+Absconditella annexa


Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., 34, 7: 504, 1968 - Cetraria chicitae W.L. Culb., Bryologist, 68: 95, 1965



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Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., 34, 7: 504, 1968 - Cetraria chicitae W.L. Culb., Bryologist, 68: 95, 1965.


N - Frl (TSB).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on bark of broad-leaved trees and on epiphytic, more rarely silicicolous mosses in humid, old forests. See also note on Cetrelia olivetorum.


+Cetrelia cetrarioides (Duby) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb.

Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., 34, 7: 498, 1968 - Parmelia perlata v. cetrarioides [Delise ex] Duby, Bot. Gall., ed. 2: 601, 1830.

Syn.: Parmelia cetrarioides (Duby) Nyl.


N - Frl (TSB), TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on bark of broad-leaved trees and on epiphytic, more rarely silicicolous mosses in humid, old forests. See also note on Cetrelia olivetorum.


+Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.

Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., 34, 7: 515, 1968 - Parmelia olivetorum Nyl., Not. Sällsk. F. Fl. Fenn. Förh., n. ser., 5: 180, 1866.

Syn.: Parmelia cetrarioides v. rubescens (Th.Fr.) Du Rietz, Parmelia olivaria f. subvenosa Gyeln., Parmelia rubescens (Th.Fr.) Vain., Pseudoparmelia aradensis Gyeln.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc, Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on bark of broad-leaved trees and on epiphytic, more rarely silicicolous mosses in humid, old forests, locally still locally abundant in humid Abies-Fagus forests, esp. in the E Alps. I have serious doubts about the separation at species rank of the three species of Cetrelia known from Italy: they could well prove to be simple chemical strains. A DNA study could perhaps sove this problem.


+Chaenotheca brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 27, 1: 71, 1987 - Coniocybe brachypoda Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 287, 1816.

Syn.: Chaenotheca sulphurea (Retz.) Middelb. & J. Mattson, Coniocybe furfuracea v. sulphurella Fr., Coniocybe griseola Ach., Coniocybe sulphurea (Retz.) Nyl., Coniocybe sulphurella (Fr.) Nyl.

N - Piem. S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: on decorticated stumps of deciduous trees, more rarely on bark and siliceous rocks, in old humid forests, on faces slightly protected from rain.


+Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Müll.Arg.

Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16, 2: 360, 1862 - Calicium brunneolum Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 279, 1816.

Syn.: Calicium flexipes Ach., Calicium melanophaeum v. brunneolum (Ach.) Schaer., Cyphelium brunneolum (Ach.) De Not., Phacotium brunneolum (Ach.) Trevis.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig (TSB). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996, Lich. Graec. 269: Obermayer 2004), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on relatively soft-decomposed lignum of old coniferous stumps in humid woodlands, more rarely on wood of deciduous trees or even of Quercus ilex, very rarely corticolous.


+Chaenotheca chlorella (Ach.) Müll.Arg.

Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16, 2: 360, 1862 - Calicium chlorellum Ach., Meth. Lich.: 89, 1803.

Syn.: Chaenotheca carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau, Chaenotheca chlorella v. lentiforme Schaer., Chaenotheca suzai Nádv.

N - Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: optimum on old oaks inside forests, in fissures of the bark, sometimes on decorticated trunks, also of conifers, esp. on dry undersides and inside hollow trunks.


+Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th.Fr.

Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 250, 1861 - Calicium chrysocephalum [Turner ex] Ach., Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 15, 1803.

Syn.: Calicium chrysocephalum v. filare Ach., Cyphelium chrysocephalum (Ach.) Chevall., Phacotium chrysocephalum (Ach.) Trevis.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Brunialti & al. 2001), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007). S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: c, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on the acid bark of both broad-leaved trees and conifers, more rarely on hard lignum, optimum on Larix.


+Chaenotheca cinerea (Pers.) Tibell

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 23, 1: 30, 1980 - Calicium cinereum Pers., Ic. Descr. Fung. Minus Cogn., 2: 58, 1800.

Syn.: Calicium schaereri De Not. non auct., Chaenotheca albida (Körb.) Zahlbr, Chaenotheca schaereri (De Not.) Zahlbr.

N - Ven.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate species found on nutrient-rich bark of several trees (e.g. Acer, Fraxinus, Populus, Ulmus), in deep fissures of the bark seldom wetted by rain, there is no recent record from Italy, where the species might be extinct.


+Chaenotheca ferruginea (Sm.) Mig.

Kryptogamenfl. Deutschl., Deutsch-Österr., Schweiz, 4, Flechten, 2: 479, 1931 - Calicium ferrugineum [Turner ex] Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby], Engl. Bot., 35: 2473, 1813.

Syn.: Calicium melanophaeum Ach., Calicium roscidum (Ach.) Flörke v. pinastri Ach., Chaenotheca melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh, Cyphelium melanophaeum (Ach.) A.Massal., Cyphelium melanophaeum v. ferrugineum (Sm.) A.Massal., Cyphelium melanophaeum v. vulgare Körb., Phacotium ferrugineum (Sm.) Trevis.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Brunialti & al. 2001, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995b), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001). S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on acidic bark, esp. of very old oaks, Castanea and conifers, on faces protected from rain, sometimes on decorticated stumps and even charred wood, reported as tolerant of air pollution, and expanding, in N Europe, but rare and bound to natural habitats throughout Italy.


+Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 664, 1984 - Mucor furfuraceus L., Sp. Pl.: 1185, 1753.

Syn.: Coniocybe furfuracea (L.) Ach.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 1-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: c, D: rr, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ u/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found beneath overhanging faces protected from rain, esp. in forests, often on exposed roots, but rather indifferent to the substrata (also found on siliceous rocks and lignum), in the Mediterranean belt it is restricted to very humid forests.


+Chaenotheca gracilenta (Ach.) E.Mattson & Middelborg

[in Middelborg & Mattson] Sommerfeltia 5: 45, 1987 - Calicium gracilentum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 243, 1810.

Syn.: Coniocybe gracilenta (Ach.) Ach., Cybebe gracilenta (Ach.) Tibell

N - TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (TSB). C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species found on rotting wood and decaying bark on faces protected from rain, such as hollows of old stumps in ancient, humid forests.


+Chaenotheca hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 1: 567, 1922 - Calicium trachelinum v. hispidulum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 237, 1810.

Syn.: Calicium aciculare (Gray) Fr., Chaenotheca acicularis (Gray) Zwackh, Cyphelium aciculare (Gray) Arnold, Cyphelium chlorelloides Anzi, Phacotium aciculare (Gray) Trevis., Phacotium hispidulum (Ach.) Trevis.

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem, Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, 2000, Munzi & al. 2004, 2007), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate, probably holarctic lichen, found in dry hollows and undersides, and on the bases of ancient trees, esp. oaks, in humid deciduous forests.


+Chaenotheca laevigata Nádv.

Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg., 36: 309, 1934.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen, found in bark fissures of acid-barked deciduous and coniferous trees in humid forests, more rarely on lignum, probably overlooked and more widespread, but certainly never common.


+Chaenotheca phaeocephala (Turner) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 251, 1861 - Lichen phaeocephalus Turner, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 8: 281, 1807.

Syn.: Calicium phaeocephalum (Turner) Fr., Calicium saepiculare Ach., Chaenotheca chlorella auct. p.p., Chaenotheca phaeocephala v. subhispidula Nádv., Cyphelium phaeocephalum (Turner) Körb.

N - Ven, TAA. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate, holarctic lichen, found on old oaks in open woodlands, in bark fissures seldom wetted by rain, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Chaenotheca stemonea (Ach.) Müll.Arg.

Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16, 2: 360, 1862 - Calicium stemoneum Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 278, 1816.

Syn.: Calicium stemoneum v. album Schaer., Calicium physarellum Ach., Chaenotheca aeruginosa auct. non (Turner ex Sm.) A.L.Sm., Cyphelium stemoneum (Ach.) De Not., Phacotium physarellum (Ach.) Trevis.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem, Lig (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 2-3, 1, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found in rain-protected hollows of conifer trunks inside forests, esp. near the ground, both on bark and on lignum, sometimes on acid-barked deciduous trees, e.g. Betula, Quercus.


+Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 251, 1861 - Calicium trichiale Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Nya Handl.: 283, 1808.

Syn.: Calicium cinereum auct., Calicium trichiale v. filiforme Schaer., Chaenotheca aeruginosa (Turner ex Sm.) Sm. non auct., Chaenotheca brunneola v. elassospora (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Chaenotheca trichialis v. caerulescens (Turner et Borrer) Vain., Chaenotheca trichialis v. valida (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Cyphelium trichiale (Ach.) De Not., Phacotium trichiale (Ach.) Trevis.

N - Frl, Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 1-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a widespread holarctic species, found on acid-barked deciduous trees, conifers and lignum, sometimes even on Quercus ilex, in forests and woodlands, more widespread in upland areas throughout the country, but most common in the Alps.


+Chaenotheca xyloxena Nádv.

Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg., 36: 308, 1934.

Syn.: Chaenotheca nudiuscula (Schaer.) Nádv.

N - Frl, Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Abr (Ravera 2002b). S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen found on hard and dry lignum, esp. of conifers, in humid forests, more rarely on bark and on lignum of deciduous trees.


+Cheiromycina flabelliformis B.Sutton

[in Sutton & Muhr], Nordic J. Bot. 6, 6: 834, 1986.



N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a Lichen-forming hyphomycete. The Italian sample was collected on a stump of Picea.


+Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 13: 110, 1981 - Byssus candelaris L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1169, 1753.



Syn.: Bilimbia fulgens Hampe ex A.Massal., Chaenotheca trichialis f. candelaris (Kremp.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Crocynia flava auct., Lepra candelaris auct. p.p., Lepra citrina auct. ital. p.p., Lepraria candelaris (L.) Fr., Lepraria citrina auct. p.p., Lepraria flava (Schreb.) Sm. non auct.p.p., Lepra flava auct. ital. p.p.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Caniglia & al. 2002, Lich. Graec. 228: Obermayer 2003, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1992, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1996b, 1997b, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Czeczguga & al. 1999).

Lepr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 1-3, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: rr, E: er, F: c, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen, found on dry, shaded parts of the trunks of deciduous and coniferous trees, on faces protected from rain, sometimes on lignum.


+Chrysothrix chlorina (Ach.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 13: 110, 1981 - Lichen chlorinus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 6, 1799.

Syn.: Calicium chlorinum (Ach.) Schaer. non auct. p.p., Lepra chlorina (Ach.) DC., Lepraria chlorina (Ach.) Ach. ex Sm., Pulveraria chlorina (Ach.) Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Tosc, Sar (Nöske & al. 2000). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Lepr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 2-4, 1-3, 1/ Alt: 1-5/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a widespread lichen found in underhangs and crevices of siliceous rocks in shaded, humid situations, limited to areas with high air humidity, widespread throughout the Alps, it should be looked for in the siliceous mountains of the south and of Sardegna.


+Chrysothrix flavovirens Tønsberg

Graphis Scripta, 6: 31, 1994.



C - Sar (Tretiach 1997, Zedda & Sipman 2001).

Lepr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly western species in Europe, found on bark and lignum in very humid, open forests, probably overlooked, being often sterile, but certainly rare in Italy, and restricted to warm-humid areas, both Italian specimens were collected on Juniperus.


+Cladonia acuminata (Ach.) Norrl.

[in Norrl. & Nyl.] Herb. Lich. Fenn.: 57a, 1875 - Cenomyce pityrea f. acuminata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 254, 1814.

Syn.: Cladonia acuminata ssp. foliata (Arnold) Vain., Cladonia acuminata v. norrllinii (Vain.) Lynge, Cladonia foliata (Arnold) Kernst., Cladonia norrlinii Vain.

N - TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen found on calciferous soil rich in humus in open situations.


+Cladonia amaurocraea (Flörke) Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil.: 34, 1823 - Capitularia amaurocraea Flörke [in F. Weber & D. Mohr] Beitr. Naturk., 2: 334, 1810.



N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rc. B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, boreal-subarctic-subalpine lichen, found on soil and bryophytes in open habitats, mostly in sites with a long snow lie, probably restricted to the Alps.


+Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flot. ssp. arbuscula.

[in Wendt] Therm. Warmbrunn: 94, 1839 - Patellaria foliacea v. arbuscula Wallr., Naturges. Säul.-Flecht.: 169, 1829.

Syn.: Cladina arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & W. L. Culb., Cladina sylvatica (Ach.) Cromb., Cladonia sylvatica (Ach.) Rabenh., Patellaria arbuscula (Wallr.) Wallr.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Rossi & al. 1998), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-3, 3-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: c, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, boreal-subarctic-subalpine lichen, one of the most abundant elements of lichen-rich tundra-like vegetation on mineral soil in exposed habitats, sometimes found on lignum, in Italy the typical subspecies is probably vey rare (records include C. arbuscula s.lat.), see also notes on the other subspecies.


+Cladonia arbuscula ssp. mitis (Sandst.) Ruoss

Bot. Helvetica, 97, 2: 260, 1987 - Cladonia mitis Sandst., Clad. Exs.: 55, 1918.

Syn.: Cladina mitis (Sandst.) Hustich

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Benesperi 2001, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: more common at higher altitudes than the typical subspecies.


+Cladonia arbuscula ssp. squarrosa (Wallr.) Ruoss

Bot. Helvetica, 97, 2: 260, 1987 - Patellaria coccinea v. squarrosa Wallr., Naturgesch. Säul.-Fl.: 191, 1829.

Syn.: Cladina arbuscula ssp. squarrosa (Wallr.) Burgaz in Burgaz & Ahti, Cladonia squarrosa (Wallr.) Flot., Patellaria squarrosa (Wallr.) Wallr.


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