+Absconditella annexa



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N - VG, Frl, Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Castino 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Caviglia & al. 2001, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Putortì & Loppi 1999), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Marc (Frati & al. 2004), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Frati & al. 2004), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Fascetti & al. 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1994, Baruffo & al. 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on broadleaved, more rarely coniferous trees, with optimum in areas with a warm-humid climate. Some coastal saxicolous collections (TSB) are worthy of further study.


+Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Hale

Mycotaxon, 20, 2: 682, 1984 - Parmelia flaventior Stirt., Scottish Natur., 4: 254, 1878.

Syn.: Parmelia andreana Müll.Arg., Parmelia kernstockii (Lynge) Zahlbr., Parmelia lobarina Zahlbr., Parmelia variata Hue, Punctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Krog

N - VG, Frl, TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lig (TSB). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 4, 3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ Note: a species of rather continental areas, found on more or less isolated trees, most frequent in dry Alpine valleys. The record from Campania (Mt. Vesuvius) is rather unusual and should be checked.


+Flavopunctelia soredica (Nyl.) Hale

Mycotaxon, 20, 2: 682, 1984 - Parmelia soredica Nyl., Flora, 68: 605, 1885.

Syn.: Parmelia manshurica Asahina, Parmelia ulophyllodes (Vain.) Savicz, Punctelia soredica (Nyl.) Krog

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb.

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ Note: on inclined faces of siliceous rocks, restricted to Alpine valleys with a continental climate.


+Frutidella caesioatra (Schaer.) Kalb

Hoppea, 55: 582, 1994 - Lecidea caesioatra Schaer., Naturwiss. Anz., 2: 10 not., 1818.

Syn.: Lecidea arctica Sommerf., Lecidella arctica (Sommerf.) Körb., Lecidella caesioatra (Schaer.) Kalb

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine lichen, found on silicicolous mosses, esp. Andreaea and Grimmia, in places with a long snow-lie, more rarely on rock.


+Fulgensia bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen

Ann. Acad. Sc. Fenn.: 108, 1931 - Psora bracteata Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora: 169, 1796.

Syn.: Caloplaca bracteata (Hoffm.) Jatta, Caloplaca bracteata f. alpina (Th.Fr.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca bracteata f. deformis Erichsen ?, Fulgensia bracteata ssp. deformis (Erichsen) Poelt ?, Fulgensia bracteata v. alpina (Th.Fr.) Räsänen, Gyalolechia bracteata (Hoffm.) Körb., Lecanora bracteata (Hoffm.) Ach., Placodium bracteatum (Hoffm.) Nyl., Placodium fulgens v. alpinum Th.Fr.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 172).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calciferous soil and terricolous mosses in open situations, sometimes in fissures of calcareous rocks. The record of Grillo (1998) from the coast of Sicilia, is certainly due to a misidentification.


+Fulgensia desertorum (Tomin) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 5: 600, 1965 - Placodium desertorum Tomin, Über Bodenfl. aus Halbwüsten Süd-Ost Russlands, Woronesh: 29, 1926.

Syn.: Fulgensia bracteata auct. eur. austr.

N - Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: in Italy only locally common, esp. in areas with gypsum, in open grasslands, to be looked for in dry-continental Alpine valleys.


+Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin f. fulgens

Lich. Fl. Ross. Mediae, 2: 246, 1907 - Lichen fulgens Sw., N. Acta Acad. Upsal., 4: 246, 1784.

Syn.: Caloplaca fulgens (Sw.) Zahlbr., Fulgensia vulgaris A.Massal. & De Not., Lecanora fulgens (Sw.) Ach., Placodium fulgens (Sw.) DC., Psoroma fulgens (Sw.) A.Massal., Squamaria fulgens (Sw.) Hook., Squamaria fulgens v. decipiens Anzi

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: vr, F: rc, G: rr, H: rr/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a subtropical to temperate lichen, found on calcareous rocks and thin layers of soil, often in rock fissures.


+ Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin f. subbracteata (Nyl.) Nimis comb. nov.

Bas.: Lecanora subbtracteata Nyl., Flora, 66: 534, 1883.

Syn.: Caloplaca subbracteata (Nyl.) Lettau, Fulgensia subbracteata (Nyl.) Poelt

N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999), Lig (Westberg & Kaernefelt 1998, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.i/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: rc, E: a, F: c, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: on calciferous ground, in clearings of grasslands and shrublands. A critical taxon, characterized by schizidia, which, however, also occur in other related species. According to Roux (in litt.), it cannot be separated from F. fulgens, the schizidia being just a re-generation form from damages to the thallus. Pending further research, I separate it here at the level of forma.


+Fulgensia fulgida (Nyl.) Szatala

[in O. Deg.] Flora Velebitica, 3: 372, 1938 - Placodium fulgidum Nyl., Flora, 58: 212, 1875.

Syn.: Caloplaca fulgida (Nyl.) Steiner, Lecanora fulgida (Nyl.) Hue

N - Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Westberg & Kaernefelt 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: rc/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichen, found on soil, sometimes on rock, esp. in fissures, in dry grasslands.


+Fulgensia poeltii Llimona

Communidades de Liquenes de Yesos de Espana, Barcelona: 10, 1974.



S - Cal (TSB).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4, 4-5, 4-5, 2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean lichen found on calciferous soil in dry, open situations, easily confused with F. subbracteata when sterile, probably more widespread in S Italy, esp. in areas with a warm-dry climate.


+Fulgensia pruinosa (Körb.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 5: 596, 1965 - Gyalolechia pruinosa Körb., Ver. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 17: 703, 1867.

Syn.: Caloplaca aurea f. rupicola (Arnold) Zahlbr., Caloplaca pruinosa (Körb.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurea v. fissiseda Poelt ?

N - TAA, Lomb. C - Abr.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging faces of calcareous rocks, mostly in fissures, sometimes on epilithic bryophytes, var. fissiseda: on the top of birds' perching boulders.


+Fuscidea austera (Nyl.) P.James

[in Hawksworth & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 106, 1980 - Lecanora austera Nyl., Flora, 57: 309, 1874.

Syn: Fuscidea aggregata (Flot.) V.Wirth & Vězda, Fuscidea taeniarum (Malme) V.Wirth & Vězda, Lecidea aggregatilis Grummann

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging, hard siliceous rocks. Probably more widespread in the Alps. The genus is poorly known in Italy: the following species are known from the Alps (outside Italy): F. arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg, F. badensis V.Wirth & Poelt, F. gothoburgensis (H.Magn.) V.Wirth & Vězda, F. lightfootii (Sm.) Coppins & P.James, F. praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H.Magn.) V.Wirth & Vězda, and F. pusilla Tønsberg.


+Fuscidea cyathoides (Ach.) V.Wirth & Vězda

[in V.Wirth] Beitr. naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl., 31: 92, 1972 - Lichen cyathoides Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 62, 1799.

Syn.: Biatora rivulosa (Ach.) Fr., Fuscidea subrivulosa (Vain.) P.James, Poelt & May.Inoue, Lecidea cyathoides (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea rivulosa Ach.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to S boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen, found on siliceous rocks in humid areas of the Alps.


+Fuscidea kochiana (Hepp) V.Wirth & Vězda

[in V.Wirth] Beitr. naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl., 31: 92, 1972 - Lecidea kochiana Hepp, Lichen-Flora von Würzburg: 61, 1824.

Syn.: Biatora kochiana (Hepp) Rabenh., Biatora rivulosa v. kochiana (Hepp) Fr., Lecanora mammillifera Stirt., Lecidea coriacella Nyl., Lecidea interludens Nyl., Lecidea rivulosa v. kochiana (Hepp) Schaer.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on steeply inclined siliceous rocks in moderately shaded, humid situations.


+Fuscidea lygaea (Ach.) V.Wirth & Vězda

[in V.Wirth] Beitr. naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl., 31: 92, 1972 - Lecidea lygaea Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 34, 1814.

Syn.: Biatora lygaea (Ach.) Arnold, Catillaria massalongoi Körb. non auct., Fuscidea periplaca (Nyl.) V.Wirth & Vězda, Fuscidea tenebrica (Nyl.) V.Wirth & Vězda, Lecidea kochiana v. lygaea (Ach.) Leight., Lecidea periplaca Nyl., Lecidea pantosticta Ach., Lecidea lygaeoplaca Vain., Lecidea tenebrica Nyl., Rhizocarpon massalongoi (Körb.) Malme non auct.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: r, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging, hard siliceous rocks.


+Fuscidea mollis (Wahlenb.) V.Wirth & Vězda

[in V.Wirth] Beitr. naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl., 31: 92, 1972 - Lecidea rivulosa v. mollis Wahlenb., Fl. Lappon.: 472, 1812.

Syn.: Biatora mollis (Wahlenb.) Arnold, Lecidea mollis (Wahlenb.) Nyl., Lecidea mollis v. albescens (Körb.) H.Magn.

N - TAA, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly western species with isolated outposts in the C European mountains, on steeply inclined, sheltered siliceous rocks.


+Fuscidea praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H.Magn.) V.Wirth & Vězda

[in V.Wirth] Beitr. naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl., 31: 92, 1972 - Lecidea praeruptorum Du Rietz & H.Magn. [in Du Rietz] Akad. Abhandl.: 164, 1921.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ Note: a mainly western species of steeply inclined to underhanging faces of hard siliceous rocks in cold-humid, shltered situations, overlooked in Italy, certainly present in the Alps, but never common.


+Fuscidea recensa (Stirt.) Hertel, V.Wirth & Vězda

[in V.Wirth] Beitr. naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl., 31: 92, 1972 - Lecidea recensa Stirt., Scottish Nat., 5: 219, 1879.

Syn.: Fuscidea curvula (H.Magn.) Hertel, Lecidea arcuatula Arnold, Lecidea curvula H.Magn.

N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), VA, Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on hard siliceous rocks in humid, sheltered sites, overlooked in Italy, being often sterile. For the record from Val d’ Aosta see Nimis (1993: 301).


+Fuscidea stiriaca (A.Massal.) Hafellner

Fritschiana, 33: 42, 2002 - Biatora stiriaca A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost., 125, 1852.

Syn.: Biatorinella fagicola (Zschacke) Deschartres & Werner, Fuscidea cyathoides v. corticola (Fr.) Kalb., Fuscidea fagicola (Zschacke) Hafellner & Türk, Lecidea cyathoides v. corticola (Fr.) H.Magn., Lecidea fagicola Zschacke, Lecidea rivulosa v. corticola (Fr.) Jatta, Lecidea stiriaca (A.Massal.) Jatta

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb (Chiappetta & al. 2005), Piem, Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1999a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to S boreal-montane lichen found on bark (esp. of Fagus), perhaps declining, esp. in the north.


Fuscopannaria atlantica M.Jørg. & P. James

Lichenologist, 37, 5: 2005.



N - Lig (Jørgensen & James 2005).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ oc/ coast/ Note: a recently-described Macaronesian-Atlantic lichen extending as far north as Scotland, with a single disjunct station in Liguria (Varazze).


+Fuscopannaria ignobilis (Anzi) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76: 205, 1994 - Pannaria ignobilis Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1: 138, 1862.

Syn.: Pannaria servitiana Gyeln., Pannaria romanoana Hue

N - Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: mostly in cracks of the bark of ancient trees, near the base of the boles, mostly Tyrrhenian.


+Fuscopannaria leucophaea (Vahl) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76: 204, 1994 - Lichen leucophaeus Vahl, Fl. Dan., 6, 16: 8, 1787.

Syn.: Biatora microphylla (Westr.) Ach., Collemodium microphyllum (Westr.) Ach., Lecidea microphylla (Westr.) Ach., Lecidea microphylla v. swartzii Schaer., Lichen picinus Ach., Massalongia cheilea Mudd, Moelleropsis nebulosa f. taborensis Gyeln., Pannaria austriaca Zahlbr., Pannaria cheilea (Mudd) Leight., Pannaria leucophaea (Vahl) M.Jørg., Pannaria microphylla (Westr.) Delise, Pannaria microphylla f. lecanorina Gyeln., Pannaria microphylla v. pseudocraspedia Hazsl., Parmeliella microphylla (Westr.) Müll.Arg., Parmeliella pseudocraspedia (Hazsl.) Gyeln.

N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: er, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks in humid situations, such as in seepage tracks, most frequent in the Alps. The earlier record from Venezia Giulia (Nimis 1993: 468) was actually from Slovenia. Not belonging into Fuscopannaria.


+Fuscopannaria leucosticta (Tuck.) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76: 205, 1994 - Parmelia leucosticta Tuck. [in Darl.] Flora Cestrica, ed. 3: 441, 1853.

Syn.: Pannaria craspedia Körb., Pannaria leucosticta (Tuck.) Nyl.

N - VG, Ven, Lomb, Piem, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar (Zedda 2002).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on mossy trunks of broad-leaved trees, there are no recent records of this declining species.


+Fuscopannaria mediterranea (Tav.) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76: 205, 1994 - Pannaria mediterranea Tav., Port. Acta Biol., B, 8: 5, 1965.



N - Lig, Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Vězda Lich. Rar.Exs. 55, Zedda 1995, 2001, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Sq/ Cy.h/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean species, found on bark of ancient broad-leaved trees in semi-natural, rather undisturbed, humid woodlands, more rarely on siliceous, mossy rocks, mosty Tyrrhenian.


+Fuscopannaria olivacea (M.Jørg.) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76: 205, 1994 - Pannaria olivacea M.Jørg., Opera Bot., 45: 49, 1978.



N - Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to Metiterranean species, found on bark and mossy trunks in humid broad-leaved woodlands, typically Tyrrhenian, the record from Abruzzi is exceptional.


+Fuscopannaria praetermissa (Nyl.) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76: 205, 1994 - Pannaria praetermissa Nyl. [in Chyd. & Furuhj.] Not. Sällsk. F. Fl. Fenn. Förh., 4: 97, 1858.

Syn.: Lecidea carnosa v. lepidiota Sommerf., Massalongia carnosa v. lepidiota (Sommerf.) Anzi, Pannaria lepidiota (Sommerf.) Th.Fr., Pannaria lepidiota f. sorediosa Vain., Pannaria lepidiota v. imbricata Vain., Pannaria lepidiota v. tristis Th.Fr., Parmeliella lepidiota (Sommerf.) Vain., Parmeliella praetermissa (Nyl.) P.James, Toninia caeruleonigricans (Lightf.) Th.Fr. non auct., Trachyderma praetermissum (Nyl.) Trevis.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig (TSB).

Sq/ Cy.h/ A.s/ Terr/ 3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on calciferous soil, mosses and plant debris.


+Fuscopannaria sampaiana (Tav.) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76, 1994 - Pannaria sampaiana Tav., Port. Acta Biol., ser. B, 3: 76, 1950.

Syn.: Pannaria craspedia v. isidiata Harm.

N - Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Sq/ Cy.h/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on bark of ancient deciduous trees in humid woodlands, certainly a very rare and endangered species in Italy.


+Fuscopannaria saubinetii (Mont.) M.Jørg.

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 76: 205, 1994 - Parmelia saubinetii Mont., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 6: 331, 1836.

Syn.: Massalongia rabenhorstiana Gyeln., Pannaria saubinetii (Mont.) Nyl., Parmeliella saubinetii (Mont.) Zahlbr., Parmeliella saubinetii f. grisea Gyeln., Parmelia rubiginosa v. pulveraceo-granulosa Grognot, Trachyderma saubinetii (Mont.) Trevis.

N - VG, Ven, Piem, Emil. C - Tosc.

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temprate species, found on trunks of mature deciduous trees in humid situations, to be looked for in other parts of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Gloeoheppia turgida (Ach.) Gyeln.

Feddes Rep., 38: 528, 1935 - Endocarpon turgidum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 305, 1810.

Syn.: Heppia endocarpea (Fr.) Hue, Heppia turgida (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora endocarpea (Fr.) Nyl.

N - Lig. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: rr/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichen, found on calciferous soil in dry grasslands, occasionally on weathered basic siliceous rocks.


+Glyphopeltis ligustica (de Lesd.) Timdal

Mycotaxon, 31, 1: 102, 1988 - Psora ligustica de Lesd., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 28: 82, 1936.

Syn.: Glyphopeltis eburina Brusse, Xanthopsorella llimonae Hertel, Egea & Poelt in Nimis & Poelt

N - Lig. C - Sar.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4, 4, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ paras Peltula euploca and P. placodizans/ Note: much less frequent than its hosts, and mostly coastal in Italy, and restricted to areas with frequent humid maritime winds.


+Gomphillus calycioides (Duby) Nyl.

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 2: 15, 1853 - Baeomyces calycioides [Delise ex] Duby, Bot. Gallic., 2: 636, 1830.

Syn.: Baeopodium calycioides (Duby) Trevis., Berengeria calycioides (Duby) A.Massal., Mycetodium calycioides (Duby) A.Massal.

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a mild-temperate to tropical species, found on bryophytes, mostly on basal parts of old trunks in mature warm-humid forests, the regions from which it was reported are presently affected by air pollution: perhaps extinct in Italy.


+Graphina anguina (Mont.) Müll.Arg.

Flora, 65: 385, 1882 - Ustalia anguina Mont., Annal. Sc. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 18: 278, 1842.

Syn.: Graphina inustula A.L.Sm., Graphis inustula (A.L.Sm.) Nyl., Graphis sophistica Nyl., Thalloloma anguinum (Mont.) Trevis.

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to tropical species, found on smooth bark, perhaps extinct in Italy. The record is somehow dubious (see Nimis 1993: 304-305).


+Graphis elegans (Sm.) Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 85, 1814 - Opegrapha elegans [Borrer ex] Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 26: tab. 1812, 1807.

Syn.: Graphis neglecta Erichsen, Graphis petrina Nyl., Graphis ramificans Nyl., Graphis sulcata (Pers.) A.Massal., Phaeographis ramificans (Nyl.) Lettau

N - Frl, TAA.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species, found on smooth bark, esp. of Ilex in warm-humid woodlands, to be looked for in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Graphis scripta (L.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 265, 1810 - Lichen scriptus L., Sp. Pl.: 1140, 1753.

Syn.: Graphis betuligna (Ach.) Ach., Graphis cerasi (Pers.) Ach., Graphis juglandis Garov. ex A.Massal., Graphis massalongii Kremp., Graphis pulverulenta (Pers.) Ach., Graphis scripta v. betulina (Pers.) Arnold, Graphis scripta v. cerasi (Pers.) Ach., Graphis scripta v. flexuosa A.Massal., Graphis scripta v. limitata (Pers.) Ach., Graphis scripta v. pulverulenta (Pers.) Ach., Graphis scripta v. serpentina (Ach.) G. Meyer, Graphis scripta v. spathea Ach., Graphis scripta v. stellaris (G. Meyer ex Schaer.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Graphis scripta v. typographica (Willd.) Zahlbr., Graphis serpentina (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha scripta f. quercina Trevis., Opegrapha scripta v. abietina Schaer., Opegrapha scripta v. recta Schaer., Opegrapha scripta v. serpentina, Opegrapha scripta f. tremulans Trevisan

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Philippi 1983, Hinteregger 1994), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Roella 1999), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999V). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera & al. 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (TSB). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Sérusiaux 1998, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vc, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread temperate to S boreal-montane lichen, found on smooth bark, mostly in deciduous forests, in humid areas also on twigs and branches, but normally on trunks, in drier areas restricted to the base of the boles. An extremely variable species, well worthy of a DNA study: on the same trunk one can often distinguish among several individual, fully merging thalli, just on the base of the shape and form of the ascomata.


+Gyalecta derivata (Nyl.) H.Olivier

Bull. Géogr. Bot., 21: 193, 1911 - Lecidea derivata Nyl., Flora, 48: 603, 1865.

Syn.: Gyalecta biformis (Körb.) H.Olivier, Gyalecta croatica Schuler & Zahlbr., Gyalecta decipiens Samp., Gyalecta truncigena v. biformis (Körb.) Vězda, Gyalecta truncigena v. croatica (Schuler & Zahlbr.) Vězda, Gyalecta truncigena v. derivata (Nyl.) Boistel

C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on broad-leaved trees (esp. Acer and Fraxinus) in humid areas, mostly Tyrrhenian.


+Gyalecta flotowii Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 171, 1855.

Syn.: Lecidea querceti Nyl.

N - Lig (Giordani & al. 2002). C - Marc (Frati & al. 2004), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on broad-leaved trees in clearings of ancient, undisturbed forests, esp.in deep fissures of the bark, often found on Acer and Fraxinus.


+Gyalecta foveolaris (Ach.) Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil., 7: 360, 1836 - Urceolaria foveolaris Ach., Meth. Lich.: 149, 1803.

Syn.: Petractis foveolaris (Ach.) A.Massal., Secoliga foveolaris (Ach.) A.Massal.

N - TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (TSB), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, found on calciferous soil, occasionally on rocks in humid and shaded situations, to be looked for throughout the calcareous Alps.


+Gyalecta friesii Körb.

[Flot. ex] Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 173, tab. 3, fig. 9 f-g, 1855.

Syn.: Gyalecta denudata Th.Fr., Petractis friesii (Körb.) A.Massal., Secoliga friesii (Körb.) A.Massal.

N - Ven.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Terr/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species growing on bryophytes and plant debris, more rarely on bark of conifers and on siliceous rocks.


+Gyalecta geoica (Ach.) Ach.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 229, 1808 - Lichen geoicus [Wahlenb. ex] Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 142, 1806.

Syn.: Secoliga geoica (Ach.) Körb.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2003b), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b), Lomb. S - Camp.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 2-3, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on soil, bryophytes and plant debris over calcareous or basic siliceous substrata, often in rock fissures in sheltered situations.


+Gyalecta hypoleuca (Ach.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 2: 711, 1924 - Urceolaria hypoleuca Ach., Meth. Lich.: 149, 1803.

Syn.: Gyalecta exanthemoides (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Gyalecta gyalectoides (A.Massal.) Lindau, Gyalecta hypoleuca (Ach.) Zahlbr., Gyalecta thelothremoides (Nyl.) Kremp., Petractis hypoleuca (Ach.) Vězda, Secoliga gyalectoides (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Thelotrema gyalectoides v. exanthemoides A.Massal., Thelotrema gyalectoides A.Massal., Volvaria gyalectoides (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - Frl (Henssen & Tretiach 1995), Ven, TAA, Lomb. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008). S - Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 1-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: er, C: rc, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate species found on steeply inclined to underhanging faces of dolomitic rocks, more rarely on limestone, mostly in woodlands.


+Gyalecta jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 2: 720, 1924 - Peziza jenensis Batsch, Elench. Fung.: 219, 1786.

Syn.: Gyalecta cupularis (Hedw.) Schaer., Gyalecta jenensis v. macrospora Vězda ?, Gyalecta jenensis v. montenegrina Servít ?, Gyalecta schisticola Werner ?

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 1-3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: rc, C: c, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a holarctic species found on limestone, dolomite and other types of calciferous rocks, occasionally over bryophytes, in shaded situations, such as in deep rock fissures and underhangs, throughout the country, with a wide altitudinal range. The var. macrospora Vězda is known from the Alps of Austria.


+Gyalecta kukriensis (Räsänen) Räsänen

Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool. Bot. Fenn. Vanamo, 12: 1: 176, 1939 - Gyalecta cupularis v. kukriensis Räsänen, Ueber Flechtenstandorte NW Finnl.: 46, 1927.

Syn.: Gyalecta jenensis v. deminuta Norman ex Lettau, Gyalecta jenensis v. kukriensis (Räsänen) Zahlbr.

N - Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 1-3,1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note on calciferous schists, known also from Austria, the Carpathians, and Scandinavia.


+Gyalecta leucaspis (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

[in Engler & Prantl] Natürl. Pflanzenfam., 1, 1: 126, 1905 - Secoliga leucaspis [Kremp. ex] A.Massal., Atti Ist. Ven. Sc. Lett. Arti, ser. 3, 2: 370, figg. 5.-10, t. 2, 1856.

Syn.: Gyalecta acicularis Anzi

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 1-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on shaded, steeply inclined faces of calcareous rocks, certainly less common than G. jenensis, but probably more widespread, and often overlooked.


+Gyalecta liguriensis (Vězda) Vězda

Annot. Zool. Bot. Slov. Narodn. Mus., 13: 5, 1965 - Gyalecta truncigena v. liguriensis Vězda, Acta Univ. Agric. Sylvic. Brno, ser. C: 43, 1858.



N - Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003, Ravera & al. 2003, Munzi & al. 2004, 2007), Marc. S - Pugl, Cal (Nimis & Puntillo 2003).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on bark of ancient trees in humid, sheltered situations, mostly Tyrrhenian and somehow coastal.


+Gyalecta luetkemuelleri Zahlbr.

Österr. bot. Z., 53: 178, 1903.

Syn.: Petractis luetkemuelleri (Zahlbr.) Vězda

C - Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.end/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 1-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: on sheltered, often north-facing cliffs near the sea.


+Gyalecta peziza (Mont.) Anzi

Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 62, 1860 - Biatora peziza Mont. [in Garov.] Saggio Not. Nat. Civ. Lomb., 1: 334, 1844.

Syn.: Secoliga peziza (Mont.) Arnold

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on slightly calciferous soil rich in humus, and on terricolous bryophytes.


+Gyalecta sbarbari Vězda

Ann. zool. bot. Bratislava, 13: 6-7, 1965.



N - Lig.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ #/ Note: only known from the type collection, on limestone in a humid-shaded site near the coast, this species deserves further study.


+Gyalecta subclausa Anzi

Neosymb. Lich. Rar. Nov.: 8, 1866.

Syn.: Gyalecta chlorobaea Nyl., Gyalecta elegantula Müll.Arg., Gyalecta rosellovirens Nyl.

N - Frl, Lomb.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an inconspicuous, perhaps overlooked species of vertical faces of calcareous rocks in humid, damp and shaded situations.


+Gyalecta thelotremella Bagl.

N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., 11: 87, 1879.

Syn.: Petractis thelotremella (Bagl.) Vězda



C - Tosc, Sar (Alonso & Egea 1994). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Alonso & Egea 1994, Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 1-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: often found together with P. luetkemuelleri, mostly Tyrrhenian, but also present in Puglia, where it is not rare along the rocky coasts.


+Gyalecta truncigena (Ach.) Hepp

Flecht. Eur.: n. 27, 1853 - Gyalecta wahlenbergiana v. truncigena Ach., Lich. Univ.: 152, 1810.

Syn.: Gyalecta abstrusa (Wallr.) A.Massal.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Ven, TAA, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1998), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Frati & al. 2004), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2004, 2007), Abr, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Sérusiaux 1998, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a temperate lichen, found on mature trees, mostly Acer and Fraxinus, but also on the slightly nutrient-enriched bark of more acid-barked trees, such as oaks, in mild-humid areas, more common in the past, presently localized in clearings of ancient, open, humid forests.


+Gyalecta ulmi (Sw.) Zahlbr.

[in Engler & Prantl] Natürl. Pflanzenfam., 1, 1: 126, 1905 - Lichen ulmi Sw., N. Acta Acad. Upsal., 4: 247, 1784.

Syn.: Gyalecta rubra (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Lecania rubra (Hoffm.) Müll.Arg., Lecanora rubra (Hoffm.) Ach., Lepadolemma rubrum (Hoffm.) Trevis., Phialopsis rubra (Hoffm.) Körb., Phialopsis ulmi (Sw.) Arnold

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem, Emil. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001), Marc, Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph-Terr/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a temperate lichen, found on mature trees (esp. near the base of Ulmus), but also on calcicolous mosses on steeply inclined faces, probably more frequent in the past, there are no recent records from the north.


+Gyalectidium caucasicum (Elenkin & Woron.) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotax., 18: 56, 1983 - Sporopodium caucasicum Elenkin & Woron., Jahrb. Pflanzenkrankh. St. Petersburg, 2: 124, 1908.



S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Cy.f/ S/ Foliic/ 2-3, 2-3, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: only know from a single station in Italy, on leaves of Buxus, Laurus, Phyllirea, and on cladodes of Ruscus in a warm-humid, coastal gorge.

+Gyalectidium minus Sérus.

[in Ferraro & al.] Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 137: 340, 2001.



S - Camp (Ferraro & al. 2001).

Cr/ Cy.f/ S/ Foliic/ 2-3, 2-3, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: §.


+Gyalectidium puntilloi Sérus.

[in Ferraro & al.] Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 137: §, 2001.



S - Camp (Ferraro & al. 2001).

Cr/ Cy.f/ S/ Foliic/ 2-3, 2-3, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: §.


+Gyalectidium setiferum Vězda & Sérus.

[in Sérusiaux] Nord. J. Bot., 13: 454, 1993.



S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000).

Cr/ Cy.f/ §/ Foliic/ 2-3, 2-3, 1, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: described from Caucasus, and also known from the Pyrenées, found only once in Italy, in a warm-humid coastal gorge.


+Gyalidea diaphana (Nyl.) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon. 13: 400, 1978 - Biatora diaphana [Körb. ex] Nyl., Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 352, 1856.

Syn.: Bacidia bayeri (E. Senft) Servít, Biatorina diaphana (Nyl.) Körb., Catillaria bayeri E. Senft, Catillaria diaphana (Nyl.) Lettau

C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ l/ Note: on periodically submerged micaceous rocks near brooks. The Italian record needs confirmation (see Nimis 1993: 310).


+Gyalidea fritzei (Stein) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon. Bohemosl., 1, 1966 - Gyalecta fritzei Stein [in Cohn] Kryptogamenfl. von Schlesien, 2, 2 : 154, 1879.



N - Lomb (Nascimbene 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks in humid-shaded habitats, such as along creeks. To be looked for further in the Alps, but certainly not common.


+Gyalidea lecideopsis (A.Massal.) Lettau

Feddes Rep. Beih., 69: 123, 1937 - Gyalecta lecideopsis A.Massal., Miscell. Lichenol.: 39, 1856.

Syn.: Gyalecta convarians Nyl. ?, Gyalidea albocrenata (Arnold) Lettau, Gyalecta hyalina Hepp, Gyalidea lecideopsis v. eucarpa (Servít) Vězda ?, Gyalidea lecideopsis v. kurdistanica (J.Steiner) Vězda ?, Lecidea stigmatoides Nyl. ?, Lopadium cacuminum H.Magn.

N - TAA, Ven, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a northern-montane species, found on limestone, dolomite, calciferous schists, on porous, damp faces, easily overlooked, but certainly rare. The var. convarians (Nyl.) Lettau is known from the Austrian Alps.


+Gyalidea phyllophila Vězda

Acta Mus. Silesiae, Opava, ser. A, 22: 89, 1973.



S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Foliic/ 2, 2-3, 1, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: described from Africa, and also known from the Pyrenées, in the only Italian station, a warm-humid coastal valley, it was found on the leaves of Laurus.


+Gyalidea roseola (Arnold) Lettau

Feddes Rep. Beih., 69: 123, 1937 - Gyalecta roseola Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 23: 95, 1873.



N - Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on siliceous rocks (esp. crystalline schists), on periodically wetted faces, such as near creeks and waterfalls, an overall rare species, known from a few localities in NW Europe and the Maritime Alps, the Italian record needs confirmation.


+Gyalidea scutellaris (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau

Feddes Rep. Beih., 69: 123, 1937 - Gyalecta scutellaris Bagl. & Carestia, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 5: 442, 1864.

Syn.: Gyalecta pseudogeoica Anzi, Gyalecta arctica Malme

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species, found on humid, acid substrata, such as muribund bryophytes and soil rich in humus, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Gyalideopsis alnicola Noble & Vězda

[in Vězda] Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon., 14, 1: 72, 1979.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: only known from a single station in Calabria, on twigs of Abies in a damp forest. The genus is poorly known in Italy. The following species are known from the Alps in neighbouring countries: G. helvetica P.Boom & Vězda, G. modesta Vězda & Poelt, and G. piceicola (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt


+Gyalideopsis calabrica Puntillo & Vězda

Webbia, 46, 1: 159-160, 1991.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: on epiphytic bryophytes and on bark of Fagus in old, undisturbed, very humid forests. Probably this is a synonym of G. muscicola P.James & Vězda.§


+Gyalideopsis urceolata (Vain.)

§ - Diploschistella urceolata Vain, Ann. Univ. Fenn. Aboensis, ser. A, 2, 3: 26, 1926.

Syn.: Gyalidea psammoica (Nyl.) Lettau, Lopadium athalloides Nyl., Gyalideopsis athalloides (Nyl.) Vězda Lopadium newtonii Samp.

S - Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ p/ Note: an ephemeral, mild-temperate lichen of acid clay soil in disturbed habitats in open, very humid forests.


+Haematomma ochroleucum (Neck.) J.R.Laundon v. ochroleucum

Lichenologist, 4: 300, 1970 - Lichen ochroleucus Neck., Meth. Muscor.: 52, 1771.

Syn.: Haematomma coccineum (Dicks.) Körb., Haematomma leiphaemum (Ach.) Zopf, Haematomma vulgare A.Massal., Lecanora carnea Opiz, Lecanora haematomma Ach. p.p., Lepra leiphaema (Ach.) Mérat, Lepra sulphurea auct. ital. p.p.

N - Frl (Tretiach 2004), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & al. 1997, 1998b, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Tretiach 2004), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax-Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: c, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on steeply inclined to underhanging, somehow rain-protected siliceous rocks, but also on bark, most common, and sometimes very abundant, in Tyrrhenian Italy (e.g. covering vast portions of the nort-facing basalt strips of the cathedral of Orvieto).


+Haematomma ochroleucum v. porphyrium (Pers.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 4: 300, 1970 - Lichen haematomma v. porphyrius Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 5: 17, 1794.

Syn.: Haematomma coccineum v. porphyrium (Pers.) Th. Fr, Haematomma porphyrium (Pers.) Zopf, Lecanora haematomma Ach. p.p.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997b, 1998), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax-Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: c, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate taxon, much rarer on bark than the typical variety, and perhaps slightly less photophytic.


+Halecania alpivaga (Th.Fr.) M.Mayrhofer

Herzogia, 7: 391, 1987 - Lecania alpivaga Th.Fr., Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 292, 1871.

Syn.: Lecania thallophila H.Magn.

N - TAA, Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Physcia, Collema spp., and Placynthium spp./ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpin species, found on weakly calciferous and basic siliceous rocks in humid situations, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Halecania elaeiza (Nyl.) M.Mayrhofer

Herzogia, 7: 395, 1987 - Lecanora elaeiza Nyl., Flora, 57: 308, 1874.



N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-4, 2-3, 1-2 / Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: the localities are in Austria, but not far from the Italian border.


+Halecania lecanorina (Anzi) M.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Herzogia, 7: 397, 1987 - Thalloidima lecanorinum Anzi, Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 67, 1860.

Syn.: Diphratora disparata (Nyl.) Jatta, Gyalolechia lecanorina (Anzi) Anzi, Lecania disparata (Nyl.) Lettau, Lecania lecanorina (Anzi) Zahlbr., Lecaniella disparata (Nyl.) Jatta, Thalloidima disparatum (Nyl.) Arnold, Toninia lecanorina (Anzi) H.Olivier

N - Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on thin layers of soil, on mosses and plant debris over calcareous substrata, perhaps more widespread in the Alps, but certainly not common.


+Halecania spodomela (Nyl.) M.Mayrhofer

Herzogia, 7: 402, 1987 - Lecanora spodomela Nyl., Flora, 59: 572, 1876.

Syn.: Lecania spodomela (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Lecidea nigrificans Nyl.

N - Piem.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ suboc/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Placynthium spp./ Note: an obligately lichenicolous species of siliceous rocks, certainly overlooked, but never common.


+Harpidium rutilans (Flot.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 157, 1855 - Zeora rutilans Flot., Jahresber. schles. Ges. väterl. Kultur, 27: 120, 1849.



N - TAA. S - Si.

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined siliceous rocks, both in the Mediterranean and in dry-warm Alpine valleys, perhaps overlooked, but certainly not common.


+Helocarpon pulverulum (Th.Fr.) Türk & Hafellner

Carinthia II 183/103: 738, 1993 - Lecidea crassipes f. pulverula Th.Fr., Lichenogr. Scand. 1: 250, 1874.

Syn.: Helocarpon crassipes auct. eur. merid. non Th.Fr., Micarea crassipes auct. eur. merid. non (Th.Fr.) Coppins

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on bryophytes and plant debris on the ground and amongst rocks, in areas with siliceous substrata, probably more widespread in the Alps. The species is heterogeneous, and the separation from Micarea at generic rank is controversial. According to Hafellner (2001) all material from at least the E Alps is morphologically different from H. crassipes s.str., and belongs instead into H. pulverulum.



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