+Absconditella annexa


non R.C.Harris & W.R.Buck, Michigan Bot., 17: 155, 1978



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non R.C.Harris & W.R.Buck, Michigan Bot., 17: 155, 1978.


N - Frl, Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C er, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on isolated trees, esp. in orchards, certainly more widespread in the Alps. This taxon needs further study: it is apparently similar to C. reflexa, but the soredia are farinose, well-delimited, punctiform, and they never develop from a subsquamulose thallus (see Nimis 1993: 193). The species might be not identical with the N American C. efflorescens, but is almost certainly distinct from C. reflexa.

+Candelariella faginea Nimis, Poelt & Puntillo

Nova Hedwigia, 49: 276, 1989.



N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006, 2006), Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003, Fornasier & al. 2005, Ravera 2006), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Aragón & Martínez 2002), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: known from the cool-temperate zone of southern Europe, on smooth bark of deciduous trees, esp. Fagus, in open woodlands, it is most frequent in beech forests of the south.


+Candelariella kuusamoensis Räsänen

Ann. Soc. zool-bot. Fenn., 12: 1: 58, 1939.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Lig (TSB). S - Cal (Lich. Graec. 285: Obermayer 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Terr/ 2-3, 5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a boreal-montane, poorly understood lichen, found on the top of poles and wooden fences, on plant debris and soil, more rarely on rocks, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Candelariella lutella (Vain.) Räsänen

Ann. Soc. Scient. Argentina, 128: 57, 1939 - Lecanora xanthostigma v. lutella Vain., Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 3: 102, 1878.



N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Emil (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen of smooth bark, esp. of Alnus, overlooked, or confused with similar species, but certainly not common.


+Candelariella medians (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

Mon. Brit. Lich.: 228, 1918 - Placodium medians Nyl., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 9: 262, 1862.

Syn.: Caloplaca granulata (Schaer.) Lindau, Caloplaca medians (Nyl.) Flagey, Candelaria medians (Nyl.) Flagey, Candelariella granulata (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Gasparrinia medians (Nyl.) Syd., Lecanora granulata (Schaer.) Vain., Lecanora medians (Nyl.) Nyl., Parmelia parietina v. granulata Schaer.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & al. 2000), Piem, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Tretiach & Pinna 2000), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: vr, C: rr, D: rc, E: vr, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on man-made calcareous substrata (churches, other monuments, top of statues in parks and of gravestones), esp. above the Mediterranean belt, but also on the top of isolated calcareous boulders in natural situations, abundant in small villages of the Apennines.


+Candelariella plumbea Poelt & Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon., 11: 89, 1976.

Syn.: Candelariella oleaginescens v. glebulosa Asta, Clauzade & Cl.Roux nom. inval.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nimis 1994), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999), VA (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen found on dolomitic rocks wetted by rain in exposed habitats, often developing along small cracks, probably more widespread in the Alps. Frequently confused, in the past, with C. aurella.


+Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 196, 1912 - Lecanora vitellina v. reflexa Nyl., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 16: 241, 1866.

Syn: Caloplaca reflexa (Nyl.) Jatta, Lecanora reflexa (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002 Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2007), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & Maffei 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, 2001, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, Loppi 1996, 1996b, 1999a, 1998b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Recchia & Villa 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C er, D: vc, E: rc, F: vc, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mild-temperate, holarctic lichen, found on isolated trees, esp. along waysides and in agricultural areas, somehow rarer along the Adriatic side of the peninsula, and rare throughout Mediterranean Italy.


+Candelariella subdeflexa (Nyl.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 196, 1912 - Lecanora subdeflexa Nyl., Flora, 62: 355, 1879.



N - VG, TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & al. 2004), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen found on isolated trees, esp. Fraxinus, Populus and Juglans, often near the base of the trunks, probably declining.


+Candelariella superdistans (Nyl.) Malme

Sv. Bot. Tidskr., 4: 164, 1910 - Lecanora superdistans Nyl., Flora 1879: 355, 1879.



N - Frl. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ paras Lecanora populicola/ Note: a cool-temperate lichen, very much overlooked in the past, but never common in Italy.


+Candelariella unilocularis (Elenkin) Nimis

Studia Geobot. 14: 28, 1994 - Candelariella cerinella v. unilocularis Elenkin, Lich. Flor. Rossiae Mediae, 2: 273, 1907.

Syn.: Candelariella aurella v. unilocularis (Elenkin) Zahlbr.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA (Nascimbene 2003b, Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (TSB). C - Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: probably this is a species of the mountains of the southern holarctic zone, it is found on epilithic mosses on limestone and dolomite, a characteristic element of calcareous mountains, well-distinct from C. aurella.


+Candelariella viae-lacteae G.Thor & V.Wirth

Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk., ser. A, n. 445: 2, 1990.



N - Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Tretiach 1997). C - Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006b). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Tretiach 1997, Puntillo 1996, Aragón & Martínez 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, recently-described and easy to overlook - being mostly sterile - which is certainly more widespread in Italy, esp. on wayside trees in small settlements.


+Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll.Arg.

Bull. Herb. Boissier, 2: 47, 1894 - Verrucaria vitellina Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora: 197, 1796.

Syn.: Callopisma vitellinum (Hoffm.) Bagl., Caloplaca vitellina (Hoffm.) Th.Fr., Candelaria vitellina (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Candelariella flavovirella (Nyl.) Lettau, Candelariella henrici de Lesd. ?, Candelariella vitellina v. corrusca (Ach.) Ozenda & Clauzade, Gyalolechia vitellina (Hoffm.) Anzi, Lecanora vitellina (Hoffm.) Ach., Zeora vitellina v. corruscans (Ach.) Flot., Xanthoria vitellina (Hoffm.) Th.Fr.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2007, Favero-Longo & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, 2004, Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Di Benedetto & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Lign/ 1-3, 3-5, 3-4, 2-5/ Alt: 1-6/ A: ec, A1: ec, B: ec, C: ec, D: vc, E: rc, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: a holarctic, almost cosmopolitan lichen with a wide ecological range, found on a wide variety of siliceous rocks, on roofing tiles, brick, and sometimes on bryophytes, lignum and acid bark.


+Candelariella xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 196, 1912 - Lichen xanthostigmus [Pers. ex] Ach., Lich. Univ.: 403, 1810.

Syn.: Callopisma vitellinum v. xanthostigmum (Ach.) Bagl., Candelariella vitellina v. xanthostigma (Ach.) Elenkin, Lecanora vitellina v. xanthostigma (Ach.) Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000 Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2007, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2003), Lomb (Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & Maffei 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Bettini 2001, Del Guasta 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2-3, 3-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: rc, D: vc, E: r, F: vc, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mild-temperate to cool-temperate, perhaps holarctic species, found on bark of more or less isolated trees, esp. oaks, but also on conifers, much more rarely on lignum.


+Canoparmelia crozalsiana (de Lesd.) Elix & Hale

[in Elix & al.] Mycotaxon, 27: 278, 1986 - Parmelia crozalsiana de Lesd. [in Harm.] Lich. de France, 4: 555, "1909" (1910).

Syn.: Parmelia carneopruinata (Zahlbr.) Hale, Parmelia sbarbaronis de Lesd., Pseudoparmelia carneopruinata (Zahlbr.) Hale, Pseudoparmelia crozalsiana (de Lesd.) Hale

N - Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & Giordani 2000, 2003, Giordani & al. 2001). C - Laz (TSB). S - Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species with subtropical affinities, also reported from N America, locally abundant only - and strangely - in Liguria (esp. in Olea-plantations), but also sporadically occurring in other warm-humid areas of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Carbonea aggregantula (Müll.Arg.) Diederich & Triebel

Herzogia 9, 3-4: 52, 1993 - Lecidea aggregantula Müll.Arg. Flora, 57: 533, 1874.

Syn.: Nesolechia aggregantula (Müll.Arg.) Rehm

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Hafellner 1996, 2006).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecanora polytropa and Rhizoplaca spp. (thallus)/ Note: a lichenicolous fungus, certainly much more widespread in the Alps.


+Carbonea assimilis (Körb.) Hafellner & Hertel

[in V.Wirth] Flechten Baden-Württembergs: 511, 1987 - Lecidella assimilis [Hampe ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 202, 1861.

Syn.: Lecidea assimilis (Körb.) Th.Fr., Psora assimilis (Körb.) Zahlbr.

C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ paras crustose lichens/ Note: a probably holarctic species, found on basic siliceous rocks, esp. schist and gneiss in exposed situations.


+Carbonea atronivea (Arnold) Hertel

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 375, 1983 - Lecidea atronivea Arnold, Flora, 53: 123, 1870.



N - TAA, Piem (TSB), VA (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecidella spp. when young/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on lime-containing siliceous rocks (e.g. calciferous schists), certainly overlooked and more widespread in the Alps.


+Carbonea distans (Kremp.) Hafellner & Obermayer

[in Obermayer] Mitt. naturwiss. Ver. Steiermark, 123: 116, 1993 - Lecidea distans Kremp., Flora, 37: 71, 1855.

Syn.: Biatora mosigiicola Eitner, Lecanora mosigiicola (Eitner) Hertel & Rambold, Lecidea distans Kremp., Lecidea mosigiicola (Eitner) Zahlbr., Lecidea straminea Anzi, Lecidella distans (Kremp.) Körb.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Orphniospora mosigii/ Note: an arctic-alpine obligate parasite, found on hard siliceous rocks, in steeply inclined, exposed faces, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Carbonea intrudens (H.Magn.) Hafellner

Fritschiana, 52: 40, 2006 - Lecidea intrudens H.Magn., Ark. Bot., 33, A, 1: 53, 1946.

Syn.: Carbonea halacsyi sensu Hafellner & Sancho non Lecidea halacsyi J.Steiner

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Hafellner 2006), TAA (Hafellner 2006), Piem (Hafellner 2006), Emil (Hafellner 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras yellow Rhizocarpon species/ Note: perhaps circumpolar-alpine in distributio, this is a doubtfully lichenised, obligately lichenicolous fungus. For forther details see Hafellner (2006).


+Carbonea latypizodes (Nyl.) Knoph & Rambold

[in Hertel] Sendtnera, 7, 2001 - Lecidea latypizodes Nyl., Flora, 57: 12, 1874.

Syn.: Lecidea lacteola Nyl., Lecidea liguriensis H.Magn., Lecidella lacteola (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert

N - TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4, 3-4, 3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: an early colonizer of small pebbles in dusty situations, esp. near the ground.


+Carbonea supersparsa (Nyl.) Hertel

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 375, 1983 - Lecidea supersparsa Nyl., Flora, 48, 1865.

Syn.: Nesolechia vitellinaria v. supersparsa (Nyl.) Keissl., Nesolechia supersparsa (Nyl.) Rehm

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Hafellner 2006), Piem (TSB). C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Si.

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecanora polytropa s.lat. and Rhizoplaca spp./ Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichenicolous fungus, certainly widespread throughout the Alps.


+Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 375, 1983 - Lecidea vitellinaria Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1852: 117, 1852.

Syn.: Lecidea imponens Leight., Lecidea pitensis Lönnr., Lecidella vitellinaria (Nyl.) Kremp., Nesolechia vitellinaria (Nyl.) Rehm

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Hafellner 2006), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, Hafellner 2006), VA (Piervittori & al. 1998, 2004, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: rr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ paras Candelariella spp./ Note: a holarctic, temperate to arctic lichenicolous fungus, esp. common in upland areas, but also found in the humid Mediterranean belt.


+Carbonea vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 442, 1983 - Lecidea sabuletorum v. vorticosa Flörke, Mag. natf. Fr. Berlins, 2: 311, 1808.

Syn.: Lecidea asperella Stirt., Lecidea güttingeri Müll.Arg., Lecidea kündigiana Müll.Arg., Lecidea pullulans Th.Fr., Lecidea sublatypea Nyl. ex Cromb., Lecidea vorticosa (Flörke) Körb.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil. C - Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-6/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on steeply inclined faces of lime-poor sandstone, schists and gneiss, rarely on dolomite, common in the Alps, much rarer in the south.


+Catapyrenium cinereum (Pers.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 325, 1855 - Endocarpon cinereum Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 1: 28, 1794.

Syn.: Dermatocarpon cinereum (Pers.) Th.Fr., Dermatocarpon hepaticum (Ach.) Th.Fr. non auct., Dermatocarpon tephroides (Ach.) W.Mann, Endocarpon hepaticum Ach. non auct., Endocarpon tephroides v. polythecium Pollini, Endopyrenium cinereum (Pers.) Oksner, Involucrocarpon cinereum (Pers.) Servít, Pyrenula mycrociba Ach., Sagedia cinerea (Pers.) Fr., Verrucaria polythecia Ach., Verrucaria tephroides Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: c, A1: vc, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species occurring also in more southern mountains on siliceous, base-rich soil with mica, or amongst terricolous bryophytes.


+Catapyrenium daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein

[in Cohn] Krypt.- Fl. von Schlesien, 2, 2: 312, 1879 - Endocarpon daedaleum Kremp., Flora, 38: 66, 1855.

Syn.: Dermatocarpon cartilagineum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Dermatocarpon daedaleum (Kremp.) Th.Fr., Endopyrenium daedaleum (Kremp.) Körb., Placidiopsis daedalea (Kremp.) Creveld, Placidium daedaleum (Kremp.) Kremp., Placocarpus daedaleus (Kremp.) Trevis.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB),VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on plant debris, mosses and bare, humus rich soil on calciferous ground, perhaps less common than C. cinereum in the mountains of the south.


+Catapyrenium psoromoides (Borrer) R.Sant.

[in D.Hawksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12, 1: 106, 1980 - Verrucaria psoromoides Borrer [in Hook. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot. Suppl. 1, tab. 2612 fig. 1, 1831.

Syn.: Dermatocarpon daedaleum v. corticola H.Magn., Dermatocarpon daedaleum f. pruinosum Vain., Dermatocarpon psoromoides (Borrer) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Placidium cartilagineum v. muscicolum Arnold, Placocarpus psoromoides (Borrer) Trevis.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995), TAA, Lomb, Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc, Laz (Fornasier & al. 2005), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b), Mol (Frati & al. 2004), Sar (Zedda 2001).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate, probably holarctic lichen, found on the base of old trees, esp. on rough bark in parklands and open woodlands, occasionally on epiphytic bryophyes, very rarely on epilithic mosses.


+Catillaria alba Coppins & Vězda

[in Vězda] Sched. ad Lich. Rar. Exs. 52, 1993.



C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on decorticated trunks of old deciduous trees protected from rain, certainly rare, but to be looked for elsewhere in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Catillaria atomarioides (Müll.Arg.) H.Kilias

Herzogia 5(3-4): 327 (1981) - Lecidea atomarioides Müll.Arg., Flora, 57: 187, 1874.


Syn.: Catillaria microcarpa R.Sant.

C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008). S - Si (Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: an inconspicuous lichen of hard siliceous rocks in humid situations, very much overlooked and certainly more widespread in Italy.


+Catillaria chalybeia (Borrer) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 79, 1852 - Lecidea chalybeia Borrer [in Hook. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot. Suppl. 1: tab. 2687, 1831.

Syn.: Biatora deplanatula Müll.Arg., Biatorina chalybeia (Borrer) Mudd, Biatorina lenticularis v. chalybeia (Borrer) Anzi, Biatorina lenticularis v. chloropoliza (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Biatorina nubila Norman, Biatorina pleiospora J.Steiner, Buellia chalybeia (Borrer) Bagl., Catillaria chalybeia v. chloropoliza (Nyl.) H.Kilias, Catillaria chloroscotina (Nyl.) Arnold, Catillaria doliocarpa (Müll.Arg.) Arnold, Catillaria lenticularis v. vulgaris (Körb.) Th.Fr., Catillaria nigroclavata v. baliola (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Catillaria pleiospora (J.Steiner) J.Steiner, Lecidea baliola Nyl., Lecidea deplanatula (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea spodoplaca Nyl., Patellaria doliocarpa Müll.Arg., Thalloidima rechingeri Szatala ?

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Zedda 2001, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: r, C: rc, D: rr, E: er, F: vc, G: c, H: vr/ p/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a holarctic, subtropical to arctic species, found on a wide range of siliceous substrata, incl. roofing tiles and brick, and even on gypsum, in sheltered situations and also on periodically inundated rocks, common both in natural and urban areas, esp. on walls (e.g. present within the urban area of Rome). The record from Toscana by Loppi & al. (1999a), on trees, is probably erroneous.


+Catillaria contristans (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 4: 35, 1926 - Lecidea contristans Nyl., Flora, 48: 354, 1865.

Syn.: Biatora hypocyanea (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Biatorina contristans (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatorina sphaeralis Anzi, Bilimbia dufourii Ach. ex Nyl., Catillaria dufourii (Ach ex Nyl.) Vain., Catillaria sphaeralis (Anzi) Körb., Lecidea dufourii Ach. ex Nyl., Lecidea hypocyanea Stirt., Lecidea sabuletorum f. simplicior Nyl.

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on dead bryophytes (Andreaea, Grimmia) and soil rich in humus over acid siliceous rocks. According to Coppins (1983), it is closely related to Protomicarea limosa.


+Catillaria detractula (Nyl.) H.Olivier

Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot., 10: 129, 1901 - Lecanora detractula Nyl., Flora, 58: 444, 1875.

Syn.: Lecania detractula (Nyl.) Arnold

C - Marc. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate species of calcareous rocks in open situations. Ecology and distribution need further study, and the indicator values are very tentative.


+Catillaria erysiboides (Nyl.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 572, 1874 - Lecidea erysiboides Nyl., Not. Sällsk. F. Fl. Fenn., 4: 232, 1859.

Syn.: Biatorina erysiboides (Nyl.) Arnold

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b), TAA. C - Tosc, Marc, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: r, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on hard lignum, e.g. on horizontal faces of old stumps. According to Printzen (1995) a further synonym could be Lecidea symmictella Nyl.. According to Coppins (1981) the epithet "erysiboides" was used for widely different taxa (e.g. Biatora carneoalbida, Lecania cyrtella and related taxa, Micarea prasina, etc.) Records from Toscana and Marche (Nimis 1993: 204) need confirmation: they could refer to Micarea prasina or related species. It does not belong into Catillaria s.str.


+Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 567, 1874 - Lecidea lenticularis Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 28, 1814.

Syn.: Biatora chalybeia sensu Hepp, Biatorina heppii A.Massal., Biatorina lenticularis (Ach.) Körb., Biatorina lenticularis v. erubescens Flot., Biatorina lenticularis v. geographica A.Massal. ex Arnold, Biatorina lenticularis v. punctulata (Körb.) Syd., Biatorina lojkana Lahm, Biatorina pulicaris A.Massal., Biatorina versicolor Hellb., Catillaria dolosa auct., ­Catillaria lenticularis v. erubescens (Flot.) Th.Fr., Catillaria lojkana (Lahm) Zahlbr., Catillaria rhyparophaea (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Catillaria umbrinella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecania actaea (Nyl.) de Lesd., Lecidea gagei Hook. non (Sm.) A.L.Sm. quid est Herteliana taylorii, Lecidea rhyparophaea Nyl., Lecidea umbrinella Nyl., Microlecia lenticularis (Ach.) M.Choisy

N - VG, Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: r, C: rc, D: c, E: vr, F: vc, G: c, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen found on limestone and, more rarely, on dolomite, sometimes on nutrient-enriched, base-rich siliceous rocks, optimum in open woodlands.


+Catillaria mediterranea Hafellner

Herzogia, 6: 293, 1982.

Syn.: Scutula pleiospora Vouaux

C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Bas (Tretiach & Hafellner 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, van den Boom 2002), Cal (Nimis & Puntillo 2003), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Tretiach & Hafellner 1998).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Anaptychia ciliaris and Ramalina spp./ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichenicolous fungus. For further details see Tretiach & Hafellner (1998).


+Catillaria minuta (A.Massal.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 135, 1912 - Biatorina minuta A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 137, n. 250, fig. 271, 1852.

Syn.: Biatorina arnoldii Kremp., Biatorina arnoldii v. luteella (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Catillaria arnoldii (Kremp.) Th.Fr.

N - Frl, Ven, Lomb, Emil. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on steeply inclined or underhanging faces of compact limestones in sheltered situations, e.g. in narrow gorges along creeks.


+Catillaria nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler

Mitt. naturwiss. Clubs in Fiume, 6: 35, 1902 - Lecidea nigroclavata Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1853: 160, 1853.

Syn.: Catillaria ilicis A.Massal., Lecidea ilicis A.Massal. nom. nud.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Valcuvia & al. 2000), TAA (Hinteregger 1994), Lomb (Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi 1996b, Loppi & al. 1998, Putortì & Loppi 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: rc, E: r, F: c, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate, holarctic species, found on isolated deciduous trees, also in rather disturbed habitats, e.g. in parklands, and on wayside trees. For the distinction towards C. mediterranea and C. praedicta see Tretiach & Hafellner (1998).


+Catillaria picila (A.Massal.) Coppins

Lichenologist, 21: 223, 1989 - Biatora picila A.Massal., Miscell. Lichenol.: 38, 1856.

Syn.: Biatorina picila (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Catillaria anomaloides auct. non (A.Massal.) Lettau, Lecidea anomaliza Nyl., Lecidea picila (A.Massal.) Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Emil. C - Tosc, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Pugl.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate species found on compact calcareous rocks, esp. limestone but also on calciferous schists, often together with C. minuta.


+Catillaria praedicta Tretiach & Hafellner

Lichenologist, 30, 3: 222, 1998.



C - Tosc (Tretiach & Hafellner 1998, Putortì & Loppi 1999), Sar (Tretiach & Hafellner 1998, van den Boom 2002). S - Pugl (Tretiach & Hafellner 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Tretiach & Hafellner 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-4, 3-5, 2, 3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a probably mediterranean species, found on twigs and boles of smooth-barked trees and shrubs, esp. along the coast in areas with humid maritime winds. A recently-described lichen, which will probably prove to be fairly common in humid parts of the Mediterranean.


+Catinaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Vězda & Poelt

[in Poelt & Vězda] Bibl. Lichenol., 16: 363, 1981 - Lecidea sphaeroides v. atropurpurea Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 4-5: 165, 1833.

Syn.: Biatora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hepp, Biatorina arceutica Körb., Biatorina atropurpurea (Schaer.) A.Massal., Catillaria adpressa (Hepp) Schuler, Catillaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th.Fr.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical lichen, found on trunks of old broad-leaved trees, often on parts which are seldom wetted by rain, or on undersides of thick branches, locally common in some humid areas of the south.


+Catinaria neuschildii (Körb.) P.James

Lichenologist, 3: 97, 1965 - Biatorina neuschildii Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 143, 1860.

Syn.: Biatorina subpulicaris Anzi, Catillaria neuschildii (Körb.) Th.Fr., Catillaria atropurpurea ssp. neuschildii (Körb.) Th.Fr., Catillaria subpulicaris (Anzi) Lettau

N - Frl, Lomb. C - Laz.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ #/ Note: a temperate lichen, found on trunks of old, mostly broad-leaved trees, often on faces which are seldom wetted by rain, such as undersides of thick branches. A poorly known species, related to C. atropurpurea, which requires further study.


+Catolechia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 181, 1855 - Lecidea wahlenbergii [Flot. ex] Ach., Meth. Lich.: 81, tab. 2, fig. 2, 1803.

Syn.: Buellia pulchella (Schrad.) Tuck., Buellia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Sheard, Catolechia galbula (DC.) Anzi, Catolechia pulchella (Schrad.) A.Massal., Psora galbula DC., Toninia galbula (DC.) Boistel

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol. b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on acid soil rich in humus and over bryophytes in fissures of siliceous rocks in cold, perennially humid situations, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Celothelium ischnobelum (Nyl.) M.B.Aguirre

Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. ser., 21, 2: 139, 1991 - Melanotheca ischnobela Nyl., Flora, 59: 238, 1876.

Syn.: Leptorhaphis carrollii A.L.Sm., Leptorhaphis ischnobela (Nyl.) Coppins, Tomasellia ischnobela (Nyl.) Keissl., Verrucaria myriospora Leight.

C - Tosc. S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical species, found on smooth bark, esp. of Corylus and Ilex in sheltered and humid situations, with an apparently western distribution in Europe. To be looked for further in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Cephalophysis leucospila (Anzi) H.Kilias & Scheid.

[in H.Kilias] Herzogia, 7: 183, 1985 - Lecidea leucospila Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 3: 156, 1862.

Syn.: Cephalophysis leucospila var. caelivicina (Poelt & Hertel) H.Kilias & Scheid., Lecidea mashiginii Lynge, Lecidea subtumidula Nyl., Lecidea ultima Th.Fr., Lecidea ultima v. caelivicina Poelt & Hertel

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-6/ A: r, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on limestone and dolomite on exposed, steeply inclined faces, probably more widespread in the Alps. The var. caelivicina, restricted to the nival belt, is known from the Austrian Alps.


+Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr.

Nov. Sched. Crit.: 26, 1826 - Lichen aculeatus Schreb., Spicil. Fl. Lips.: 125, 1771.

Syn.: Cetraria aculeata v. campestris Schaer., Cetraria aculeata v. sorediata Du Rietz, Cetraria tenuissima (L.) Vain., Cetraria tenuissima v. campestris (Schaer.) Erichsen, Coelocaulon aculeatum (Schreb.) Link, Cornicularia aculeata (Schreb.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata v. acanthella (Ach.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata v. caeruleocalula Flot., Cornicularia aculeata v. campestris (Schreb.) Rabenh. Cornicularia bohemica (Anders) Zahlbr., Cornicularia spadicea (Roth.) Ach., Cornicularia tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Tosc, Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-3, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: rr, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous, often sandy mineral soil in clearings of Calluna-heathlands in wind-exposed situations. An earlier record from Venezia Giulia (Nimis 1993: 251) is excluded, as it was from Slovenia.


+Cetraria crespoae (Barreno & Vázquez) Kärnefelt

The Bryologist, 96: 39, 1993 - Coelocaulon crespoae Barreno & Vàzquez, Lazaroa, 3: 236, 1982.



C - Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on shrubs, esp. Juniperus in open, windy situations, known from a single station in Italy.


+Cetraria ericetorum Opiz

Seznam Rostlin Kveteny Ceske: 173, 1852.

Syn.: Cetraria crispa (Ach.) Nyl., Cetraria crispa v. subnigricans Nyl., Cetraria islandica f. subnigricans (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Cetraria islandica v. crispa Ach., Cetraria islandica v. subtubulosa Fr. ex Nyl., Cetraria islandica v. tenuifolia (Retz.) Vain., Cetraria subtubulosa (Fr. ex Nyl.) Zopf, Cetraria tenuifolia (Retz.) R.Howe jr.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rossi & al. 1998), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004). C - Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vc, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, with optimum on wind-exposed ridges on siliceous substrata, common throughout the Alps, but much rarer than C. islandica in the Apennines.


+Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 293, 1803 - Lichen islandicus, L., Sp. Pl.: 1145, 1753.

Syn.: Cetraria islandica f. platysmoides Sambo, Cetraria islandica v. desertorum Suza, Cetraria islandica v. platyna (Ach.) Ach., Cetraria tyreophora (Ach.) Röhl.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, 2000, Nascimbene 2001b, 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rossi & al. 1998, Valcuvia & al. 2000e), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Siniscalco 1995, Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004), Emil (Tomaselli 1991, Ferrari & al 1994, Tomaselli & Rossi 1994, Rossi & Ferrari 1994, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp, Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (TSB).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-3, 3-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: vc, A1: ec, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on mineral and organic soil, amongst thick moss carpets, exceptionally on bark or lignum near the ground, with optimum near treeline, less common in the mountains of the south.


+Cetraria muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 22: 240, 1895 - Lichen muricatus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 214, 1799.

Syn.: Cetraria aculeata f. hispida (Cromb.) A.L.Sm., Cetraria aculeata v. alpina Schaer., Cetraria stuppea Flot. ex Sandst., Coelocaulon aculeatum ssp. hispidum (Cromb.) D.Hawksw., Coelocaulon muricatum (Ach.) J.R.Laundon, Cornicularia aculeata v. muricata (Ach.) Ach., Cornicularia muricata (Ach.) Ach., Cornicularia aculeata v. alpina (Schaer.) Rabenh., Cornicularia tenuissima v. hispida (Cromb.) Keissl., Cornicularia tenuissima v. muricata (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil. C - Tosc (Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Abr (Ravera 2002b), Sar. S - Camp, Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-3, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: r, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: optimum on wind-exposed siliceous ridges above treeline, the distinction from C. aculeata is not always clear to me, esp. in the south there are specimens which are difficult to assign to either taxon.


+Cetraria obtusata (Schaer.) Van den Boom & Sipman

Lichenologist, 26: 106, 1994 - Cetraria aculeata v. obtusata Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 4-5: 225, 1823.



N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005), Lomb (Rabenhorst Lich. Eur. 743 and Anzi Lich. Lang. 22: Boom & Sipman 1994), VA (Boom & Sipman 1994).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 4, 1/ Alt: 5-6/ A: vr, A. a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: ecologically similar to C. ericetorum, but much rarer, and perhaps more bound to dry-continental situations, this species is to be looked for in other localities of the Central Alps.


+Cetraria sepincola (Ehrh.) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 297, 1803 - Lichen sepincola Ehrh., Hannover Mag., 21: 203, 1783.

Syn.: Cetraria nuda (Schaer.) Anders, Cetraria scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch non auct., Platysma sepincolum (Ehrh.) Hoffm., Tuckermannopsis sepincola (Ehrh.) Hale

N - Frl, Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar species, found on small twigs of shrubs and trees, esp. Betula, Alnus viridis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, mostly near the ground, and in areas with siliceous substrata, confined to the Alps in Italy and very rare in dry areas.


+Cetrelia chicitae (W.L. Culb.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb.

Yüklə 3,49 Mb.

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