+Absconditella annexa



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N - Lig (Boom & Etayo 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: this is one of the few black-fruited epiphytic Caloplacas. I have seen samples from Greece and Turkey: it could be more widespread in the Mediterranean region, but it is certainly not common in Italy.


+Caloplaca ora Poelt & Nimis

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 70, 1987.



C - Tosc, Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-4, 4-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mediterranean lichen found on siliceous, more rarely calcareous rocks near the sea, often found with C. marina, apparently without transitional specimens, the distinctiveness of the two taxa would be well worthy of a DNA study.


+Caloplaca oxfordensis Hedr.

Mycol., 26: 162, 1934.

Syn.: Caloplaca scotoplaca f. depauperata H.Magn., Caloplaca subpallida H.Magn.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2002, 2003), Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & al. 2001). C - Sar. S - Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a holarctic, cool-temperate to arctic-alpine lichen found on mineral-rich siliceous rocks, sometimes parasitic on other lichens (Aspicilia, Rhizocarpon, "Neofuscelia"), many Mediterranean records (e.g. from the Iberian Peninsula) are probably wrong. For further information see Wetmore (1996).


+Caloplaca pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse

Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb., 17: 115, 1913 - Lecanora pellodella Nyl. [in Hasse] Lich. S Calif.: 10, 1898.

Syn.: Callopisma conglomeratum Bagl., Caloplaca amabilis Zahlbr., Caloplaca conglomerata (Bagl.) Jatta

N - TAA, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: rr/ PF: 1/ paras crustose lichens/ w/ Note: a mediterranean to xeric subtropical species of base-rich siliceous rocks, often growing with species of Peltula, and starting the life-cycle on other crustose lichens, mostly Mediterranean, but also found, although very rarely, in dry-continental Alpine valleys. The records from Lombardy by Valcuvia & al. (2003), De Vita & Valcuvia 2004 and Delucchi & Valcuvia (2004) are dubious. For further information see Wetmore (1996), see note on C. furax.


+Caloplaca percrocata (Arnold) J.Steiner

[in Halacsy] Denkschr. math.-naturw. Kl., K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 61: 523, 1894 - Blastenia percrocata Arnold, Flora, 67: 309, 1884.

Syn.: Callopisma percrocatum (Arnold) Jatta

N - TAA, Ven, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich and lime-containing siliceous rock above treeline. The identity of mediterranean samples (e.g. those from Sardegna) is dubious, and all south Italian records reported by Nimis (1993: 180) are not accepted here.


+Caloplaca phlogina (Ach.) Flagey

Mém. Soc. Emulat. doubs: 250, 1886 - Parmelia citrina v. phlogina Ach., Meth. Lich.: 180, 1803

Syn.: Caloplaca citrina f. phlogina (Ach.) D.Hawksw., Verrucaria flava Hoffm.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil, Lig. C- Tosc, Marc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Cal, Si.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: r, C: rr, D: c, E: rc, F: rc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: According to Sérusiaux & al. (1999) and Arup (2006), the epiphytic C. phlogina is distinct from C.citrina. The two speies were subsumed by Nimis (1993). Here I provisionally place all regions from which I have seen epiphytic samples of the C. citrina group, warning that the whole complex urgently needs a thorough revision in Italy. See also note on C. flavocitrina.


+Caloplaca pollinii (A.Massal.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Ital.: 244, 1900 - Blastenia pollinii A.Massal., Flora, 35: 575, 1852.

Syn.: Blastenia ferruginea v. versicolor Caldesi ex Rabenh., Callopisma ferrugineum v. pollinii (A.Massal.) Bagl., Callopisma pollinii (A.Massal.) Trevis., Lecanora nigricans (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecanora phaeocarpella Nyl., Lecidea ferruginea v. versicolor sensu Garov., Lecidea gibberosa Pollini non Ach., Placodium phaeocarpellum (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Placodium pollinii (A.Massal.) A.L.Sm.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Si (Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 4, 3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: a warm-temperate species, found mostly on the smooth bark of trees such as Alnus along rivers, much more common in the past, presently extinct over much of its former range.


+Caloplaca polycarpa (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

Österr. bot. Z., 68: 317, 1919 - Callopisma aurantiacum v. polycarpum A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 31, 1855.

Syn: Callopisma polycarpum (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Caloplaca fiumana Zahlbr., Caloplaca inconnexa v. verrucariarum Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca tenuatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca tenuatula f. athallina Clauzade & Cl.Roux nom. inval., Caloplaca tenuatula f. pertenuis (Harm.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca tenuatula ssp. verrucariarum (Clauzade & Cl.Roux) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Lecanora elegans v. pertenuis Harm., Lecanora tenuatula Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: c, E: er, F: vc, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ paras Bagliettoa spp./ Note: a mainly warm-temperate species, found on compact limestone and, more rarely, dolomite, in sheltered situations, optimum in open woodlands, in the Mediterranean belt confined to more humid-shaded situations.


+Caloplaca proteus Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München: 329, 1953.

Syn.: Caloplaca cirrochroa ssp. fulva (Körb.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux?, Physcia cirrochroa v. calcicola Anzi ex Arnold, Placodium pusillum v. miniatum sensu Anzi

N - Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Sar.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: restricted to warm-dry sites in the mountains, see note on C. cirrochroa.


+Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Th.Fr.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 7, 2: 25, 1867 - Parmelia cerina v. pyracea Ach., Meth. Lich.: 176, 1803.

Syn.: Callopisma luteoalbum v. celtidis A.Massal., Callopisma luteoalbum v. confluens A.Massal., Callopisma luteoalbum v. cupressinum Bagl., Callopisma luteoalbum v. orbiculare A.Massal., Caloplaca holocarpa auct. p.p., Caloplaca luteoalba auct. ital. p.p., Placodium pyraceum (Ach.) Anzi

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 2000), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 2001), Emil (Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997b, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: rr, D: vc, E: r, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, holarctic lichen found on nutrient-rich or eutrophicated bark of isolated trees (esp. Acer, Fraxinus and Juglans). This is an extremely controversial group, pending further research, I prefer to treat epiphytic samples as distinct from the calcicolous C. holocarpa.


+Caloplaca rinodinae-albae Poelt & Nimis

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 72, 1987.



C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 4, 2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Rinodina alba/ Note: hitherto known only from the type locality, and to be looked for throughout the Mediterranean, wherever the host is present.


+Caloplaca rubelliana (Ach.) Lojka

Math. es Termeszett. Kozl., 11: 47, 1873 - Lecanora rubelliana Ach., Lich. Univ.: 376, 1810.

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum v. rubescens A.Massal., Callopisma rubellianum (Ach.) A.Massal.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Si (Ottonello & Puntillo 1995, Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 164!).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: vr/ w/ PF: 1/ Note: a warm-temperate to subtropical, widespread lichen, found on steeply inclined, hard, basic siliceous rocks (esp. basalt), often with species of Peltula.


+Caloplaca rubroaurantiaca de Lesd.

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 97: 169, 1950.



N - VA, Lig (Loppi & al. 1997).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a poorly-known member of the difficult C. arenaria group characterized by the smaller spores with a thinner septum, known only from Italy and the French Alps (Dauphinè). The record from Val d' Aosta (see Nimis 1993: 182) requires confirmation.


+Caloplaca sarda Poelt & Nimis

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 73, 1987.



C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a very peculiar species, hitherto known only from the type locality, on basic siliceous rocks in a dry internal valley of Central Sardegna.


+Caloplaca saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin

Calopl. sect. Gasparr. i Nordeur.: 87, 1972 - Psora saxicola Hoffm., Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 1, 3: 82, 1790.

Syn.: Aglaeopisma murorum (Hoffm.) De Not., Amphiloma murorum (Hoffm.) Körb., Callopisma murorum (Hoffm.) De Not., Callopisma pusillum (A.Massal.) Trevis., Callopisma steropeum (Ach.) Körb., Caloplaca discernenda (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca minulata (Nyl.) Lettau, Caloplaca murorum (Ach.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca pusilla (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca pyraceoides de Lesd. ?, Caloplaca saxicola ssp. pulvinata (A.Massal.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca steropea (Ach.) Poetsch, Caloplaca tegularis auct. non (Ehrh.) Zahlbr., Gasparrinia murorum (Hoffm.) Tornab., Gasparrinia pusilla (A.Massal.) Tornab., Lecanora discernenda Nyl. ?, Physcia murorum (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Physcia murorum v. pulvinata A.Massal., Physcia pusilla A.Massal., Physcia pusilla f. euphora A.Massal., Physcia pusilla v. turgida A.Massal., Placodium murorum (Hoffm.) DC., Placodium pusillum (A.Massal.) Anzi, Xanthoria murorum (Hoffm.) Th.Fr.

N - VG (Crisafulli & al. 2004), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2004, 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2004), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: r, C: rc, D: vc, E: rr, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a subtropical to boreal-montane, extremely polymorphic and certainly heterogeneous taxon which well deserves a general revision worldwide, common also in urban areas and on man-made substrata where at least two distinct taxa might occur in Italy, the most widespread form, whose correct name awaits further study, occurs throughout Italy. Here the species is taken in a broad sense, including also C. pusilla (A.Massal.) Zahlbr. (syn.: C. saxicola ssp. pulvinata (A.Massal.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux


+Caloplaca saxifragarum Poelt

Feddes Rep., 58: 176, 1955.

Syn.: Callopisma luteoalbum v. microcarpum (Anzi) Anzi, Callopisma pyraceum v. microcarpum (Anzi) Arnold, Caloplaca pyracea v. microcarpa (Anzi) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Placodium luteoalbum v. microcarpum Anzi

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2002), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & al. 2004). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003, Ravera & al. 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen found on plant debris (esp. on dead leaves of Saxifraga, Dryas and Carex firma), and on muribund bryophytes in open habitats over calcareous or dolomitic substrata, to be looked for in the highest mountains of the south.


+Caloplaca schistidii (Anzi) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ. 7: 181, 8: 588, 1898 - Gyalolechia schistidii Anzi, Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 38, 1860.

Syn.: Candelariella schistidii (Anzi) Lettau, Fulgensia schistidii (Anzi) Poelt, Lecidea luteoalba v. muscicola sensu Schaer.

N - Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: rc, C: rc, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on pulvinate epilithic mosses (esp. Grimmia anomodon and Schistidium apocarpum) over calcareous substrata.


+Caloplaca scotoplaca (Nyl.) H.Magn.

Göteb. K. Vetensk. Vitterh-Samh. Handl., ser. B, 3, 1: 53, 1944 - Lecanora scotoplaca Nyl., Flora: 232, 1876.

Syn.: Biatora caesiorufa auct. non Ach., Caloplaca caesiorufa auct. non (Ach.) Flagey

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001). C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: at least in southern Europe this lichen of basic, hard siliceous rocks has been much misunderstood, several earlier Italian records, esp. those from outside the Alps, need confirmation , as those from Sardegna (see Nimis & Poelt 1987: 74).


+Caloplaca scrobiculata H.Magn.

Rep. Sc. Exped. NW Prov. China, 13: 143, 1940.

Syn.: Caloplaca anularis Clauzade & Poelt

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a species of the southern Eurasiatic mountains, found on steeply inclined, compact limestone and dolomite, perhaps more frequent, but undercollected in the Alps.


+Caloplaca sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) Maheu & A. Gillet

Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun.: 35, 1914 - Lichen sinapispermus Lam. & DC., Encycl. Meth. Bot. Suppl., 3: 369, 1813.

Syn.: Blastenia leucoraea (Ach.) Th.Fr., Blastenia sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) A.Massal., Caloplaca leucoraea (Ach.) Branth, Lecidea ferruginea v. sinapisperma (Lam. & DC.) Schaer., Placodium sinapispermum (Lam. & DC.) Hepp

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (TSB). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a holarctic lichen ranging from the arctic zone to the high southern mountains, found on mosses and plant debris on calcareous or base-rich siliceous substrata, sometimes reaching the montane belt in open habitats, common in the Alps, restricted to the highest areas of the Apennines.


+Caloplaca soralifera Vondràk & Hrouzek

Graphis Scripta, 18, 1: 8, 2006.



N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5 A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a recently-described species of weathered basic rocks (incl. mortar), hitherto known especially from eastern Europe, but probably more widespread, at least in the continental Alpine valleys. Related to C. xerica, but sorediate.


+Caloplaca sorocarpa (Vain.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 8: 589, 1932 - Placodium sorocarpum Vain., Ann. Soc. zool.-bot. Fenn., 9: 320, 1929.



N - Frl (TSB), TAA (Hinteregger 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: easily overlooked, being often sterile, but certainly very rare in Italy.


+Caloplaca spalatensis Zahlbr.

Österr. Bot. Z., 51: 346, 1901.

Syn.: Caloplaca areolata (Zahlbr.) Clauzade, Caloplaca cerina v. areolata Zahlbr.

N - VG, Lig. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras crustose lichens/ Note: a mild-temperate, characteristic, but much misunderstood species, found on the top of calcareous birds' perching boulders, in the north is mostly found at low altitudes, in the south it reaches the montane belt.


+Caloplaca subochracea (Wedd.) Werner

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 102: 354, 1955 - Lecanora aurantiaca v. subochracea Wedd., Mém. Soc. Imp. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 17: 363, 1873.

Syn.: Caloplaca africana sensu Clauzade, Caloplaca marmorata sensu (Bagl.) Jatta non auct., Caloplaca subochracea f. acrustacea Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca subochracea f. pallida Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca subochracea v. luteococcinea Cl.Roux

C - Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Genco & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mediterranean species, found on compact limestones, locally very abundant in coastal situations, extremely rare far from the coast. The colour of the thallus, based on which several varieties were distinguished, is variable depending on exposure to sunlight, and intermediate forms are frequent. The dubious record from the mountains of Campania by Aprile & al. (2003b), is not accepted here.


+Caloplaca tavaresiana Nav.-Ros. & Cl.Roux

Nova Hedwigia, 57, 1-2: 171, 1993.

Syn.: Caloplaca flageyana (Flagey) Zahlbr. ?, Gyalolechia cinnabarina Flagey ?

S - Si (Navarro-Rosinés & Roux 1994b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a probably mediterranean, recently-described species found on calcareous substrata (incl. mortar) near the coast, locally very abundant, to be looked for throughout coastal Mediterranean Italy.


+Caloplaca teicholyta (Ach.) J.Steiner

Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wissensch. 104: 388, 1895 - Lecanora teicholytum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 425, 1810.

Syn.: Blastenia teicholyta (Ach.) Bausch, Blastenia visianica A.Massal., Caloplaca arenaria auct. ital. p.p. non (Pers.) Müll.Arg., Caloplaca erythrocarpa auct. p.p. non (Pers.) Zwackh, Kuttlingeria teicholyta (Ach.) Trevis., Kuttlingeria visianica (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004, Florio & al. 2004, 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vc, E: rr, F: ec, G: vc, H: vr/ PF: 2-3/ suboc/ p/ Note: a warm-temperate early colonizer of calciferous substrata (but very rare on pure limestone), often found on sandstone and mortar, mostly on man-made substrata (walls, monuments, roofing tiles, brick walls), common also in settlements.


+Caloplaca tetraspora (Nyl.) H.Olivier

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 37: 140, 1909 - Lecanora tetraspora Nyl., Acta Soc. Sc. Fenn., 7: 397, 1863.

Syn.: Blastenia tetraspora (Nyl.) Rehm, Caloplaca oligospora (Körb.) Th.Fr.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on bryophytes and plant debris in areas with base-rich or somehow calciferous siliceous substrata, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Caloplaca thallincola (Wedd.) Du Rietz

Sammank. Bot. Sekt. Naturved. Studensällsk. Uppsala, 15: 169, 1921 - Lecanora murorum v. thallincola Wedd., Mém. Soc. Imp. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 19: 274, 1875.

Syn.: Placodium callopismum f. thallincolum (Wedd.) Walt.Watson, Placodium thallincolum (Wedd.) H.Olivier

C - Sar (Lo Forti & al. 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a mainly Atlantic species confined to the salt-spray belt, known from a single station in Sardegna.


+Caloplaca thamnoblasta Nimis & Poelt

[in Vězda] Sched. ad Lich. Rar. Exs.: n. 51, 1993.



S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: on weakly inclined calcareous rocks near the coast, hitherto known only from the type locality (Lampedusa), a very characteristic and easily recognizable species, to be looked for throughout the Mediterranean region.


+Caloplaca tiroliensis Zahlbr.

Annal. Mycol., 1: 360, 1903.

Syn.: Callopisma cerinum f. flavum (Anzi) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca arctica H.Magn., Caloplaca cerina f. flava (Anzi) Jatta, Caloplaca friesii H.Magn., Caloplaca jungermanniae v. subolivacea (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca subolivacea (Th.Fr.) Lynge, Placodium cerinum v. flavum Anzi

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (TSB). C - Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: c, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a holartic, arctic-alpine species, mainly found on mosses and plant debris in Carex firma stands, often on leaves of Saxifraga, common in the Alps, rarer and localized in the Apennines.


+Caloplaca ulcerosa Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 11: 139, 1979.

Syn: Blastenia viperae Zahlbr. ?, Caloplaca viperae (Zahlbr.) H.Olivier ?

N - VG, Frl (Nimis & al. 1996), Ven (TSB), Lomb (vidi!), Piem (TSB), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal, Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: rr, E: er, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a warm-temperate, rather misunderstood, but well-distinct species, esp. common on rough bark of Ulmus and Populus. The type of C. viperae should be compared with that of C. ulcerosa: the two taxa might prove to be synonyms, in which case the former name has priority.


+Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Müll.Arg.

Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16: 387, 1862 - Lichen variabilis Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 1: 26, 1794.

Syn.: Blastenia rhinodinoides (J.Steiner) Szatala, Callopisma paepalostomum v. bagliettianum Jatta, Callopisma variabile (Pers.) Trevis., Caloplaca alpestris sensu Ozenda & Clauzade, Caloplaca fulva (Anzi) J.Steiner, Caloplaca intercedens (Trevis.) J.Steiner, Caloplaca paepalostoma (Anzi) Jatta, Caloplaca rhinodinoides J.Steiner, Caloplaca variabilis f. fulva (Anzi) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca variabilis f. fusca (A.Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca variabilis f. paepalostoma (Anzi) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca variabilis v. fulvoglauca Flagey, Caloplaca variabilis v. granulosa (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca variabilis v. ochracea Müll.Arg., Caloplaca variabilis v. subimmersa (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell, Lecanora variabilis (Pers.) Ach., Placodium fulvum Anzi, Placodium paepalostomum Anzi, Placodium variabile (Pers.) Hepp, Pyrenodesmia intercedens Trevis., Pyrenodesmia variabilis (Pers.) Körb., Pyrenodesmia variabilis v. fusca A.Massal., Rinodina articulata Bagl., Thelotrema intercedens (Trevis.) Nyl.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: r, C: rc, D: c, E: r, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a probably holarctic, subtropical to boreal-montane, very polymorphic lichen, found a wide variety of calciferous substrata wetted by rain. The whole complex is worthy of further study (see Muggia & al. 2007).


+Caloplaca velana (A.Massal.) Du Rietz

Götland. Vegetationsst.: 45, 1925 - Callopisma aurantiacum v. velanum A.Massal., Atti Ist. Ven. Sc. Lett. Arti, ser. 2, 3, app. 3: 74, 1852.

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum v. diffractum A.Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum v. leucotis A.Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum v. ochroleucum A.Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum v. placidium A.Massal., Callopisma dalmaticum A.Massal., Caloplaca aurantiaca v. ochroleuca (A.Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca aurantiaca v. placidia (A.Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca aurantiaca v. velana (A.Massal.) Flagey, Caloplaca dolomiticola (Hue) Zahlbr., Caloplaca dolomiticola f. nubigenoides Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca placidia (A.Massal.) J.Steiner, Caloplaca velana v. dalmatica (A.Massal.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca velana v. dolomiticola (Hue) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca velana v. placidia (A.Massal.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Caloplaca velana v. schaereri (Flörke ex Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Lecidea velana (A.Massal.) Hue, Lecidea schaereri Flörke ex Arnold, Placodium aurantiacum v. diffractum (A.Massal.) Anzi, Placodium aurantiacum v. velanum (A.Massal.) Anzi

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rc, C: c, D: vc, E: r, F: vc, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: on a wide variety of calcareous substrata in exposed, rather eutrophicated situations, extremely polymorphic, and in need of revision.


+Caloplaca velana v. schaereri (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n. sér., n. spéc. 7: 825, 1985 - Lecidea schaereri [Flörke ex] Arnold, Flora, 64: 312, 1881.

Syn.: Caloplaca schaereri (Arnold) Zahlbr.

N - Lomb. S - Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: r, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: among the several infraspecific taxa recognized by Clauzade & Roux (1985) this one is accepted here only because there are several records from Italy, the whole groups badly needs revision.


+Caloplaca veneris Cl.Roux & Nav.-Ros.

Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence, 43:100, 1992.



S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a recently-described species of calcareous rocks, probably more widespread along the Mediterranean coasts.


+Caloplaca virescens (Sm.) Coppins

[in D.Hawksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 106, 1980 - Lepraria virescens Sm., Engl. Bot.: 30, tab. 2149, 1810.



N - Piem (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006b). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on old deciduous trees, esp. oaks and chestnut, often near the base of the trunks, overlooked, or confused with C. cerina, but certainly not common, to be looked for in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Caloplaca xantholyta (Nyl.) Jatta

N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., 2, 9: 476, 1902 - Lecanora xantholyta Nyl., Flora, 62: 361, 1879.

Syn.: Lepraria xantholyta (Nyl.) Lettau, Leproplaca xantholyta (Nyl.) Hue., Placodium citrinum v. auratum Anzi, Placodium xantholytum (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb, Piem (TSB), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (TSB), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (TSB), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Lepr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-3, 1-2, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: er, F: c, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen of steeply inclined to underhanging limestones and other calcareous rocks in humid, often shaded situations.


+Caloplaca xanthostigmoidea (Räsänen) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 10: 631, 1940 - Placodium xanthostigmoideum Räsänen, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 20: 15, 1933.

Syn.: Caloplaca epiphyta Lynge

N - Ven (Nascimbene 2005c ), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax-Epiph/ 4-5, 4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: for further details see Søchting & Tønsberg (1997). See also note on C. bryochrysion.


+Caloplaca xerica Poelt & Vězda

[in Poelt] Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 12: 2, 1975.

Incl.: Caloplaca xerica v. venostana Poelt

N - TAA (Wetmore 1996), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on weathered basic siliceous rocks, restricted to dry-continental Alpine valleys and perhaps more widespread in Eurasia, the variety venostana differs in the blackish apothecial disks.


+Calvitimela aglaea (Sommerf.) Hafellner

[in Hafellner & Türk] Stapfia, 76: 151, 2001 - Lecidea aglaea Sommerf., Suppl. Fl. Lapp.: 144, 1826.

Syn.: Lecidea brunneri Nyl., Lecidea crombei Nyl., Lecidea relanderi Räsänen, Lecidella aglaea (Sommerf.) Körb., Oedemocarpus aglaeus (Sommerf.) Trevis., Tephromela aglaea (Sommerf.) Hertel & Rambold

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Sar (Nöske & al. 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-6/ A: rc, A1: c, B: er, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on inclined faces of hard siliceous rocks.


+Calvitimela armeniaca (DC.) Hafellner

[in Hafellner & Türk] Stapfia, 76: 151, 2001 - Rhizocarpon armeniacum DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 367, 1805.

Syn.: Lecidea armeniaca (DC.) Fr., Lecidea melaleuca Sommerf., Lecidea nigrita Schaer., Lecidea spectabilis Flörke, Lecidea viridiatra Ach., Lecidella armeniaca (DC.) Bagl., Lecidella spectabilis (Flörke) Körb., Oedemocarpus armeniacus (DC.) Trevis., Psora armeniaca (DC.) A.Massal., Psora spectabilis (Flörke) Anzi, Psora spectabilis v. armeniaca (DC.) Anzi, Psora spectabilis v. lutescens Anzi, Psora viridiatra (Ach.) Anzi, Tephromela armeniaca (DC.) Hertel & Rambold

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: c, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on hard siliceous rocks in wind-exposed situations, most common in the Alps, much rarer in the mountains of the south, a facultative juvenile parasite of Sporastatia testudinea. A dubious record from Campania reported by Nimis (1993: 682) is not accepted here. Calvitimela melaleuca (Sommerf.) R.Sant. is considered as an indipendent species by some authors, and is known from the Alps of Switzerland and France.


+Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein

[in Cohn] Krypt.-Fl. von Schlesien, 2: 84, 1879 - Lichen concolor Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit., 3: 18, 1793.

Syn.: Blasteniospora concolor (Dicks.) Trevis., Caloplaca concolor (Dicks.) Jatta, Candelaria concolor v. granulosa (Harm.) Mereschk., Candelaria laciniosa (Dufour) Körb., Candelaria vulgaris A.Massal., Lecanora laciniosa (Dufour) Nyl., Physcia candelaria v. pulvinata Anzi ?, Physcia concolor (Dicks.) Bagl. & Carestia

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2007), TAA (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Zieger & al. 2003, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Griselli & al. 2000, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2001, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997e, 1998b, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Del Guasta 2001), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol. n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 3-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vc, E: c, F: vc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mild-temperate, probably holarctic species found on bark, more rarely on calciferous substrata, mostly on isolated trees in agricultural areas, on wayside trees, etc., rare in the Mediterranean belt, and less common along the Adriatic side of the Peninsula.


+Candelariella aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 5: 790, 1928 - Verrucaria aurella Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora: 197, 1796.

Syn.: Caloplaca subsimilis Th.Fr., Candelariella aurella f. heidelbergensis (Nyl.) P.James, Candelariella aurella f. smaragdula Szatala, Candelariella cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr., Candelariella dispersa Hakul., Candelariella epixantha (Nyl.) Sandst. non (Ach.) Arnold, Candelariella heidelbergensis (Nyl.) Poelt, Candelariella litoralis Hakul., Candelariella vitellina f. aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Candelariella vitellina v. aurella (Hoffm.) A.L.Sm., Gyalolechia aurella (Hoffm.) Körb., Parmelia murorum v. aurella (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecanora heidelbergensis Nyl., Lecanora vitellina v. aurella (Hoffm.) Ach.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Florio & al. 2004, 2006), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Tretiach & Pinna 2000), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-5, 2-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vc, A1: ec, B: vc, C: ec, D: ec, E: vc, F: ec, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ p/ paras crustose lichens/ Note: a holarctic, subtropical to arctic-alpine, almost cosmopolitan species, found on a wide variety of calciferous substrata, from limestone and dolomite to mortar, asbestos-cement and concrete, exceptionally on eutrophicated and dusty lignum and bark. The species is very polymorphic: further study is needed on some forms above treeline, and on the biology of other forms regularly starting the life-cycle as parasites of crustose lichens.


+Candelariella coralliza (Nyl.) H.Magn.

Sv. Bot. Tidskr., 29: 122, 1935 - Lecanora coralliza Nyl., Flora, 58, 6: 15, 1875.

Syn.: Candelariella pulvinata (Malbr.) Zahlbr., Candelariella vitellina v. pulvinata (Malbr.) Mereschk., Lecanora vitellina v. pulvinata Malbr.

N - Frl, VA (Favero-Longo & al. 2006). C - Sar (Nöske & al. 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Lign/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: c, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on siliceous rocks, more rarely on lignum or even dust-covered bark in open habitats, most frequent in Alpine to subalpine pastures, on isolated boulders used as bird's perches, certainly widespread throughout the Alps, but overlooked, or subsumed under C. vitellina by Italian authors. The dubious records from lowland Toscana and Lazio reported by Nimis (1993: 193), are not accepted here.


+Candelariella efflorescens auct. eur.

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