+Absconditella annexa



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N - TAA, Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Laz, Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: c, H: vr/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on mineral, often base-rich soil in open mediterranean grasslands.


+Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd.

Fl. Berol.: 363, 1787 - Lichen foliaceus Huds., Fl. Angl.: 457, 1762.

Syn.: Cladonia alcicornis (Lightf.) Fr., Cladonia foliacea v. alcicornis (Lightf.) Schaer., Cladonia foliacea v. damicornis (Ach.) Th.Fr.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Putortì & Loppi 1999), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Fascetti & al. 2006, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: rc, G: c, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, an ecological vicariant of C. convoluta on more or less acid, but often base-rich ground.


+Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad.

Spicil. Fl. Germ.: 107, 1794 - Lichen furcatus Huds., Fl. Angl.: 458, 1762.

Syn.: Cladonia furcata f. polyphylla A.Massal., Cladonia furcata f. rigidula A.Massal., Cladonia furcata f. spinulosa A.Massal., Cladonia furcata f. thyrsoidea (Delise) A.Massal., Cladonia furcata v. corymbosa (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia furcata v. palamaea (Ach.) Nyl., Cladonia furcata v. pinnata (Flörke) Vain., Cladonia furcata v. racemosa (Hoffm.) Flörke, Cladonia racemosa Hoffm.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Rossi 1991, Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Roella 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Siniscalco 1995, Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Ferrari & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997b, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi 2000a, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-4, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: er, C: rr, D: r, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen, found on soil, amongst mosses, sometimes on bark and lignum, in areas with calcareous or siliceous base-rich rocks, surprisingly rare along the Adriatic part of the peninsula.


+Cladonia glauca Flörke

Clad. Comm.: 140, 1828.

Syn.: Cladonia cenotea v. glauca (Flörke) Leight.

N - Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Lig.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen, found on acid soil in open habitats, all Italian records need reconfirmation.


+Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd.

Fl. Berol. Prodr.: 363, 1787 - Lichen gracilis L., Sp. Pl.: 1152, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia chordalis (Flörke) Nyl., Cladonia elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm., Cladonia gracilis ssp. elongata (Jacq.) Vain., Cladonia gracilis ssp. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti, Cladonia gracilis ssp. turbinata (Ach.) Ach., Cladonia gracilis v. aspera Flörke, Cladonia gracilis v. chordalis (Flörke) Schaer., Cladonia gracilis v. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti, Cladonia nigripes (Nyl.) Trass

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Ferrari & al. 1994, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc, Abr. S - Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: c, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, cool-temperate to southern artic lichen, founs on acid soil, more rarely on decaying wood, optimum in the siliceous Alps, very rare in the Apennines.


+Cladonia grayi Sandst.

[G. Merr. ex] Sandst., Clad. Exs.: 1847, 1929.

Syn.:Cladonia pyxidata ssp. grayi (Sandst.) V.Wirth

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a holarctic, rather northern representative of the C. pyxidata-chlorophaea complex, found on soil rich in humus, peat and on rotting wood.


+Cladonia humilis (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 220, 1984 - Lichen humilis With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Br., 2: 721, 1776.

Syn.: Cladonia conista (Nyl.) Robbins, Cladonia conistea ("Delise") Asahina, Cladonia conoidea Ahti, Cladonia fimbriata f. conista Nyl.

N - Ven, Piem, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Abr, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign/ 2-3, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ p/ Note: a mild-temperate, widespread species, found on disturbed, often sandy soil, more rarely on lignum and mossy trees, mainly Tyrrhenian.


+Cladonia incrassata Flörke

Clad. Comm.: 21, 1828.

Syn.: Cladonia coccifera v. incrassata (Flörke) Laurer

N - Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006). C - Tosc. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1, 4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane species with a fragmented ircumpolar range, found on peaty and humus-rich soil and on strongly weathered lignum.


+Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. ssp. macilenta

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 126, 1796.

Syn.: Cladonia bacillaris (Leight.) Arnold, Cladonia macilenta v. squamigera Vain.

N - VG (TSB), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006b, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997b), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign-Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: r, C: rc, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on different organic substrata such as rotting wood, bark (mostly on basal parts of trunks) and more rarely on soil rich in humus, in the south it is most frequent in old Castanea plantations, on stumps.


+Cladonia macilenta ssp. floerkeana (Fr.) V.Wirth

Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk., Ser. A 517: 62, 1994 - Cenomyce floerkeana Fr., Fr., Sched. Crit. Lich. Suec., 18, 1825.

Syn.: Cladonia berghsonii Asperges, Cladonia floerkeana (Fr.) Flörke, Cladonia floerkeana v. chloroides (Flörke) Vain., Cladonia macilenta v. corticata Vain.

N - TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species, found on organic soil and peat, but also on sand, more rare on lignum, much rarer in Italy than the typical subspecies.


+Cladonia macroceras (Delise) Hav.

Bergens Mus. Aarbok, Nat. Vid., 3: 12, 1927 - Cenomyce gracilis v. macroceras Delise [in Duby] Bot. Gall., 2 éd.: 624, 1830.

Syn.: Cladonia elongata auct. p.p., Cladonia gracilis v. macroceras (Delise) Flot.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Rossi & al. 1998, Valcuvia & al. 2000e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 2-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: ec, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar lichen, one of the most abundant species in Rhododendron heaths throughout the Alps, mostly deeply immersed amongst mosses.


+Cladonia macrophylla (Schaer.) Stenh.

Lich. Suec. Exs., ed. 2: 186, 1865 - Cladonia ventricosa b macrophylla Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil.: 316, 1833.

Syn.: Cladonia alpicola (Flot.) Vain.

N - TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a northern-alpine species found on organic soil and weathered siliceous rocks. Most Italian records, including the recent one from Basilicata by Potenza (2006), need confirmation.


+Cladonia macrophyllodes Nyl.

Flora, 58: 447, 1875.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (TSB), TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, Delucchi & Valcuvia 2004), Piem, VA (Valcuvia 2000), Lig. C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: r, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on soil in open sites with a long snow-lie, optimum in the siliceous Alps. The record from Sardegna, overlooked by Nimis (1993: 237), is from Nimis & Poelt (1987: 86).


+Cladonia mediterranea P.A.Duvign. & Abbayes

[in Abbayes & P.A.Duvign.] Rev. Bryol. Lichénol., 16: 95, 1947.

Syn.: Cladina mediterranea (P.A.Duvign. & Abbayes) Follmann & Hern.-Padr., Cladonia macaronesica Ahti

N - Lig. C - Tosc (Senese & Critelli 2000), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz, Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-Macaronesian lichen, found almost always amongst pleurocarpous mosses in sheltered situations with plenty of diffuse light, presently restricted to a few very humid sites along the Tyrrhenian coast, and perhaps in danger of extinction.


+Cladonia merochlorophaea Asahina

J. Jap. Bot., 16: 713, 1940.

Syn.: Cladonia merochlorophaea v. novochlorophaea Sipman, Cladonia novochlorophaea (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Lomb, VA, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ #/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate, probably circumpolar lichen, found on humus-rich soil, distribution. Ecology and taxonomic position of this species require further study, the indicator values are very tentative, perhaps better treated as a chemical strain of Cladonia grayi.


+Cladonia norvegica Tønsberg & Holien

Nordic J. Bot., 4: 79, 1984.



N - Frl. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign-Epiph/ 1, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, found on decaying trunks and stumps in moist-shaded habitats such as ancient, undisturbed woodlands, when epiphytic, on basal parts of conifers, probably more widespread in the Alps, but very rare in the south.


+Cladonia parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 127, 1796 - Lichen parasiticus Hoffm., Enum. Lich.: 39, 1784.

Syn.: Cladonia delicata auct. non (Ach.) Flörke

N - VG (TSB), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Rizzio & al. 2001, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1997b, Benesperi 2000a, Senese & Critelli 2000), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate, probably holarctic species, normally lignicolous, on stumps, sometimes on basal parts of old trunks, optimum in Castanea plantations.


+Cladonia perlomera Kristinsson

[in C. F. Culb. & Kristinsson] The Bryologist, 72: 432, 1969.



N - Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Emil. C - Laz. S - Si.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on rotting wood. The status of this species needs further study, indicator values are tentative.


+Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 223, 1984 - Lichen peziziformis With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: t720, 1776.



Syn.: Cladonia capitata (Michx.) Spreng., Cladonia cariosa v. leptophylla (Ach.) Hepp, Cladonia leptophylla (Ach.) Flörke

N - Lig.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen, found on soil in open woodlands (oak, pine), in areas with siliceous substrata, perhaps overlooked in Italy.


+Cladonia phyllophora Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 123, 1796.

Syn.: Baeomyces degenerans Flörke, Cladonia degenerans (Flörke) Spreng., Cladonia lepidota (Ach.) Nyl. non auct., Cladonia trachyna (Ach.) Nyl.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Rossi & al. 1998, Valcuvia & al. 2000e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably holacric lichen, found on acid mineral soil. Records from S Italy (see Nimis 1993: 239), being very dubious, are not accepted here.


+Cladonia pleurota (Flörke) Schaer.

Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 186, 1850 - Capitularia pleurota Flörke, Ges. naturf. Fr. Berlin Mag., 2: 217, 1808.

Syn.: Cladonia coccifera v. pleurota (Flörke) Schaer., Cladonia frondescens Nyl.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Nascimbene 2002, 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2, 4-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: vc, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on soil, rotting wood, more rarely on basal parts of trunks in open habitats.


+Cladonia pocillum (Ach.) O.J. Rich.

Meth.Lich.: 236, 1803 - Baeomyces pocillum Ach., Meth. Lich.: 336, 1803.

Syn.: Cladonia pyxidata v. pocillum (Ach.) Fr., Cladonia pyxidata ssp. pocillum (Ach.) A. Fink

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004, Galvagno 2006, Galvagno & al. 2006), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: vc, B: vc, C: ec, D: ec, E: er, F: ec, G: vc, H: vc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic species, found on soil and amongst bryophytes in dry, open grasslands, one of the most common Cladonias of Italy. The distinction towards C. pyxidata is well-worthy of a DNA study, in my opinion, the two taxa might prove to be well-distinct.


+Cladonia polycarpoides Nyl.

[in Zwackh] Lich. Exs.: 626, 626 bis (correction label), 1892.

Syn.: Cladonia subcariosa auct.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb (Rossi 1991, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Nöske & al. 2000).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen, found on calcareous mineral soil in open grasslands and on soil pockets on large isolated boulders, probably somehow overlooked in Italy and more widespread in the Alps.


+Cladonia polydactyla (Flörke) Spreng.

Caroli Linnaei Syst. Veget., 4: 274, 1827 - Cenomyce polydactyla Flörke, Deutsch. Lich., 10: 13, 1821.

Syn.: Cladonia bouillenei P.A.Duvign., Cladonia flabelliformis auct. non (Flörke) Vain.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (TSB), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1997b). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign-Terr/ 1, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: c, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on organic soil and rotting wood in woodlands, more rarely on bark, on basal parts of old trunks, certainly widespread in the Alps, becoming much rarer southwards, where it is mostly confined to old Castanea plantations.


+Cladonia portentosa (Dufour) Coem.

Bull. Acad. R. Belg., sér. 2, 19: 43, 49, 1885 - Cenomyce portentosa Dufour, Ann. Gén. Sc. Phys. Bruxelles, 8: 69, 1821.

Syn.: Cladina impexa (Harm.) de Lesd., Cladina portentosa (Dufour) Follmann, Cladonia condensata (Sandst.) Zahlbr., Cladonia impexa Harm., Cladonia laxiuscula auct., Cladonia portentosa v. subimpexa (P.A.Duvign.) Ahti, Cladonia spumosa (Flörke) Zahlbr., Cladonia subimpexa P.A.Duvign.



N - Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate, western species, found on acid soil in open situations, such as in Calluna-heaths, probably more frequent in the past, presently extinct in many parts of the country.


+Cladonia prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer

Mycotaxon, 37: 342, 1990.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on acid soil, a recently-described species (from N America), perhaps more widespread in Europe, the indicator values are tentative.


+Cladonia pseudopityrea Vain.

Acta Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn., 4: 452, 1887.



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