+Absconditella annexa


Caloplaca erodens Tretiach, Pinna & Grube



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Caloplaca erodens Tretiach, Pinna & Grube


Mycological Progress, 2, 2: 129, 2003.

N - Ven (Tretiach & al, 2003, Nascimbene 2004, 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Tretiach & al. 2003, Nascimbene 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b), Piem (Tretiach & al. 2003), VA (Tretiach & al. 2003). C - Marc (Tretiach & al. 2003), Umbr (Tretiach & al. 2003), Abr (Tretiach & al. 2003, Tretiach & Muggia 2006, Muggia & al. 2007).

Cr.end/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: rr, C: c, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a recently-described, characteristic species, probably still more widespread in upland areas. It occurs on exposed, subvertical faces of limestone and dolomite rocks, incl. old monuments, in dry sites of the montane and subalpine belts, between 1000 and 2500 m.


+Caloplaca erythrocarpa (Pers.) Zwackh

Flora, 45: 487, 1862 - Patellaria erythrocarpa Pers., Ann. Wetterauisch. Ges., 2: 12, 1801.

Syn.: Blastenia arenaria sensu A.Massal., Blastenia ferruginea v. metabasis A.Massal., Blastenia lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) A.Massal., Callopisma arenarium auct., Caloplaca arenaria auct. p.p. non (Pers.) Müll.Arg., Caloplaca erythrocarpa f. diffracto-areolata de Lesd., Caloplaca lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Flagey, Kuttlingeria lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Trevis., Placodium lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Anzi

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: vc, E: r, F: ec, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ paras Aspicilia calcarea when young/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate to subtropical species, found on limestone, dolomite, calciferous sandstone, much more rarely mortar and brick, on horizontal to weakly inclined faces wetted by rain, optimum in natural habitats.


+Caloplaca exsecuta (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

Die Flechten von Tirol: 191, 1902 - Lecanora exsecuta Nyl., Flora, 63: 388, 1880.

Syn.: Blastenia exsecuta (Nyl.) Servít

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, probably circumpolar, extremely variable lichen of basic siliceous rocks in humid, wind-protected situations, certainly much more widespread in the Alps.


+Caloplaca ferrarii (Bagl.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 251, 1900 - Callopisma ferrarii Bagl., Mem. Accad. Sc. Torino, 2, 17: 406, 1858.

Syn.: Caloplaca ferrarii v. pura J.Steiner

N - Frl, TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2004), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: er, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a temperate early colonizer of mortar walls, gypsum outcrops and other calciferous, often man-made substrata, perhaps more widespread in upland areas.


+Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 233, 1861 - Lichen ferrugineus Huds., Fl. Angl.: 444, 1762.

Syn.: Biatora ferruginea (Huds.) Fr., Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A.Massal., Blastenia ferruginea v. corticicola Anzi ex Arnold, Callopisma ferrugineum (Huds.) Trevis., Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th.Fr. non auct., Placodium ferrugineum (Huds.) Hepp

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Alessio & al. 1995, 2003, Zocchi & al. 1997, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1996c, 1997, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate species, with optimum on oaks in the submediterranean belt, absent from heavily disturbed areas. Several saxicolous records from Val d'Aosta, cited by Piervittori & Isocrono (1999) refer to other species.


+Caloplaca festivella (Nyl.) Kieff.

Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz, 66, 1895 - Lecanora ferruginea v. festivella Nyl., Flora, 56: 197, 1873.

N - Piem (TSB). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a temperate to montane-subtropical species, found esp. on schists, in underhangs. According to Wetmore (1996) the records from lowland Liguria by Sbarbaro (see Nimis 1993: 167) refer to a different taxon.


+Caloplaca flavescens (Huds.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 1: 53, 1984 - Lichen flavescens Huds., Fl. Angl., ed. 2, 2: 445, 1762.

Syn.: Amphiloma heppianum Müll.Arg., Caloplaca brevilobata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca heppiana (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca heppiana f. centroleuca (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca sympagaea (Ach.) Sandst., Gasparrinia heppiana (Müll.Arg.) Verseghy, Lecanora heppiana (Müll.Arg.) Hue, Lecanora sympagaea Ach., Physcia callopisma v. centroleuca A.Massal., Physcia heppiana (Müll.Arg.) Arnold, Physcia murorum v centrifuga A.Massal., Physcia murorum v. detrita A.Massal., Placodium callopismum v. brevilobatum (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Placodium callopismum v. plicatum (Wedd.) Leight., Placodium flavescens (Huds.) A.L.Sm., Placodium heppianum (Müll.Arg.) Flagey

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Realini & al. 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Tretiach & Pinna 2000), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Macchione 2006), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, Grillo 1998, Di Benedetto & al. 2002, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: ec, E: rc, F: ec, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly temperate species, found on limestone, dolomite, calciferous sandstone, sometimes on brick, mortar and roofing tiles, also found on walls, monuments etc., somehow less helio- and xerophytic than the closely related C. aurantia, sometimes ascending to above treeline in the mountains of the south.


+Caloplaca flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 37: 110, 1909 - Lecanora flavocitrina Nyl. , Flora, 69: 461, 1886.



N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007)

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: several records of this species might be filed under C. citrina. The entire group of non-effigurate sorediose Caloplacas needs a thorough revision in Italy. For further details see Arup (2006).


+Caloplaca flavorubescens (Huds.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 8: 147, 1976 - Lichen flavorubescens Huds., Fl. Angl.: 443, 1762.

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum v. anomalum A.Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum v. picilos A.Massal., Callopisma luteo-album v. orbiculare A.Massal., Caloplaca aurantiaca auct. non (Lightf.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca aurantiaca v. anomala (A.Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca flavovirescens v. salicina (J. F. Gmel.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca salicina (J. F. Gmel.) Szatala, Caloplaca suberythrella (Nyl.) Clauzade & Rondon, Placodium aurantiacum v. salicinum (Schrad. ex J. F. Gmel.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Brusoni & al. 1997, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, 2001, Loppi 1996b), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003¸ Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Merlo 1993, Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: rc, E: er, F: c, G: rc, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen, most common on old, more or less isolated deciduous trees, esp. oaks, a member of a difficult and variable group.


+Caloplaca flavorubescens (Huds.) J.R.Laundon v. quercina (Flagey) Nimis comb.nov.

- Caloplaca quercina Flagey, Rev. Mycol., 13: 114, 1891.



N - VG (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: a critical taxon, which deserves further study.


+Caloplaca flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

Die Flechten von Tirol: 180, 1902 - Lichen flavovirescens Wulfen, Schr. Ges. naturf. Fr. Berlin, 8: 122, 1787.

Syn.: Biatora flavofusca (Schrad.) W.Mann, Callopisma aurantiacum v. flavovirescens (Wulfen) A.Massal., Caloplaca aurantiaca v. inalpina (Ach.) H.Magn., Caloplaca erythrella (Ach.) Kieff., Caloplaca flavorubescens ssp. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca erythrella (Ach.) Kieff., Lecanora erythrella Ach., Placodium aurantiacum v. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hepp, Placodium aurantiacum v. inalpinum (Ach.) H.Magn., Caloplaca flavovirescens v. dinae Sbarbaro ?, Callopisma aurantiacum v. epomenum A.Massal. ?, Callopisma flavovirescens f. detritum A.Massal. ?

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, 2005b), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: rr, D: c, E: r, F: c, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate species, with optimum on weakly calcareous sandstone and calcifeorus schists, on boulders and walls.


+Caloplaca fulvolutea (Nyl.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 245, 1900 - Lecanora fulvolutea Nyl., Lichenes Scand.: 146, 1861.

Syn.: Caloplaca jungermanniae v. fuscolutoides Räsänen

C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on epilithic mosses (esp. Grimmia) over basic siliceous substrata, certainly present also in the Alps.


+Caloplaca furax Egea & Llimona

Collect. Bot., 14: 266, 1983.



C - Sar (Nimis 1993). S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ paras Aspicilia spp./ Note: on isolated boulders of base-rich or lime-containing siliceous rocks, more rarely on compact limestone and dolomite. This taxon was included into C. conglomerata (correct name: C. pellodella) by Nimis (1993: 162), after having collected it in several parts of Italy, I now agree with Spanish authors in treating it as a distinct taxon, the parasitic habit and several morphological differences support this decision.


+Caloplaca fuscoatroides J.Steiner

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 69: 69, 1919.



N - Emil. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a mediterranean lichen, found on basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain, a critical taxon of the C. crenularia complex, which needs further study.


+Caloplaca glomerata Arup

Ann. bot. Fenn., 27: 329, 1990.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3-4, 3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichen, found on compact limestone in open situations, probably restricted to upland areas in Italy.


+Caloplaca granulosa (Müll.Arg.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 237, 1900 - Amphiloma granulosum Müll.Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16: 380, 1862.

Syn.: Caloplaca granulosa v. sardonia Nimis & Poelt ?, Placodium granulosum (Müll.Arg.) Hepp

N - VG, TAA. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: rr, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on compact limestone, more rarely on dolomite, esp. on weakly inclined faces with periodical seepage of nitrogen-rich solutions, the var. sardonia, lacking the typical isidioid granules, seems to be the most widespread morph in Sardegna.


+Caloplaca grimmiae (Nyl.) H.Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 37: 119, 1909 - Lecanora grimmiae Nyl., Flora, 69: 97, 1886.

Syn.: Caloplaca congrediens auct. non (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca consociata J.Steiner

N - Frl (TSB), TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rc, C: rr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ paras Candelariella vitellina/ Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen, the ecology and distribution of which are narrower than those of its host, it occurs throughout the country, and even in the Mediterranean belt, sometimes on walls, but, contrary to the host, is absent from heavily disturbed habitats.



+Caloplaca haematites (St.-Amans) Zwackh

Flora, 45: 478, 1862 - Lecanora haematites [Chaub. ex] St.-Amans, Fl. Agenaise: 492, 1821.

Syn.: Callopisma cerinum v. rytidodes A.Massal., Callopisma haematites (St.-Amans) A.Massal., Caloplaca cerina v. rytitodes (A.Massal.) H.Olivier, Placodium haematites (St.-Amans) A.L.Sm.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Piem, Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & al. 1996b, 1997), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & al. 2004), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: er, F: rr, G: rc, H: c/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean lichen, founs on smooth bark, esp. common on Ficus carica, throughout Mediterranean Italy, the distinction of this species from C. cerina would be well worthy of a DNA study: the two "species" are clearly altitudinal vicariants in southern Europe, but they often are sympatric in the submediterranean belt, sometimes growing together on the same tree, in such cases I have never seen intermediate forms, but the morphological differences, although easy to appreciate, are admittedly weak.


+Caloplaca herbidella (Hue) H.Magn.

Bot. Notiser, 1932: 430, 1932 - Lecidea caesiorufa f. herbidella Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus., sér. 5, 3 (1911): 151, 1913.

Incl.: Caloplaca caesiorufa auct. ital. p.p., Caloplaca furfuracea H.Magn.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem, VA (TSB), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & al. 2004), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & al. 1997, 1999a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Lign/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, probably holarctic species, found on bark of old coniferous and broad-leaved trees, esp. on basal parts of trunks, more rarely on lignum, absent from the plains of the north. Populations from S Italy, found in the Mediterranean zone (e.g. on Olea and Juniperus) are worthy of further study.


+Caloplaca holocarpa (Ach.) A.E. Wade

Lichenologist, 3: 11, 1965 - Lichen holocarpus [Hoffm. ex] Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 73, 1799.

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum v. holocarpum (Ach.) A.Massal., Caloplaca aurantiaca v. holocarpa (Ach.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca lithophila H.Magn., Caloplaca pyracea v. holocarpa (Ach.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca tenuatula v. lithophila (H.Magn.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Placodium aurantiacum v. holocarpum (Ach.) Anzi, Placodium pyraceum v. holocarpum (Ach.) Anzi

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & al. 2003), Piem, VA, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal, Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-5, 3-5/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: rr, C: c, D: ec, E: rc, F: ec, G: vc, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: a holarctic early colonizer of calciferous substrata, found on the top of isolated calcareous boulders and on mortar walls in urban areas. According to Hafellner & Türk (2001), this lichen was described from lignum. The epithet "holocarpa", consequently, is not a good one to accomodate saxicolous specimens of the C. holocarpa-pyracea group. Pending further research however I still provisionally use it to separate calcicolous from epiphytic samples (C. pyracea) of this very poorly known complex.


+Caloplaca hungarica H.Magn.

Göteb. K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., ser. B, 6, 1: 28, 1944.

Syn.: Caloplaca depauperata H.Magn. non (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca ferruginea f. corticola Anzi ?, Caloplaca ferruginea v. hungarica (H.Magn.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca subathallina H.Magn.


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