+Absconditella annexa



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N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: rr, C: rc, D: c, E: vr, F: c, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a mainly temperate, holarctic early colonizer of small calcareous pebbles in dry grasslands.


+Clauzadea monticola (Schaer.) Hafellner & Bellem.

[in Hafellner] Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 319, 1984 - Lecidea monticola [Ach. ex] Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., sect. 4-5: 161, 1833.

Syn.: Biatora fuscorubens Nyl., Biatora monticola (Schaer.) Hepp, Lecidea caementicola Erichsen, Lecidea fuscorubens (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea ochracea (Hepp) Zwackh, Lecidea rubigineoatra Vain., Lecidea subacervata Müll.Arg., Lecidea sympathetica Taylor ex Leight., Lecidella fuscorubens (Nyl.) Stein, Lecidella ochracea (Hepp) Körb., Protoblastenia monticola (Schaer.) J.Steiner, Sarcogyne calcomaura Norman

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: r, C: rc, D: vc, E: vr, F: vc, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a widespread holarctic pioneer species of calciferous rocks (limestone, dolomite, sandstone, calciferous schists), also found on man-made substrata (e.g. on mortar walls), and even on gypsum.


+Clauzadeana macula (Taylor) Coppins & Rambold

[in Rambold] Bibl. Lichenol., 34: 85, 1989 - Lecidea macula Taylor [in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern., 2: 115, 1836.

Syn.: Aspicilia morioides Blomb. ex Arnold, Clauzadeana instratula (Nyl.) Cl.Roux, Lecanora morioides (Arnold) Blomb., Lecidea instratula Nyl., Lecidea perustula Nyl., Psora pissodes (Stirt.) Walt.Watson

N - TAA, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on hard, steeply inclined crystalline siliceous rocks, exceptionally on dolomite, probably overlooked in the Alps, but certainly not common.


+Cliostomum corrugatum (Ach.: Fr.) Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 455, 1831 - Lecidea corrugata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 18, 1814.

Syn.: Biatora ehrhartiana (Ach.) W.Mann, Biatorina ehrhartiana (Ach.) Th.Fr., Biatorina graniformis (K.G.Hagen) A.L.Sm., Buellia cliostomoides A.Massal., Catillaria ehrhartiana (Ach.) Th.Fr., Catillaria graniformis (K.G.Hagen) Vain., Cliostomum graniforme (K.G.Hagen) Coppins, Lecidea ehrhartiana (Ach.) Ach., Rhytisma corrugatum (Ach.) Fr.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate species, found on old oaks, but also on Abies in humid stands, more rarely on lignum (decorticated trunks, wooden poles), both in the Alps and in humid montane forests of the peninsula. Cliostomum leprosum (Räsänen) Holien & Tønsberg is known from the Alps of France and Switzerland, C. pallens (Kullh.) S.Ekman from the Alps of France and Austria.

+Cliostomum griffithii (Sm.) Coppins

[in D.Hawksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 106, 1980 - Lichen griffithii Sm., Engl. Bot., 25: pl. 1735, 1807.

Syn.: Bacidia imitatrix Malme, Biatora anomala (Ach.) Fr., Biatora mixta Fr., Biatorina griffithii (Sm.) A.Massal., Biatorina mixta (Fr.) Hellb., Biatorina tricolor auct., Catillaria griffithii (Sm.) Malme, Catillaria tricolor auct. non (With.) Th.Fr., Lecidea anomala Ach., Lecidea tricolor sensu Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven, Lomb, Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Abr, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species with a fragmented holarctic range, found on bark of old isolated trees in open, humid woodlands, rarely on lignum. Probably more widespread in the past, presently mostly Tyrrhenian. The epithet “griffithii” (sometimes spelled “Grippithii”) was often used by XIX century Italian authors to designate Lecania cyrtella s.lat. (e.g. see Anzi 1860: 73). The record from Piemonte by Isocrono & Falletti (1999) needs confirmation, and is not accepted here.


+Collema auriforme (With.) Coppins & J.R.Laundon

[in J.R.Laundon] Lichenologist, 16, 3: 228, 1984 - Riccia auriformis With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: 704, 1776.

Syn.: Collema auriculatum Hoffm., Collema auriculatum v. crenulatum Schaer., Collema granosum auct. p.p. non DC., Collema granosum v. auriculatum (Hoffm.) A.L.Sm., Collema majusculum Zahlbr., Lichen granosus Scop. nom. illegit., Parmelia auriculata (Hoffm.) Ach.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Sax/ 3-5, 2-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: rr, D: rc, E: er, F: c, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a temperate to southern boreal-montane, holarctic lichen found on calcicolous mosses, rarely directly on rock in sheltered situations, e.g. in woodlands or on shaded walls, rare within settlements and in areas with intensive agriculture.


+Collema bachmanianum (Fink) Degel.

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 13, 2: 189, 1954 - Collemodes bachmanianum Fink, Mycologia, 10: 237, 1918.

Syn.: Collema bachmanianum v. millegranum Degel. ?

N - Lomb.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on calciferous or base-rich siliceous soil, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Collema callopismum A.Massal.

Miscell. Lichenol.: 23, 1856.

Syn.: Collema callopismum f. granulosum Degel., Leptogium callopismum (A.Massal.) Harm.

N - VG, Frl, TAA, Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi 2003b, Ravera & al. 2006).

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: er, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen of calciferous rocks, often on seepages. This mainly western European species was poorly understood by several Italian authors, and all Italian records - except those checked by Degelius from Veneto and Liguria (Nimis 1993: 253) - need confirmation. The records from Calabria by Puntillo (1996) are excluded here: the corresponding material in TSB belongs to a Leptogium.


+Collema ceraniscum Nyl.

Flora, 48: 353, 1865.

Syn.: Collema arcticum Lynge, Collema subhumosum Nyl., Collema tetragonoides Anzi, Leptogium tetragonoides (Anzi) Lettau

N - Lomb.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 5/ A: er, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, perhaps circumpolar lichen, found over frost-disturbed, weakly calcareous soil, to be looked for further in the Alps, where it is perhaps more widespread.


+Collema coccophorum Tuck.

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sc., 5: 385, 1862.

Syn.: Collema harmandii Samp., Collema pulposum v. microphyllum Harm.

N - VG.

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on calciferous soil in dry grasslands, the only locality is in Croatia (Istria), not far from the Italian border, but this almost cosmopolitan species of dry areas - which can be easily mistaken for C. tenax - might be more widespread in Italy, esp. in dry mediterranean areas of the south.


+Collema conglomeratum Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora: 102, 1796.

Syn.: Collema fasciculare v. conglomeratum (Hoffm.) Ach., Collema verruculosum Hepp ex Müll.Arg. non sensu Arnold, Synechoblastus conglomeratus (Hoffm.) Körb.

N - VG, Frl (Molaro 2005), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr. S - Camp, Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3, 3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a manly temperate species with a fragmented holarctic range, found on nutrient-rich bark, esp. of Juglans, formerly more widespread, now restricted to the vicinity of small settlements in mountain valleys, where it is locally abundant.


+Collema crispum (Huds.) F.H.Wigg.

[Weber ex] F.H.Wigg., Primit. Florae Holsat.: 89, 1780 - Lichen crispus Huds., Fl. Angl.: 447, 1762.

Syn.: Blennothallia cheilea (Ach.) Trevis., Collema anemoides Samp. ?, Collema brutium (Jatta) Jatta, Collema cheileum (Ach.) Ach., Collema cheileum v. brutium Jatta, Collema conchilobum (Flot.) Körb., Collema crispum v. metzleri (Arnold) Degel., Collema granulosum Schaer., Collema marginale (Huds.) Hoffm., Collema platycarpum Durieu & Mont., Homodium subcuspidans Nyl.

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Umbr (Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 2-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen, found both on calcareous rocks and soil, often in rather disturbed habitats such as walls in villages, most common in C and S Italy, the mostly saxicolous, smaller var. metzleri - in my opinion - is hardly worth of an independent taxonomic rank.


+Collema cristatum (L.) F.H.Wigg.

[Weber ex] F.H.Wigg., Primit. Florae Holsat.: 89, 1780 - Lichen cristatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1143, 1753.

Syn.: Collema crispum v. cristatum (L.) Ach., Collema cristatum v. marginale (Huds.) Degel., Collema granuliferum Nyl., Collema hypergenum Nyl., Collema melaenum (Ach.) Ach., Collema melaenum f. minor Flagey, Collema multifidum (Scop.) Rabenh., Collema multifidum. v. intermedium Trevis., Collema multifidum v. jacobaeifolius Schrank, Collema multifidum v. marginale (Huds.) Schaer., Collema multifidum v. nudum A.Massal., Collema papulosum Ach., Lichen marginalis Huds., Lichen multifidus Scop., Parmelia multifida (Scop.) Schaer.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: rc, B: rc, C: vc, D: ec, E: vr, F: ec, G: ec, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found on exposed limestone and dolomite with some seepage of water after rain (an ecological feature which is very evident in dry mediterranean areas, where the species is confined to rain-tracks), this is one of the most common species of the genus in Italy, but it is rare in disturbed habitats. Of the two weakly distinguished varieties recognized by Degelius (1954), v. marginale is more southern and more thermophilous, while the typical variety can reach the Alpine belt.


+Collema curtisporum Degel.

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 13: 2, 1954.



C - Tosc.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on bark of broadleaved trees in humid but open situations, easily mistaken with C. nigrescens or C. subnigrescens, this exceedingly rare lichen needs further study.


+Collema euthallinum (Zahlbr.) Degel.

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 13, 2: 268, 1954 - Collema leptogioides v. euthallinum Zahlbr., Österr. Bot. Z., 59: 494, 1909.

Syn.: Leptogium diffractum v. euthallinum (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr.

N - Lig. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined seepages of calcareous rocks, a mediterranean species also known from Dalmatia, perhaps overlooked and more widespread in Mediterranean Italy, but never common.


+Collema fasciculare (L.) F.H.Wigg.

[Weber ex] F.H.Wigg., Primit. Florae Holsat.: 89, 1780 - Lichen fascicularis L., Mantissa Pl., 1: 133, 1767.

Syn.: Collema aggregatum sensu Sommerf., Collema ascaridosporum (A.Massal.) Degel., Collema dinaricum Zahlbr., Collema vespertilio v. fasciculare (L.) Flot., Lethagrium aggregatum (“Ach.”) Samp., Lethagrium ascaridosporum A.Massal., Parmelia nigrescens v. fascicularis (L.) Schaer., Synechoblastus aggregatus (“Ach.”) Th.Fr., Synechoblastus ascaridosporus (A.Massal.) Zwackh, Synechoblastus fascicularis (L.) A.L.Sm., Synechoblastus labyrinticus Anzi

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002b), Abr, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen with a fragmented holarctic range, found on old broadleaved trees, often on mosses, in open, humid stands, somehow more frequent in the past, presently very much declining. With the probable exception of Liguria, it may be presently extinct in the north, and could be restricted to a few humid sites of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Collema flaccidum (Ach.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 647, 1810 - Lichen flaccidus Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 14, 1795.

Syn.: Collema abbreviatum Arnold, Collema atroplumbeum Hue, Collema furvum v. flaccidum (Ach.) Spreng., Collema rupestre (Sw.) Rabenh., Lichen rupestris Sw. nom. illegit., Lethagrium rupestre (Sw.) A.Massal., Parmelia flaccida (Ach.) Ach., Synechoblastus flaccidus (Ach.) Körb., Synechoblastus flaccidus v. hydrelus (Flot.) Jatta, Synechoblastus rupestris (Sw.) Trevis.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Frati & al. 2004), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: rc, G: c, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen with a fragmented holarctic range, found on bark, epilithic mosses, base-rich siliceous and slightly calciferous rocks in sheltered, humid situations, more common in the past and now absent from urban areas and the Po-Plain, mostly Tyrrhenian in Italy, but still locally frequent in humid Alpine and pre-Alpine areas.


+Collema fragile Taylor

[in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern., 2: 109 and 259, 1836.

Syn.: Leptogium fragile (Taylor) Nyl.

N - Lig. S - Pugl, Si.

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined seepages of calcareous rocks, a southwestern species in Europe, much overlooked and perhaps more widespread in Tyrrhenian Italy, but never common.


+Collema fragrans (Sm.) Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 311, 1814 - Lichen fragrans Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 27: tab. 1912, 1808.

Syn.: Collema capniochroum A.Massal., Collema microphyllum Ach. nom. illegit., Collema prasinum (Ach.) Ach., Collema terrulentum Nyl., Collemodium microphyllum (Ach.) Nyl., Leptogium fragrans (Sm.) Leight., Leptogium microphyllum (Ach.) Leight., Parmelia crispa v. prasina Ach.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem, Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz, Abr, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Si.

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on bark in open but mature, humid, broadleaved woodlands, presently extremely rare or extinct in the north (the recent record from Lombardy requires confirmation), and perhaps restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Collema furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz

Ark. Bot. K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. 22 A-3: 3, 1929 - Synechoblastus nigrescens v. furfuraceum Arnold, Flora, 64: 115, 1881.

Syn.: Collema nigrescens v. furfuraceum (Arnold) H.Olivier

N - VG (Castello 1996), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & al. 2003), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997, 1998), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003¸Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Puntillo & al. 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate, probably holarctic lichen, found on bark of broadleaved trees and on epiphytic mosses, more common in the past, presently confined to semi-natural, open stands, or to old plantations of Olea in humid areas, mainly in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Collema furfureolum Müll.Arg.

Flora, 72: 142, 1889.

Syn.: Collema sublaeve (Jatta) Zahlbr.

S - Pugl, Si.

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ 4-5, 4-5, 3, 1-2/ Sax/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: this species, related to C. crispum, was described from Asia. All European records derive from Degelius (1986), and - in my opinion - they require further study.


+Collema fuscovirens (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 228, 1984 - Lichen fuscovirens With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: 717, 1776.

Syn.: Collema abbreviatum (Wahlenb.) Arnold nomen sed non planta, Collema furvum (Ach.) DC., Collema furvum v. pustulosissimum Harm., Collema rupestre v. furvum (Ach.) Rabenh., Collema stillicidiorum Harm., Collema subgranosum Harm., Collema tuniforme (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia furva (Ach.) Ach., Lichen flaccidus v. abbreviatus Wahlenb., Lichen furvus Ach., Lichen tunaeformis Ach., Synechoblastus abbreviatus (Wahlenb.) Zwackh


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