+Absconditella annexa



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C - Sar (Ahti & Puntillo 1995, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Cal (Ahti & Puntillo 1995, Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Terr/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on lignum e.g. of Olea, Abies, Pinus, Fagus, but also on soil rich in humus in forests, esp. along creeks, a mediterranean to mediterranean-montane species, probably more widespread in the south.


+Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 121, 1796 - Lichen pyxidatus L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1151, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia chlorophaea auct., Cladonia monomorpha Aptroot, Sipman & Herk, Cladonia neglecta (Flörke) Spreng., Cladonia pyxidata ssp. chlorophaea (Sommerf.) V.Wirth, Cladonia pyxidata v. chlorophaea (Sommerf.) Flörke

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2002, 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Alessio & al. 1995, Rossi & al. 1998, Roella 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000e, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006, Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Ferrari & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, 2001, Loppi & al. 1996b, 1997b, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi 2000a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Fascetti & al. 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1996, 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Caniglia & al. 2005, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Lign-Epiph/ 2-3, 3-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: ec, B: vc, C: ec, D: ec, E: rr, F: ec, G: ec, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a widespread, very polymorphic, holarctic species with a wide altitudinal-latitudinal range, which is almost trivial in Italy. The taxonomy of this group is still not clear to me, esp. with respect to C. chlorophaea and related taxa (e.g. C. grayi).


+Cladonia ramulosa (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 225, 1984 - Lichen ramulosus With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: 723, 1776.

Syn.: Baeomyces anomaeus Ach., Capitularia pityrea Flörke, Cladonia anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P.James, Cladonia anomaea v. gracilior (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux comb. inval., Cladonia anomaea v. scyphifera (Delise) Clauzade & Cl.Roux comb. inval., Cladonia anomaea v. subuliformis (Vain.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux comb. inval., Cladonia degenerans v. anomaea (Ach.) Cromb., Cladonia lamarckii Nyl., Cladonia lamarckii f. insignis (Delise) Nyl., Cladonia pityrea (Flörke) Fr.

N -Frl (Molaro 2005), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, Piervittori & al. 2001), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2001), Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: er, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen, found on epilithic bryophytes, rotting wood and organic soil.


+Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H.Wigg.

[Weber ex] F.H.Wigg., Primit. Florae Holsat.: 90, 1780 - Lichen rangiferinus L., Sp. Pl.: 1153, 1753.

Syn.: Cladina alpestris (L.) Nyl. non auct., Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabenh. non auct., Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl., Patellaria rangiferina (L.) Wallr.

N - Frl (Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Rossi & al. 1998, Valcuvia & al. 2000e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Ferrari & al. 1994), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc, Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-3, 4-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: vc, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar arctic-alpine lichen, one of the most abundant elements of lichen-rich tundra-like vegetation on mineral soil in exposed habitats, common only in the Alps.


+Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 114, 1796.

Syn.: Cladonia aberrans auct., Cladonia muricata auct., Cladonia muricata v. euganea A.Massal., Cladonia pungens (Ach.) Flörke, Cladonia rangiformis f. euganea Massal., Cladonia rangiformis v. muricata (Delise) Arnold, Cladonia rangiformis v. pungens (Ach.) Vain., Cladonia rangiformis v. sorediophora (Nyl.) Vain.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2002), TAA (Matzer & Pelzmann 1991), Lomb (Rossi 1991, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Pišút 1997, Loppi & al. 1997c, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benespei 2000a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Fascetti & al. 2006, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & al. 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: rr, C: c, D: ec, E: vr, F: ec, G: ec, H: ec/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate species, found on calciferous or base-rich siliceous soil in open habitats, with optimum in dry grasslands, one of the most frequent and abundant species of Cladonia in Italy. Some specimens from the south, reacting P+ red and with a somehow different morphology, perhaps deserve to be recognized at least at varietal level (v. pungens).


+Cladonia rei Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil.: 34, 1823.

Syn.: Cladonia fimbriata v. nemoxyna (Ach.) Coem., Cladonia nemoxyna (Ach.) Arnold

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2-3, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate, probably holarctic species, found on mineral clay and base-rich soil, mostly in slightly disturbed habitats such as on track sides and clearings of light forests and heaths. To be looked for in C and S Italy. According to Spier & Aptroot (2007) this is just a chemical strain of “C. subulata”.


+Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Leight.

Flora, 58: 447, 1875 - Cenomyce scabriuscula Delise [in Duby] Bot. Gall., 2 éd.: 623, 1830.

Syn.: Cladonia furcata v. recurva A.L.Sm., Cladonia furcata v. scabriuscula (Delise) Coem., Cladonia surrecta (Flörke) Sandst.

N - Frl, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2001).

Frut/ Ch/ A.i/ Terr/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate, widespread but rare lichen, found on soil and amongst mosses in humid-sheltered situations, such as open woodlands.


+Cladonia squamosa Hoffm. v. squamosa

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 125, 1796.

Syn.: Cladonia squamosa v. laevicorticata Sandst., Cladonia squamosa v. muricella (Delise) Vain., Cladonia squamosa v. phyllocoma Rabenh., Cladonia squamosa v. polychonia Flörke

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2005b, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ A.i/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: vr, E: er, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found on organic substrata in sheltered situations, rarely on bark, on basal parts of trunks, a very polymorphic taxon. Older records reported by Nimis (1993: 244) require confirmation.


+Cladonia squamosa v. subsquamosa (Leight.) Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 6: 13, 1881 - Cladonia delicata v. subsquamosa [Nyl. ex] Leight., Lich. Fl. Gr. Brit.: 59, 1871.

Syn.: Cladonia squamosa v. allosquamosa Hennipman, Cladonia subsquamosa (Leight.) Cromb. non Kremp.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994) Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Frut/ Ch/ A.i/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: more hygrophytic than the typical variety, and more bound to higher altitudes.


+Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda

Preslia, 43: 196, 1971 - Cenomyce stellaris Opiz [in Ponfinkl] Vollständ. Umriss Topogr. Königr. Böhm.: 493, 1823.

Syn.: Cladina alpestris auct. non (L.) Nyl., Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo, Cladonia aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb. non auct. ital., Cladonia alpestris auct. non (L.) Rabenh.

N - Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2006), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, De Marco & al. 2003), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar subarctic-subalpine species, found in wind-protected sites with a long snow-lie, restricted to the Alps.


+Cladonia strepsilis (Ach.) Grognot

Pl. Crypt. Saone et Loire: 85, 1863 - Baeomyces strepsilis Ach., Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 52, 1803.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997), Lig.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, found on humous soil overlaying siliceous rocks and amongst bryophytes in humid depressions periodically filled by water, in open situations, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Cladonia stygia (Fr.) Ruoss

Botanica Helvetica, 95, 2: 241, 1985 - Cladonia rangiferina f. stygia Fr., Nov.Sched. Crit., 8-9, 3: 22, 1826.

Syn.: Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti

N - VA (TSB).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 2, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a very rare, probably declining species of subalpine Sphagnum bogs.


+Cladonia subcervicornis (Vain.) Kernst.

Jahresber. Staats-Oberrealschule Klagenfurt, 43: 15, 32, 1900 - Cladonia verticillata v. subcervicornis Vain., Acta Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 10: 197, 1894.



N - Ven, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006, 2006b), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on siliceous rocks and on soil rich in humus in open habitats, probably more widespread in Tyrrhenian Italy. The records from Piedmont and Lombardy by Valcuvia (2002, 2002b) are particularly dubious.


+Cladonia subrangiformis Sandst.

Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 25: 165, 1924 ("1922").

Syn.: Cladonia furcata ssp. subrangiformis (Sandst.) Abbayes nom. illegit., Cladonia furcata v. stenozosia A.Massal.

N - VG, Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2000), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: vr, C: vr, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on mineral calciferous soil, often amongst bryophytes. In my opinion, this species is well distinct both from C. furcata and C. rangiformis, although less abundant than the latter, it is widespread throughout Italy.


+Cladonia subulata (L.) F.H.Wigg.

[Weber ex] F.H.Wigg., Primit. Florae Holsat.: 90, 1780 - Lichen subulatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1153, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia cornutoradiata (Vain.) Zopf, Cladonia fimbriata v. cornutoradiata Vain., Cladonia fimbriata v. radiata (Schreb.) Cromb., Cladonia fimbriata v. subcornuta Nyl ex Cromb., Cladonia fimbriata v. subulata (L.) Vain., Cladonia subulata v. radiata (Schreb.) Ozenda & Clauzade

N - Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to subarctic lichen, found on mineral soil on track sides and in clearings of light forests and heaths, more rarely on rotting wood, in areas with siliceous substrata. The record from Venezia Giulia, in Nimis (1993: 246) was due to a misidentification. See also note on C. rei.


+Cladonia sulphurina (Michx.) Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 237, 1831 - Scyphophorus sulphurinus Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer., 2: 238, 1803.

Syn.: Cladonia deformis v. gonecha (Ach.) Arnold, Cladonia gonecha (Ach.) Asahina

N - Frl (Martellos 2005), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Nascimbene 2006, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003b, 2006, 2006b),VA (Valcuvia 2000).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign-Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cicumboreal-subarctic lichen, found on organic substrata in cold-shaded situations, most common on rotting wood, e.g. on stumps and decaying fallen trunks, to be looked for throughout the Alps. See note on C. deformis.


+Cladonia symphycarpa (Flörke) Fr.

Nov. Sched. Crit.: 20, 1826 - Capitularia symphycarpa Flörke [in F. Weber] Beitr. Naturk., 2: 281, 1810.

Syn.: Cladonia dahliana Kristinsson, Cladonia hungarica Vain.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem, VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b) Pugl (TSB).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rc, B: rr, C: rr, D: rc, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic species, found on calcareous ground in dry grasslands or on the top of exposed calcareous boulders, certainly occurring throughout S Italy.


+Cladonia turgida Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 124, 1796.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on acid soil in open habitats, restricted to the Alps.


+Cladonia uncialis (L.) F.H.Wigg. ssp. uncialis

[Weber ex] F.H.Wigg., Primit. Florae Holsat.: 90, 1780 - Lichen uncialis L., Sp. Pl.: 1153, 1753.

Syn.: Cladonia stellata v. humilis A.Massal., Cladonia stellata Schaer., Cladonia uncialis ssp. biuncialis (Hoffm.) Choisy ?, Cladonia uncialis ssp. dicraea (Ach.) D.Hawksw.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Benesperi & al. 2007). C - Tosc, Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: rc, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to northern boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on soil and amongst mosses in very open habitats with a long snow-lie, common only in the Alps. The distribution, ecology and genetics of ssp. biuncialis, never reported from Italy but certainly present in the Italian Alps, are well worthy of further study.


Cladonia uncialis (L.) F.H.Wigg. ssp. biuncialis (Hoffm.) M.Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Soc. Bot. Lyon, 20: 9, 1951 - Cladonia biuncialis Hoffm., Deutschl. Fl.: 116, 1796.



N - Frl (Martellos 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: this subspecies differs from ssp. uncialis for the presence of squamatic acid, while morphological differences are not always clear.


+Clauzadea chondrodes (A.Massal.) Hafellner & Türk

Stapfia, 76: 151, 2001 - Biatora chondrodes A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 39, 1855.

Syn.: Biatora cyclisca A.Massal., Clauzadea cyclisca (A.Massal.) V.Wirth, Lecidea chondrodes (A.Massal.) Malbr., Lecidea cyclisca (A.Massal.) Malbr., Protoblastenia chondrodes (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: r, C: rc, D: r, E: vr, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen, found on limestone and dolomite, often with colonies of cyanobacteria, but avoiding very dry situations.


+Clauzadea immersa (Weber) Hafellner & Bellem.

[in Hafellner] Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 322, 1984 - Lichen immersus Weber, Spicil. Flor. Goett.: 188, 1778.

Syn.: Biatora immersa (Weber) P. Syd., Hymenelia immersa sensu Jatta, Lecidea calcivora Nyl., Lecidea immersa (Weber) Ach., Lecidella immersa (Weber) Körb., Protoblastenia immersa (Weber) J.Steiner,

N - VG (Tretiach & Pecchiari 1995, Pinna & al. 1998, Crisafulli & al. 2006, Piervittori & al. 2006), Frl (Pinna & al. 1998), Ven (Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: rr, C: rc, D: vc, E: vr, F: vc, G: c, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread, temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen, found on a wide variety of calciferous rocks, esp. limestone.


+Clauzadea metzleri (Körb.) D.Hawksw.

[Clauzade & Cl.Roux ex] D.Hawksw. [in Coppins & al.] Lichenologist, 24: 367, 1992 - Biatora metzleri Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 162, 1860.

Syn.: Lecidea metzleri (Körb.) Th.Fr., Lecidea oolithina Nyl., Protoblastenia metzleri (Körb.) J.Steiner


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