+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Piem. C - Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: this is the most widespread subspecies of the C. arbuscula complex in the Alps, several records listed under C. arbuscula ssp. arbuscula could refer to this taxon.


+Cladonia bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil.: 21, 1823 - Lichen bellidiflorus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 194, 1799.

Syn.: Cladonia bellidiflora f. epiphylla Anzi, Cladonia bellidiflora f. gracilenta (Ach.) Flörke, Cladonia bellidiflora v. hookeri (Tuck.) Nyl., Cladonia bellidiflora v. proboscidea (Wallr.) Flot.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Benesperi & al. 2007).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on acid soil and mossy rocks in wind-protected and humid situations (e.g. in sites with a long snow lie).


+Cladonia borbonica Nyl.

Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2,2: 47, 1868.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a very rare species, described from New Caledonia.


+Cladonia borealis S. Stenroos

Ann. Bot. Fenn., 26: 160, 1989.



N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on mineral siliceous soil in open habitats, related to C. coccifera, and with a similar ecology, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Cladonia botrytes (K.G.Hagen) Willd.

Fl. Berol.: 365, 1787 - Lichen botrytes K.G.Hagen, Tent. Hist. Lich.: 121, tab. 2, fig. 9, 1782.



N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb. C - Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, boreal-montane lichen, found on decaying wood, mostly on horizontal faces of stumps and fallen trunks, esp. of conifers, more rarely on decaying bark.


+Cladonia caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke

Clad. Comm.: 8, 1828 - Baeomyces caespiticius Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 7: 155, 1794.

Syn.: Cladonia agariciformis (Wulfen) Arnold

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997b, 1999a, Loppi & Putortì 2001). S - Camp, Pugl, Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to S boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on mineral, generally sandy-clay soil, occasionally on rotting wood and on bases of ancient trunks, in sheltered situations. The records from S Italy (Nimis 1993: 225) need reconfirmation.


+Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng.

[in L.] Syst. Veget., ed. 16, 4: 272, 1827 - Lichen cariosus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 198, 1799 ("1798").

Syn.: Cladonia locarnensis Frey nom. illegit., Cladonia rufofusca Opiz, Cladonia stabilis Britzelm., Cladonia symphocarpoides Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2001b), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a cool-temperate to subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar lichen, found on disturbed mineral, often sandy soil over calcareous or base-rich substrata, most frequent in the Alps. An earlier record from Venezia Giulia (Nimis 1993: 225) actually was from Slovenia.


+Cladonia carneola (Fr.) Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 233, 1831 - Cenomyce carneola Fr., Sched. Crit.: 23, 1825.

Syn.: Cladonia carneopallida (Ach.) Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Rossi & al. 1998, Valcuvia & al. 2000e, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, mainly boreal-montane to subarctic lichen, found on rotting wood and soil rich in humus in open woodlands.


+Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil.: 35, 1823 - Baeomyces cenoteus Ach., Meth. Lich.: 345, 1803.

Syn.: Cladonia brachiata (Fr.) Hampe, Cladonia uncinata Hoffm.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil. C - Tosc, Laz (Ravera 2002b), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign-Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on rotting wood, mainly on old stumps, and on soil rich in humus.


+Cladonia cervicornis (Ach.) Flot. ssp. cervicornis

Jahrb. schles. Ges. vaterl. Kultur, 27: 31, 1849 - Lichen cervicornis Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 184, 1799.

Syn.: Cladonia verticillata v. cervicornis (Ach.) Flörke

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Rossi & al. 1998), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Lig. C - Tosc (Pišút 1997), Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Caniglia & al. 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: rc, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen, found on mineral siliceous soil in open grasslands and garrigues, most frequent in Tyrrhenian Italy. See also note on ssp. verticillata.


+Cladonia cervicornis ssp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti

Lichenologist, 12: 126, 1980 - Cladonia verticillata Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 122, 1796.

Syn.: Cladonia cervicornis v. verticillata (Hofffm.) Flot., Cladonia verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaer., Cladonia verticillata v. evoluta (Th.Fr.) Stein

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Caniglia & al. 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: rr, B: er, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar lichen, found on acid soil in open habitats, more frequent in upland areas than the typical subspecies. Records from S Italy should be checked against ssp. cervicornis.


+Cladonia ciliata Stirt.

Scott. Natur., 9 (n. ser., 3): 308, 1888.

Syn.: Cladina ciliata (Stirt.) Trass, Cladina ciliata f. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti, Cladina ciliata v. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti & M.J. Lai, Cladina leucophaea (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb., Cladina tenuis (Flörke) de Lesd., Cladonia ciliata v. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti, Cladonia laxiuscula (Delise) Sandst., Cladonia leucophaea Abbayes, Cladonia rangiferina v. ochroleuca A.Massal., Cladonia rangiferina v. tenuis Flörke, Cladonia tenuis (Flörke) Harm., Cladonia tenuis v. leucophaea (Abbayes) Ahti

N - Ven, TAA, Lig. C - Tosc. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a humid-temperate species, found on mosses in shrublands, esp. in undisturbed maquis vegetation, restricted to humid areas.


+Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd.

Fl. Berolin.: 361, 1787 - Lichen cocciferus L., Sp. Pl.: 1151, 1753.

Syn.: Capitularia asotea (Ach.) Flörke, Cladonia coccifera v. asotea Ach., Cladonia coccifera v. stemmatina (Ach.) Vain., Cladonia cornucopioides F.Wilson, Cladonia tectorum Knaf

N - Frl (Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, Piervittori & al. 2001), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Tomaselli 1991, Rossi & Ferrari 1994, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Benesperi & al. 2007), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 4-6/ A: c, A1: ec, B: er, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on soil in open situations, such as in dry tundra-like habitats, more rarely on wood.


+Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng.

Syst. Veg., 4, 1: 272, 1827 - Cenomyce coniocraea Flörke, Deutsche Lich., 7: 11, 1821.

Syn.: Cladonia apolepta (Ach.) Mölholm Hansen & M. Lund, Cladonia fimbriata v. coniocraea (Flörke) Nyl., Cladonia ochrochlora Flörke ?

N - VG (Carvalho 1997, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rossi 1991, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1997b, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Senese & Critelli 2000, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Munzi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign-Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: vr, C: rr, D: c, E: vr, F: c, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread, holarctic species, found on a wide variety of organic substrata, incl. bark, and then mostly on basal parts of boles, but mostly on soil rich in humus and rotten wood.


+Cladonia convoluta (Lam.) Anders

Strauch-Blattflecht. Nordböhmens: 29, 1906 - Lichen convolutus Lam., Encycl. Bot., 3: 500, 1789.

Syn.: Cladonia alcicornis v. endiviaefolia (Dicks.) Jatta, Cladonia endiviaefolia auct. p.p., Cladonia foliacea ssp. convoluta (Lam.) Cretz., Cladonia foliacea v. convoluta (Lam.) Vain., Cladonia endiviifolia auct. p.p.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi 2000a), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Fascetti & al. 2006, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2005, 2006).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: er, C: rr, D: vc, E: er, F: vc, G: ec, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on mineral soil in dry grasslands, or in intradunal depressions, also occurring in dry-continental Alpine valleys.


+Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm.

Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 2, 1: tab. 25, 1, 1794 - Lichen cornutus L., Sp. Pl.: 1152, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia cornuta v. cylindrica Schrad.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: rr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar species, found on mineral and organic soil, but also on wood, optimum in areas with siliceous substrata, probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot.

[in Wendt] Therm. Warmbrunn: 93, 1839 - Baeomyces turbinatus v. crispatus Ach., Meth. Lich.: 341, 1803.

Syn.: Cladonia crispata v. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vain., Cladonia crispata v. divulsa (Delise) Arnold, Cladonia crispata v. elegans (Delise) Vain., Cladonia crispata v. dilacerata (Schaer.) Malbr., Cladonia crispata v. gracilescens (Rabenh.) Vain., Cladonia crispata v. infundibulifera (Schaer.) Vain., Cladonia crispata v. subracemosa Vain.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (TSB). C - Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: rc, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar species, found on soil, more rarely on lignum, in open habitats, in areas with siliceous substrata, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Cladonia cryptochlorophaea Asahina

J. Jap. Bot. 16: 711, 1940.



N - Ven, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Si.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen, found on soil rich in humus, on peat, etc., probably a western lichen in Europe. Perhaps better treated as a chemical strain of Cladonia grayi.


+Cladonia cyanipes (Sommerf.) Nyl.

Mém. Soc. Imp. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 5: 95, 1858 ("1857") - Cenomyce cyanipes Sommerf., Kong. Norske Vidensk. Skrift., 2: 62, 1826.

Syn.: Cladonia straminea Flörke

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar species, found amongst bryophytes and on organic soil, much more rarely on wood, in areas with siliceous substrata, in open heaths and forest glades, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Cladonia cyathomorpha Walt.Watson

[Stirt. ex] Walt.Watson, J. Bot. (London), 73: 156, 1935.



C - Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1995, Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly western species in Europe, found on epilithic bryophytes and on mosses in the basal parts of trees in very humid areas, probably slightly more widespread, but never common, in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Cladonia decorticata (Flörke) Spreng.

[in L.] Syst. Veget., 4: 271, 1827 - Capitularia decorticata Flörke [in F. Weber] Beitr. Naturk., 2: 297, 1810.



N - TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on mineral, more rarely on organic soil and rotting wood in open habitats, restricted to siliceous areas in the Alps.


+Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 120, 1796 - Lichen deformis L., Sp. Pl.: 1152, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia crenulata (Ach.) Flörke

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign-Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: c, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on rotting wood and organic soil, some records could refer to C. sulphurina.


+Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 124, 1796 - Lichen digitatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1152, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia digitata f. phyllophora Anzi

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Alessio & al. 1995, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Benesperi & al. 2007), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Senese & Critelli 2000, Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz (Ravera 2002b). S - Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vc, B: vr, C: rc, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on strongly weathered lignum, mosses, on the bases of trunks, sometimes on soil rich in humus, common only in the Alps, much rarer southwards.


+Cladonia dimorpha S. Hammer

Mycotaxon, 37: 339, 1990.



C - Sar (Burgaz & Ahti 1994). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: a, A1: a, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calcareous or base-rich soil, a poorly known member of the difficult C. pyxidata complex, also known from N America.


+Cladonia diversa Asperges

Cladonia's sect. Cocciferae in Belgie, 2: 364, 1983.



N - Frl, Ven (TSB), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: related to C. coccifera and C. pleurota, and with a similar ecology, but perhaps more bund to humid habitats, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Cladonia ecmocyna Leight.

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, 18: 406, 1866 non Cenomyce ecmocyna Ach.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Benesperi & al. 2007). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane to subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar lichen, found on organic soil and amongst bryophytes in cool depressions with a late snow lie, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 222, 1831 - Lichen fimbriatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1152, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia fimbriata v. chordalis auct., Cladonia major (K.G. Hagen) Sandst., Cladonia major v. macrophylla Flot., Cladonia minor (K.G. Hagen) Szatala

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign-Epiph/ 1-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: r, C: vc, D: c, E: vr, F: vc, G: c, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread, temperate to arctic-alpine, holarctic species, found on rotten wood, soil, on bases of trunks, with a wide ecological range.


+Cladonia firma (Nyl.) Nyl.

Bot. Z., 1861: 352, 1861 - Cladonia alcicornis v. firma Nyl., Syn. Lich., 1: 191, 1858.

Syn.: Cladonia foliacea v. firma (Nyl.) Vain., Cladonia nylanderi Cout.


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