+Absconditella annexa



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+Ephebe lanata (L.) Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 14: 20, 1888 - Lichen lanatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1155, 1753.

Syn.: Cornicularia lanata (L.) DC., Ephebe cantabrica Nyl., Ephebe intricata Lamy, Ephebe lapponica Nyl., Ephebe martindalei Nyl., Ephebe pubescens auct. p.p., Ephebe spinulosa Th.Fr., Ephebeia hispidula (Ach.) Nyl., Parmelia lanata (L.) Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 357), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar.

Frut.f/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen with outliers in the cool-temperate zone, found on steeply inclined, periodically wetted or inundated siliceous rocks, on seepage tracks, etc.


+Ephebe perspinulosa Nyl.

[in Norrl.] Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn. Vanamo: 7, 1876.

Syn.: Ephebe trachytera (Nyl. ex Vain.) Henssen

N - Piem (TSB).

Frut.f/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on periodically wetted siliceous rocks, perhaps more widespread in the Alps.


+Epilichen scabrosus (Ach.) Clem.

The Genera of Fungi: 174, 1909 - Lecidea scabrosa Ach., Meth. Lich.: 48, 1803.

Syn.: Buellia scabrosa (Ach.) A.Massal., Karschia scabrosa (Ach.) Rehm

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Baeomyces spp./ Note: restricted to cold-humid situations in upland areas, at first a parasite of Baeomyces species, becoming autotrophic when old. Epilichen glauconigellus (Nyl.) Hafellner is known from the Alps of Austria.


+Epiphloea terrena (Nyl.) Trevis.

Rendic. R. Ist. Lombardo, ser. 2, 13, 1880 - Leptogium terrenum Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, 6, 1872.

Syn.: Amphidium terrenum (Nyl.) Samp ?, Leptogium crozalsianum Harm.

N - Lig.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on bare siliceous soil in mediterranean grasslands and garrigues, certainly much overlooked in Italy.


+Euopsis pulvinata (Schaer.) Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 6, 1881 - Lecidea pulvinata Schaer., Naturwiss. Anz.: 11, 1864.

Syn.: Blennothallia haemalea (Sommerf.) Trevis., Pannaria haemalea (Sommerf.) A.Massal., Pyrenopsis haemalea (Sommerf.) Norrl., Pyrenopsis macrocarpa A.E.Dahl, Pyrenopsis pulvinata (Schaer.) Th.Fr.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen, found on siliceous rocks, esp. in seepage tracks on on small pebbles in wet places, sometimes even on soil, much overlooked, and probably more widespread in the Alps. Euopsis granatina (Sommerf.) Nyl. is known from the Alps of France and Switzerland.


+Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 441, 1810 - Lichen divaricatus L., Syst. Nat., ed. 2., 2: 713, 1767.

Syn.: Evernia perfragilis Llano ?, Letharia divaricata (L.) Hue

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to S boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on twigs of coniferous and deciduous trees in semi-natural forests with frequent fog, rarer in the south, with optimum in beech-fir forests.


+Evernia illyrica (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr.

[in Du Rietz] Sv. Bot. Tidskr., 20: 90, 1926 - Evernia divaricata ssp. illyrica Zahlbr., Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 19: 418, 1904.

Syn.: Letharia illyrica (Zahlbr.) Harm.

S - Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-montane species, found in humid beech-fir forests. An earlier record from Venezia Giulia cited by Nimis (1993: 294) is excluded, actually being from Slovenia


+Evernia mesomorpha Nyl.

Lichenes Scand.: 74, 1861.

Syn.: Evernia prunastri v. thamnodes Flot., Evernia thamnodes (Flot.) Arnold, Letharia mesomorpha (Nyl.) Du Rietz

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on bark (often on twigs) of conifers, sometimes on lignum (e.g. on wooden poles, decorticated branches).


+Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 442, 1810 - Lichen prunastri L., Sp. Pl.: 1147, 1753.

Syn.: Evernia arenaria auct. non (Retz.) Fr., Evernia herinii P.A.Duvign., Evernia prunastri v. herinii (P.A.Duvign.) Maas Gest., Evernia prunastri v. retusa Ach., Evernia prunastri v. vulgaris f. minima Jatta, Letharia arenaria auct., Parmelia prunastri (L.) Ach.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2001b, 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Alessio & al. 1995, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, 2001, Pišút 1997, Loppi & al. 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, 1999a, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi 2000a, Paoli & al. 2005, Pinto & al. 2005, Paoli & Loppi 2006, Pisani & al. 2006, Benesperi & al. 2007, Di Lella & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996, 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-3, 3-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: vc, D: rr, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, rare only in disturbed situations and in dry habitats, otherwise one of the most common epiphytic fruticose lichens of Italy.


+Farnoldia dissipabilis (Nyl.) Hertel

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 443, 1983 - Lecidea dissipabilis Nyl., Flora, 57: 314, 1874.

Syn.: Lecidea jurana v. sublutescens (Nyl.) Hertel, Lecidea obstans Nyl., Lecidea sublutescens Nyl., Melanolecia dissipabilis (Nyl.) Hertel, Tremolecia jurana v. sublutescens (Nyl.) Hertel

N - Ven, TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on calciferous rocks, esp. in rock fissures and on steeply inclined to slightly overhanging surfaces, probably more widespread in the Alps, very closely related to F. jurana, this taxon known from the Central European mountains (Alps, Carpathians), awaits further study.

+Farnoldia hypocrita (A.Massal.) Fröberg

Calc. Lich. Öland: 57, 1989 - Lecidea hypocrita A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 53, 1855.

Syn.: Biatora emergens (Flot.) Müll. Arg., Farnoldia hypocrita v. ligans (Nyl.) Hafellner & Türk, Haplocarpon lithospersum (Zahlbr.) M.Choisy, Lecidea dissipata H.Magn. ?, Lecidea elata v. violascens Lynge, Lecidea emergens Flot. non Taylor, Lecidea emergens v. ligans (Nyl.) Hertel, Lecidea hypocrita v. ligans (Nyl.) Hertel, Lecidea ligans Nyl., Lecidea lithospersa Zahlbr., Lecidea lithyrga sensu Fr. non Ach., Lecidea jurana auct. ital. p.p. non Schaer., Lecidea murina Ach., Lecidea platycarpa v. apyospora A.Massal., Lecidea polycocca Sommerf. ?, Lecidea sarcogynella Nádv.

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil. C - Abr.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1:r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: an arctic-alpine, incompletely circumpolar species, found on limestone and dolomite. All south Italian records cited in Nimis (1993: 295) are dubious, and are not accepted here.


+Farnoldia jurana (Schaer.) Hertel ssp. jurana

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 443, 1983 - Lecidea jurana Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 123, 1850.

Syn.: Biatora annularis Müll.Arg., Biatora jurana (Schaer.) Hepp nomen sed non planta, Farnoldia jurana ssp. muverani (Müll.Arg.) Hafellner & Türk, Haplocarpon juranum (Schaer.) M.Choisy, Lecidea albosuffusa Th.Fr., Lecidea albosuffusa f. aggregata (Jatta) Zahlbr., Lecidea annularis (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea caerulea Kremp., Lecidea calcigena Flörke ex Körb., Lecidea cyaniza Nyl., Lecidea inferior Nyl., Lecidea jurana f. dispersa Arnold, Lecidea muverani (Müll.Arg.) Hertel, Lecidea petrosa Arnold, Lecidea petrosa v. aggregata Jatta, Lecidea petrosa v. glaucocarpa Arnold, Lecidea reuteri Müll.Arg., Lecidea subvorticosa Nyl., Melanolecia jurana (Schaer.) Hertel, Tremolecia jurana (Schaer.) Hertel

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas, Si.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: vc, A1: ec, B: c, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on limestone and dolomite, more rarely on other calciferous rocks (e.g. sandstone and schist), one of the most common calcicolous species above and near treeline, throughout the country.


+Farnoldia jurana ssp. bicincta (Hertel) Hafellner & Türk

Stapfia 76: 152, 2001 - Lecidea jurana v. bicincta Hertel, Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 24: 89, 1967.

Syn.: Melanolecia jurana ssp. bicincta (Hertel) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Melanolecia jurana v. bicincta (Hertel) Hertel

N - Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA (Nascimbene 2005), Piem (TSB).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ #/ Note: under overhanging calcareous rocks, probably more widespread in the Alps but, in my opinion, hardly deserving a recognition at subspecific rank.


+Farnoldia micropsis (A.Massal.) Hertel

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 443, 1983 - Lecidea micropsis A.Massal., Atti Ist. Ven. Sc. Lett. Arti, ser. 3, 2: 18, figg. 1-4, t. 2, 1857.

Syn.: Biatora rhaetica Hepp ex Körb., Farnoldia nivalis v. lutescens (Anzi) Hertel, Lecidea dusenii Lynge, Lecidea hornii Lynge, Lecidea macrospora Lynge, Lecidea nivalis Anzi, Lecidea nivalis v. lutescens Anzi, Lecidea rhaetica Hepp ex Arnold nom. nud., Lecidea rhaetica Hepp ex Th.Fr., Lecidea rhaetica v. lutescens (Anzi) Jatta, Lecidea rhaetica v. micropsis (A.Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecidea valpellinensis de Lesd., Lecidella micropsis (A.Massal.) Körb., Lecidella rhaetica (Hepp ex Körb.) Körb., Melanolecia micropsis (A.Massal.) Hertel, Tremolecia nivalis (Anzi) Hertel v. nivalis

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig, Emil. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b ),Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, with optimum on calciferous sandstone and schists, rarer on limestone and dolomite, mostly on inclined faces, common in only the Alps.


+Farnoldia muscigena (Vězda) Tretiach & Hafellner

Herzogia, 14: 106, 2000 - Lecidea jurana v. muscigena Vězda, Acta Mus. Silesiae, ser. A, 10: 8, 1961.

Syn.: Melanolecia muscigena (Vězda) Hertel

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: known from the Central European mountains (Tatra, Alps) this lichen is found on muribund bryophytes, crustose lichens and plant debris over calcareous substrata, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Farnoldia similigena (Nyl.) Hertel

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19: 443, 1983 - Lecidea similigena Nyl., Flora, 64: 451, 1881.

Syn.: Lecidea subrhaetica Arnold ex Lettau, Melanolecia similigena (Nyl.) Hertel, Tremolecia similigena (Nyl.) Hertel

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 5-6/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species, found on inclined to vertical faces of calciferous siliceous rocks (e.g. calcareous sandstone and schist).


+Fellhanera bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon., 21: 214, 1986 - Parmelia bouteillei Desm., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot., ser. 3: 8, 1847.

Syn.: Biatorina bouteillei (Desm.) Arnold, Biatorina littorella (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Catillaria bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr., Catillaria rubicola (Crouan) H.Olivier, Lecidea littorella Nyl.

N - Ven, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Puntillo & Ottonello 1997) , Laz (Ravera 2006). S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, 2000, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Foliic-Sax-Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a temperate to S boreal-montane species, found on leaves and twigs of conifers (esp. Abies in the Alps), but also on evergreen mediterranean trees and shrubs in very humid situations. Fellhanera gyrophorica Sérus., Coppins, Diederich & Scheid. is known from the Alps of France and Switzerland, Fellhanera margaritella (Hulting) Hafellner in Hafellner & Türk from the Alps of Austria. N-Italian records should be checked against these species.


+Fellhanera christiansenii Sérus. & Vězda

[in Vězda] Nova Hedwigia, 58, 1-2: 130-131, 1994.



S - Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, 2000, Sérusiaux 1996, 1998).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Foliic/ 1-2, 3, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on needles of Abies and cladodes of Ruscus in humid woodlands.


+Fellhanera subtilis (Vězda) Diederich & Sérus.

[in Sérus.] Mém. Soc. roy. Bot. Belg., 12: 142, 1990 - Bacidia subtilis Vězda, Preslia, 33: 367, 1961.

Syn.: Arthonia subtilis (Vězda) Vězda

N - Frl.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on twigs of small shrubs (Vaccinium, Calluna), more rarely on mosses (e.g. Polytrichum) and on twigs of Picea in cold sites, on north-facing slopes or in deep gorges, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola (Erichsen) Sérus. & Coppins

[in Sérus.] Lichenologist, 28, 3: 199, 1996 - Bacidia myrtillicola Erichsen, Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb., 10: 414, 1939.

Syn.: Bacidia buxi Vězda & Vivant, Bacidia gorgonea Vězda & Poelt, Bacidia myriocarpa Erichsen, Bacidia nitschaeana v. perpusilloides Erichsen, Fellhanera buxi (Vězda & Vivant) Vězda, Fellhanera myrtillicola (Erichsen) Hafellner

S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Sérusiaux 1996, Puntillo 1996, 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Foliic/ 2, 3, 1, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to S boreal-montane lichen, found on needles of Abies in very humid montane forests, but also on leaves of Buxus and Laurus in warm-humid gorges near the coast, to be looked for in the most humid parts of the Alps, on twigs of Picea, and branches of Calluna and Vaccinium.


+Fellhaneropsis vezdae (Coppins & P.James) Sérus. & Coppins

Lichenologist, 28, 3: 208, 1996 - Bacidia vezdae Coppins & P.James, Lichenologist, 10: 190, 1978.

Syn.: Fellhanera vezdae (Coppins & P.James) V.Wirth

S - Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Foliic/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on bark of broad-leaved (esp. Quercus) and coniferous (e.g. Abies) trees in very humid, open forests, esp. on basal parts of trunks, sometimes foliicolous (e.g. in Calabria).


+Flavocetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & Thell

Acta Botanica Fennica, 150: 81, 1994 - Lichen cucullatus Bellardi, Osserv. Bot.: 54, 1788.

Syn.: Allocetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Randlane & Saag, Cetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil. C - Abr.

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 2-4, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 5/ A: c, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, a typical element of tundra-like vegetation of open, dry habitats above treeline, most frequent on basic siliceous substrata, in wind-exposed ridges.


+Flavocetraria nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt & Thell

Acta Botanica Fennica, 150: 84, 1994 - Lichen nivalis L., Sp. Pl.: 1145, 1753.

Syn.: Allocetraria nivalis (L.) Randlane & Saag, Cetraria nivalis (L.) Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b), Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 2-4, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: c, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, a typical element of tundra-like vegetation of open, dry habitats above treeline, common throughout the Alps, this species is surprisingly abundant on the Gran Sasso Massif (central Apennines).


+Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale

Mycotaxon, 25: 604, 1986 - Lichen caperatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1147, 1753.

Syn.: Imbricaria caperata (L.) DC., Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach., Parmelia cylisphora (Ach.) Vain., Parmelia herreana Zahbr., Parmelia negativa Gyeln., Parmelia subglauca Nyl., Pseudoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale

N - VG (Castello 1996, Carvalho 1997, 2001, Baruffo & al. 2006, Piccotto & al. 2006), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach 1996, Caniglia & al. 2005), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Candeo & Caniglia 2005, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, 2005b), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, 2003, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2000), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Rizzio & al. 2001, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Caviglia & al. 2001, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Minganti & al. 2001, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Modenesi & al. 2003, Benco & al. 2004, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1992b, 1994b, 1994c, 1995, 1995b, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997d, 1997e, 1997g, 1997h, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, 2001, Loppi 1995, 1995b, 1996, 1996b, Loppi & Bargagli 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, 1996b, Pišút 1997, Corsini & al. 1998, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi 2000a, Senese & Critelli 2000, Bettini 2001, Del Guasta 2001, Baragatti & al. 2005, Baruffo & Tretiach 2005, Baragatti 2006, Pisani & al. 2006, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Caniglia & al. 2005).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: c, E: er, F: vc, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on isolated deciduous, more rarely evergreen trees, only exceptionally on rocks (e.g. on N exposed faces of basic siliceous rocks in dry-continental Alpine valleys), abundant in the submediterranean belt (except along the Adriatic side of the Peninsula, more subject to dry-cold winds), rarer elsewhere, in humid areas common also in eu-mediterranean vegetation, in arid areas restricted to sheltered situations, e.g. inside open forests.


+Flavoparmelia soredians (Nyl.) Hale

Mycotaxon, 25: 605, 1986 - Parmelia soredians Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2 sér., 6: 259, 1872.

Syn.:Pseudoparmelia soredians (Nyl.) Hale


Yüklə 3,49 Mb.

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