+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl (TSB), TAA (Hinteregger 1994), Lomb, Piem (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997c, 1999a), Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane lichen, found on twigs of acid-barked trees, incl. oaks and Larix, perhaps overlooked, or confused with C. ferruginea in the past, but not common in Italy as e.g. in the Iberian Peninsula, perhaps because of its subcontinental character.


+Caloplaca inconnexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. v. inconnexa

Cat. Lich. Univ., 7: 145, 1931 - Lecanora inconnexa Nyl., Flora, 66: 100, 1883.

Syn.: Blastenia arenaria v. parasitica Jatta, Caloplaca percrocata v. parasitica Jatta, Caloplaca saxorum Werner ?, Caloplaca tenuatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ssp. inconnexa (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (TSB), Lomb, Piem (TSB), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc, Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2001), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: rr, C: c, D: ec, E: r, F: ec, G: vc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ paras crustose lichens/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on the top of isolated calcareous boulders and rock outcrops, on calcareous rocks wetted by rain in sunny situations, esp. common on Acarospora cervina and Aspicilia calcarea.


+Caloplaca inconnexa v. nesodes Poelt & Nimis

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 66, 1987.



N - Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (TSB), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: c, G: vc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ paras Aspicilia spp., esp. A. intermutans/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species, found on base- rich siliceous rocks wetted by rain.


+Caloplaca insularis Poelt

Planta, 51: 300, 1958.



N - Lig (TSB), Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Aspicilia candida and A. polychroma/ Note: on calcareous schists, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Caloplaca interfulgens (Nyl.) J.Steiner

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 52: 479, 1902 - Lecanora interfulgens Nyl., Flora, 56: 340, 1878.



C - Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: a mediterranean species, found on sun-exposed calcareous, more rarely basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain, a poorly known species of the S Mediterranean region. Most records from southern Europe, incl. those from Italy, need to be checked against the type material.


+Caloplaca interna Poelt & Nimis

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 67, 1987.



N - Piem (TSB). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 5, 4-5, 2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: rr/ PF: 1/ w/ paras Aspicilia spp./ Note: on south-facing, vertical basic siliceous rocks which are, albeit seldom, wetted by water seepage after rain, often found near Peltula-stands, but somehow less bound to periodical seepage of liquid water, fairly common above the south-facing doors of Sardinian basaltic Nuraghes, the host is mostly sterile, also found in dry-continental Alpine valleys.


+Caloplaca irrubescens (Arnold) Zahlbr.

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 48: 365, 1898 - Callopisma aurantiacum v. irrubescens Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 29: 353, 1879.

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum v. gyalectoides A.Massal. sensu Jatta, Callopisma aurantiacum v. rubescens (Schaer.) A.Massal., Caloplaca aurantia v. irrubescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca subsoluta (Nyl. ex Wedd.) Zahlbr., Placodium aurantiacum ssp. irrubescens (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: rr/ w/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical, widespread lichen found on steeply inclined, sunny basic siliceous rocks, often with Peltula euploca, but less bound to seepages.


+Caloplaca jungermanniae (Vahl) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 221, 1861 - Lichen jungermanniae Vahl, Icon. Pl. Daniae, 6, 18: 6, 1792.

Syn.: Blastenia fuscolutea (Ach.) A.Massal., Caloplaca fuscolutea (Ach.) Th.Fr., Placodium fuscoluteum (Ach.) Hepp

N - TAA, Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arcti-alpine, circumpolar species of terricolous bryophytes and plant debris near and above treeline, on calciferous substrata, but less common in areas with pure limestone, probably much more widespread in the Alps.


+Caloplaca lactea (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

Österr. Bot. Z., 51: 347, 1901 - Callopisma luteoalbum v. lacteum A.Massal., Sched. Crit., 7: 133, n. 236, 1856.

Syn.: Blastenia lactea (A.Massal.) Trevis., Caloplaca tarraconensis Nav.-Ros. nom. nud., Gyalolechia calcicola Gallöe nom. inval., Gyalolechia lactea (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Placodium pyraceum v. lacteum (A.Massal.) A.L.Sm., Xanthocarpia lactea (A.Massal.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Ven (Navarro-Rosinés & Hladun 1996), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc (Navarro-Rosinés & Hladun 1996), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a A1: a, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: a mainly temperate species, an early colonizer of small calcareous pebbles in open habitats (e.g. stony ground in dry grasslands). C. lactea s.str. is a strictly Mediterranean species: all records from the Alps were placed under C. crenulatella.



+Caloplaca ligustica de Lesd.

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 93: 173, 1936.

Syn.: Caloplaca pyrithromoides (H.Olivier) Egea, Chrysomma pyrithromoides (H.Olivier) M.Choisy & Werner, Lecanora pyracea f. pyrithromoides H.Olivier

N - Lig. C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 2-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on schists in open habitats, poorly understood, but probably a good species, known from Italy and the Iberian Peninsula.


+Caloplaca limitosa (Nyl.) H.Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 37: 114, 1909 - Lecanora limitosa Nyl., Flora, 68: 387, 1880.

Syn.: Caloplaca festiva v. decussata (Bagl.) H.Olivier

N - Lig. C - Tosc. S - Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichen, found on hard siliceous rocks, from granite to basalt, mostly in the salt-spray belt, exclusively Tyrrhenian in Italy.


+Caloplaca littorea Tav.

Rev. Fac. Cienc. Lisboa, ser. 2 C, 5: 129, 1956.



C - Sar.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: confined to relatively dry, sheltered recesses in the xeric-supralittoral zone on siliceous rocks, a mainly Atlantic species, known from a single, very peculiar station in Sardegna (Punta Falcone), hosting several other "Atlantic" lichens.


+Caloplaca livida (Hepp) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 247, 1900 - Placodium lividum Hepp, Flecht. Eur.: n. 403, 1857.

Syn.: Callopisma lividum (Hepp) Körb., Caloplaca convexa (Schaer.) Zahlbr.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species, found on bryophytes and plant debris above acid siliceous rocks.


+Caloplaca lobulata (Flörke) Hellb.

Bih. K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 21, 3, 13: 67, 1897 - Lecanora lobulata Flörke, Deutsche Lich., 3: 14, 1815.

Syn.: Caloplaca boulyi (Zahlbr.) M.Steiner & Poelt, Parmelia parietina v. lobulata (Flörke) Fr., Xanthoria boulyi Zahlbr., Xanthoria lobulata (Flörke) de Lesd., Xanthoria parietina v. lobulata (Flörke) Rabenh., Xanthoria parietina v. turgida (Schaer.) Arnold

N - Ven, TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ Note: a mild-temperate, subcontinental species, which in Italy is found esp. on isolated almond trees, mostly on branches, in continental areas (internal Alpine and Apenninic valleys, C Sardegna).


+Caloplaca lucifuga G.Thor

Lichenologist, 20: 175, 1988.



N - VG, Piem (TSB), Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr, Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 3, 2/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a temperate species found on ancient, more or less isolated deciduous trees, esp. oaks or Castanea, often in crevices of rough bark, and on faces seldom wetted by rain.


+Caloplaca luteoalba (Turner) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 220, 1861 - Lichen luteoalbus Turner, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 7: 92, 1803.

Syn.: Biatorina luteoalba (Turner) Körb., Callopisma luteoalbum (Turner) A.Massal., Candelariella luteoalba (Turner) Lettau, Gyalolechia luteoalba (Turner) Arnold

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on dust-covered bark, and in the wound tracks of injured, old trunks, esp. of Ulmus, more frequent in the past, now strongly declining and perhaps extinct in several parts of the country, esp. in the north. Several old records reported by Nimis (1993: 176) refer to C. pyracea, here only records accompanied by specification of spore characters are accepted.


+Caloplaca marina (Wedd.) Du Rietz

[Zahlbr. ex] Du Rietz, Meth. Grundl. Mod. Phytos., Uppsala: 170, 1921 - Lecanora marina Wedd., Mém. Imp. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 19: 275, 1875.

Syn.: Callopisma marina (Wedd.) Du Rietz, Caloplaca lobulata auct. non (Flörke) nec (Sommerf.), Caloplaca obliterata (Pers.) Malme, Caloplaca salina Erichsen, Gasparrinia marina (Wedd.) Havaas, Placodium lobulatum Flagey, Placodium marinum (Wedd.) H.Olivier

C - Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-4, 3-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species in Europe, reported also from N America, growing on basic siliceous rocks, more rarely on calciferous sustrata in the salt-spray belt, see note on C. ora.


+Caloplaca marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 251, 1900 - Callopisma marmoratum Bagl., N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., 11: 84, 1879.

Syn.: Caloplaca lactea f. fulva (Harm.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca lactea f. laetior J.Steiner, Caloplaca lactea f. rubra (de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Gyalolechia lactea f. rubra de Lesd., Lecanora lactea f. fulva Harm.



N - VG (TSB), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Tosc, Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal, Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Navarro-Rosinés & Hladun 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: c, H: vc/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a mild-temperate to xeric subtropical early colonizer of calcareous pebbles in dry mediterranean grasslands, overlooked or misunderstood in the past, but fairly common in the south, rarer, and confined to south-exposed slopes, in the submediterranean belt.


+Caloplaca microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse

Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., 17: 114, 1913 - Placodium microphyllinum Tuck., Syn. North Amer. Lich., 1: 174, 1882.



N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ Note: a mainly xeric subtropical to mild-temperate lichen of continental areas, found on basal parts of trunks, rarely on eutrophicated lignum, described from North America, reported also from dry Alpine valleys (see Nimis 1993: 177).


+Caloplaca microthallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 7: 247, 1931 - Lecanora microthallina Wedd., Mém. Soc. Imp. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 19: 276, 1875.

Syn.: Caloplaca irregularis H.Magn., Caloplaca obliterascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Gasparrinia microthallina (Wedd.) Mereschk., Physcia microthallina (Wedd.) Arnold, Placodium microthallinum (Wedd.) H.Olivier

C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mainly Atlantic species in Europe, also known from N America, confined to the salt-spray belt, in the mesic supralittoral zone, known from a single station in NW Sardegna (Punta Falcone).


+Caloplaca navasiana Nav.-Ros. & Cl.Roux

Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 16, 2: 91, 1995.



C - Sar (Navarro-Rosinés & Roux 1995). S - Si (Navarro-Rosinés & Roux 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a probably mediterranean, recently-described and perhaps more widespread lichen, found on horizontal faces of soft calcareous rocks in coastal situations.


+Caloplaca necator Clauzade & Poelt

Planta, 51: 302, 1958.



N - Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Aspicilia spp./ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichen, distinguished from the ecologically very similar C. inconnexa v. nesodes by the larger thallus, and the much larger spores.


+Caloplaca nivalis (Körb.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 191, 1871 - Zeora nivalis Körb., Denkschr. schles. Ber. vaterl. Kultur: 321, 1853.

Syn.: Bacidia livida (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Bilimbia livida Bagl. & Carestia, Candelariella nivalis (Körb.) Lettau, Gyalolechia nivalis (Körb) A.Massal., Placodium nivale (Körb.) Tuck.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on silicicolous mosses (esp. Andraea and Grimmia). The statement of Printzen (1995) that the type of Biatora livida is Fulgensia schistidii is wrong, the type material of the former species, analyzed by M. Tretiach (pers. comm.), clearly belongs to Caloplaca nivalis.


+Caloplaca oasis (A.Massal.) Szatala

Magy. Bot. Lapok, 31: 120, 1932 - Callopisma aurantiacum v. oasis A.Massal., Sched. Crit., 7: 134, n. 240, 1856.

Syn.: Caloplaca aurantiaca f. oasis (A.Massal.) Th.Fr.

N - VG, Ven. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: r, C: rc, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Bagliettoa spp./ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on hard, compact limestones in sheltered sites with plenty of diffuse light, such as in open deciduous forests, locally common in beech forests of the south.


+Caloplaca obliterans (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell

Points Förteckn. Scand. Växt., 4: 69, 1880 - Placodium obliterans Nyl., Flora, 57: 7, 1874.

Syn.: Caloplaca cirrochroa v. obliterans (Nyl.) Servít, Gasparrinia obliterans (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecanora obliterans (Nyl.) Norrl., Physcia obliterans (Nyl.) Arnold, Placodium cirrochroum v. obliterans (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-4, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: a, C: rc, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found in underhangs of basic siliceous rocks, esp. calcareous schists, certainly present also in the Mediterranean mountains.


+Caloplaca obscurella (Körb.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 182, 1871 - Blastenia obscurella [J.Lahm ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 130, 1860.

Syn.: Callopisma obscurellum (Körb.) J.Lahm, Caloplaca refellens (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Caloplaca sarcopidoides auct. non (Körb.) Zahlbr., Lecanora refellens Nyl., Placodium refellens (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (TSB), TAA, Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995), Piem (TSB), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1995), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a temperate, perhpas holarctic species found on isolated deciduous trees, probably extinct in most of the Po-plain, but elsewhere not uncommon in orchards. The relationship with non-sorediate forms called C. sarcopidoides auct. still need to be clarified. For further details see Arvidsson & Martinsson (1993).


+Caloplaca ochracea (Schaer.) Flagey

Mém. Soc. Emul. Doubs: 257, 1886 - Lecidea ochracea Schaer., Naturwiss. Anz., 2: 11, 1818.

Syn.: Blastenia ochracea (Schaer.) Trevis., Callopisma ochraceum (Schaer.) A.Massal., Callopisma ochraceum v. lacteum A.Massal., Callopisma tetrastichum (Nyl.) Walt.Watson, Caloplaca ochracea v. lactea (A.Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca tetrasticha (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Gyalolechia ochracea (Schaer.) Syd., Placodium ochraceum (Schaer.) Anzi, Placodium tetrastichum (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Xanthocarpia lactea (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Xanthocarpia ochracea (Schaer.) A.Massal., Xanthocarpia ochracea v. lactea (A.Massal.) Beltram.

N - VG (Tretiach & Pecchiari 1995, Pinna & al. 1998), Frl (Pinna & al. 1998), Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rc, D: c, E: er, F: c, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a warm-temperate species found on hard, compact limestones in sheltered situations, in the south it is common in the beech belt as well, sometimes reaching above treeline, in the Mediterranean belt it is confined to more humid-shaded situations.


+Caloplaca oleicola (Steiner) Van den Boom & Breuss

[in Boom van den & Etayo] Mycotaxon, 56: 131, 1995 - Blastenia oleicola Steiner, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 61-62, 1911



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