could be an independent species. See also note to C. cerina.


+Caloplaca cerina v. muscorum (A.Massal.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 254, 1900 - Callopisma cerinum v. muscorum A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 35, 1855.

Syn.: Caloplaca muscorum (A.Massal.) M.Choisy & Werner

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2003).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on mosses and plant debris, esp. in dry-continental areas with basic siliceous substrata. See also note to C. cerina.


+Caloplaca cerinella (Nyl.) Flagey

Cat. Lich. Alg.: 31, 1896 - Lecanora cerinella Nyl., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 13: 370, 1866.

Syn.: Callopisma cerinellum (Nyl.) Walt.Watson, Caloplaca perfida Malme, Candelariella cerinella (Nyl.) Mig. non sensu Zahlbr., Placodium cerinellum (Nyl.) Vain.

N - VG (TSB), Frl, Ven (TSB), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & al. 2000, 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (TSB), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: r, F: c, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a temperate species, found on base- or nutrient-rich bark (e.g. very common on Sambucus or on Juglans in open habitats), certainly ranging throughout the country. See note to C. cerinelloides.


+Caloplaca cerinelloides (Erichsen) Poelt

[in Poelt & Hinteregger] Bibl Lichenol., 50: 99, 1993 - Caloplaca pyracea v. cerinelloides Erichsen, Verh. bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg, 72: 35, 1930.



N - Lomb (Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: er, F: vr, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: a critical taxon, ecologically similar to C. cerinella and not always distinguished from it.


+Caloplaca cerinoides (Anzi) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 254, 1900 - Placodium cerinoides Anzi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 9: 245, 1866.

Syn.: Caloplaca chlorina auct. ital. non (Flot.) Sandst.

N -Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich siliceous rocks, esp.on basalt, not uncommon at least in parts of Tyrrhenian Italy. A lichen like this, belonging to the difficult C. cerina complex, was often called Caloplaca chlorina by S European authors (e.g. Clauzade & Roux, Nimis, several Spanish authors). The application of the epithet "chlorina" was very controversial until Wetmore (1996) solved the problem by examining the type material. Non-isidiate specimens from C and S Italy collected at low elevations on basic siliceous rocks, and hitherto filed under that name (see Nimis 1993: 159) are provisionally placed under this epithet, which, at least judging from the description, fits well their essential characters. An examination of the type material is necessary to decide whether this provisional arrangement is correct.


+Caloplaca chalybaea (Fr.) Müll.Arg.

Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16: 388, 1862 - Parmelia chalybaea Fr., Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 123, 1831.

Syn.: Caloplaca alpestris sensu Ozenda & Clauzade, Caloplaca olivacea (A.Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca variabilis f. chalybaea (Fr.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca variabilis f. ochracea (Körb.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca variabilis v. lilacina (A.Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca variabilis v. ocellulata (Ach.) Boistel, Callopisma variabile v. lilacinum (A.Massal.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca variabilis ssp. ocellulata (Ach.) Boistel, Caloplaca variabilis v. ocellulata f. chalybaea (Fr.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Placodium chalybaeum (Fr.) Hepp, Pyrenodesmia chalybaea (Fr.) A.Massal., Pyrenodesmia olivacea A.Massal.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb (Florio & al. 2004, 2006), Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: ec, C: ec, D: rc, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate species known from Europe and adjoining Africa and Asia, found on hard calciferous rocks (mostly on compact limestone) and dolomite, often, but not exclusively, on steeply inclined faces, esp. common in C-S Italy, above the Mediterranean belt.


+Caloplaca chanousiae Sambo

Ann. Lab. Chanousia, 1: 34, 1932.

Syn.: Fulgensia chanousiae (Sambo) Poelt

N - TAA, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 5/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on weakly calciferous schists, poorly known, a revision of the type material is needed, see also note on C. australis.


+Caloplaca chlorina (Flot.) H.Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg: 211, 1923 - Zeora cerina v. chlorina Flot., 27 Jahresber. schles. Ges. vaterl. Kultur: 126, 1849.

Syn.: Callopisma haematites v. saxicolum Lojka, Caloplaca cerina v. chlorina (Flot.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca isidiigera Vězda, Placodium cerinum v. chlorinum (Flot.) Anzi, Placodium cerinum f. cyanopolium (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2002, 2003, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: rr: B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on rocks in upland areas. The records of C. chlorina from the Alps reported by Nimis (1993: 159) are included here, those from C and S Italy are placed under C. cerinoides (see note on that species), Hafellner & Türk (2001) prefer to maintain as distinct taxa the calcicolous C. chlorina s.str., and the silicicolous C. isidiigera: all Italian records are from calcareous rocks. In the plains of the North, especially on Populus in rather polluted areas, I have often observed a lichen formally belonging to C. chlorina s.lat., which probably corresponds to epiphytic samples named C. isidiigera by Ravera (1999). These populations are worthy of further study.


+Caloplaca chrysodeta (Räsänen) Dombr.

Konsp. Fl. Lish. Murm. Obl. i sev.-vost. Finlyandii: 99, 1970 - Placodium chrysodetum [Vain. ex] Räsänen, Ann. Acad. Sc. Fenn., A 34, 4: 113, 1931.

Syn.: Callopisma chrysodetum (Räsänen) Räsänen, Leproplaca chrysodeta (Räsänen) J.R.Laundon

N - VG (Tretiach 1997), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Lepr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-3, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a temperate to humid subtropical species, found on shaded, steeply inclined or underhanging calciferous rocks, certainly ranging throughout the country.


+Caloplaca chrysophthalma Degel.

K. Sv.-Akad. Skr. Natursk., 46: 56, 1944.



C - Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz, Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on base-rich bark of isolated trees (e.g. of Populus, Juglans and Fraxinus). Earlier records from N Italy (Nimis 1993: 160) are due to misentifications.


+Caloplaca cirrochroa (Ach.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 171, 1871 - Lecanora cirrochroa Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 181, 1814.

Syn.: Amphiloma cirrochroum (Ach.) Körb., Gasparrinia cirrochroa (Ach.) Stein, Lecanora murorum v. cirrochroa (Ach.) Schaer., Physcia callopisma v. cirrochroa (Ach.) A.Massal., Physcia cirrochroa (Ach.) Arnold, Placodium cirrochroum (Ach.) Rabenh.

N - VG (Navarro-Rosinés & Roux 1994), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Tosc, Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (TSB), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: r, C: rc, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ u/ Note: a mainly temperate, probably holarctic species, found on hard limestone and dolomite in sheltered situations, often on faces seldom wetted by rain. Some records from the Alps could refer to the superficially similar C. proteus.


+Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., 3, 3: 218, 1861 - Verrucaria citrina Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora: 198, 1796.

Syn.: Amphiloma citrinum (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg., Blastenia citrina (Hoffm.) de Lesd., Callopisma citrinum (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Lecanora citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecanora murorum v. citrina (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Lichen citrinus (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia parietina v. citrina (Hoffm.) Schaer., Placodium citrinum (Hoffm.) Hepp, Pyrenodesmia citrina (Hoffm.) Trevis.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb (Florio & al. 2004, 2006, Rigamonti & al. 2007), Piem (Alessio & al. 1995, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Ravera & al. 1999, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: r, C: rr, D: ec, E: ec, F: ec, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: C. citrina is an almost cosmopolitan lichen. In Italy C. citrina s.str. is the most common species of the genus, occurring on a wide variety of substrata, from asbestos-cement, concrete and mortar to basic siliceous rocks or even eutrophicated wood, very tolerant to, and even favoured by eutrophication (e.g. urine-deposits), common also in urban areas and along the main highways. See also notes on C. flavocitrina and C. phlogina.



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