+Absconditella annexa



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§+§Henrica melaspora (Taylor) S.Savic & Tibell

* - Verrucaria melaspora Taylor [in Hook.] London J. Bot., 6: 153, 1847.

Syn.: Polyblastia melaspora (Taylor) Zahlbr., Polyblastia plotocarpa Zschacke ?, Polyblastia scotinospora (Nyl.) Hellb., Polyblastia subinumbrata (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - TAA, Piem.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich or weakly calciferous soil, more rarely on rocks.


§+§Henrica theleodes (Sommerf.) S.Savic, Tibell & Nav.-Ros.

* - Verrucaria theleodes Sommerf.

Syn.: Henrica ramulosa de Lesd.

N - VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 5/ A: er, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: in niches and fissures of humid calcareous schists and granodiorite, usually along rivers or by lakeshores, often occurring together with cyanobacterial lichens; known from Scandinavia, Iceland, Greenland, the Alps and the Pyrénées, and from Colorado in N America.


+Heppia adglutinata (Kremp.) A.Massal.

Geneac. Lich.: 8, 1854 - Lecanora adglutinata Kremp., Flora, 24: 675, 1851.

Syn.: Heppia urceolata Naeg., Nylanderopsis salevensis Gyeln., Solorina virescens Mont.

N - Piem (Rabenhorst Lich. Eur. 610: Henssen 1994).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar, ephemeral lichen of disturbed calciferous soil in dry, open grasslands, some records of H. lutosa might belong here.


+Heppia despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck.

Gen. Lich.: 46, 1872 - Solorina despreauxii Mont., Hist. Nat. Isl. Canar., 3: 104, 1840.

Syn.: Heppia gigantea Egea & Llimona, Heppia paulina Marton

N - Lig.

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: the Italian record is the northernmost known for this mediterranean-macaronesian lichen of clay soil in dry, open grasslands.


+Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.

Syn. Lich., 2: 45, 1863 - Collema lutosum Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 309, 1814.

Syn.: Collema sanguinolentum (Kremp.) Stizenb., Heppia atlantica Gyeln., Heppia monguillonii Harm., Heppia virescens (Mont.) Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (E.C.I. 568: Roux & Triebel 1994, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar.

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 4, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on more or less calciferous soil in dry grasslands. This mainly mediterranean-atlantic lichen was often confused, in the older literature, with H. adglutinata, which is bound to upland areas.


+Heppia solorinoides (Nyl.) Nyl.

Syn. Meth. Lich., 2: 46, 1863 - Lecanora solorinoides Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 2: 323, 1854.

Syn.: Endocarpon reticulatum Dufour, Heppia reticulata (Dufour) Nyl.

S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2005).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: r/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: restricted to very dry grasslands in Mediterranean Italy (xeric subtrop).


+ Hertelidea botryosa (Fr.) Printzen & Kantvilas

Bibl. Lichenol., 88: 542, 2004 - Biatora botryosa Fr., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 268, 1822.

Syn: Lecidea botryosa (Fr.) Th.Fr.

N - Frl (TSB), Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc, Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a probably circumboreal-montane to cool-temperate lichen found on lignum, often on burnt trunks of conifers and Quercus, more rarely on acid bark.


+Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 9: 31, 1965 - Lichen leucomelos L., Sp. Pl., 2 ed.: 1613, 1763.

Syn.: Anaptychia leucomela (L.) A.Massal., Anaptychia leucomelaena auct., Physcia leucomela (L.) Mich.

C - Tosc. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate species, found on bark and over epiphytic and epilithic bryophytes, sometimes on siliceous rocks in very humid areas with a mild climate, generally near the coast. The record from Trentino-Alto Adige (Nimis 1993: 316), being very dubious, is not accepted here.


+Heterodermia obscurata (Nyl.) Trevis.

N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., 1: 114, 1869 - Physcia obscurata Nyl., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot., 4, 19: 310, 1863.

Syn.: Anaptychia hypoleuca auct. medit. p.max.p., Anaptychia obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Anaptychia sorediifera (Müll.Arg.) Du Rietz & Lynge, Pseudophyscia hypoleuca auct. p.p.

N - Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & Giordani 2000, 2003, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1999a), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Mol (Frati & al. 2004), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on more or less isolated trees, occasionally on epilithic mosses, mainly Tyrrhenian, and also found in urban areas there (e.g. at La Spezia).


+Heterodermia speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis.

Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 11: 614, 1869 - Lichen speciosus Wulfen [in Jacq.] Coll. Bot., 3: 119, 1791.

Syn.: Anaptychia speciosa (Wulfen) A.Massal., Parmelia speciosa (Wulfen) Ach., Physcia speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Nascimbene & al. 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b), Lomb (Philippi 1983), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc, Marc, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a temperate species found on bark, epiphytic bryophytes, sometimes on mossy rocks in humid, mostly montane woodlands.


+Heteroplacidium contumescens (Nyl.) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 40, 1996 - Endocarpon contumescens Nyl., Flora, 61: 341, 1878.

Syn.: Catapyrenium contumescens (Nyl.) Breuss, Dermatocarpon contumescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

N - Lig (Alonso & Egea 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on sandy soils in warm-dry situations, e.g. in grasslands and garrigues, sometimes on slightly weathered siliceous rocks, perhaps more widespread in Mediterranean Italy.


+Heteroplacidium divisum (Zahlbr.) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 40, 1996 - Dermatocarpon divisum Zahlbr., Österr. bot. Z., 59: 349, 1909.

Syn.: Catapyrenium divisum (Zahlbr.) Breuss

N - Ven (Breuss 1996), Lig.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: hitherto known only from S Europe (Italy, SE Spain, Balkan Peninsula).


+Heteroplacidium imbricatum (Nyl.) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 40, 1996 - Endocarpon imbricatum Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1853: 161, 1853.

Syn.: Catapyrenium imbricatum (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Dermatocarpon imbricatum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Endopyrenium imbricatum (Nyl.) Boistel

N - VG, Ven, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: in fissures of hard calcareous rocks and amongst mosses, esp. limestone, in sheltered situations.


§+§Hydropunctaria adriatica (Zahlbr.) Keller & Gueidan

* - Verrucaria adriatica Zahlbr.



NVG, Ven. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ Alt: 1/ 3-5, 3-4, 1, 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: *see note to H. maura.


§+§Hydropunctaria maura (Wahlenb.) Keller, Gueidan & Thue*s

* - Verrucaria maura Wahlenb. [in Ach.] Meth. Lich.: 19, 1803.

Syn.: Involucrothele magnussonii Servít, Lichen terminalis O.F. Müll., Verrucaria amphibia Clemente ?, Verrucaria antricola Wedd. ?, Verrucaria aractina Wahlenb., Verrucaria haeyrenii Erichsen, Verrucaria ligurica Zschacke ?, Verrucaria malmei Servít, Verrucaria perareolata Erichsen, Verrucaria pseudomemnonia Zschacke ?, Verrucaria scotina Wedd. sensu Samp., Verrucaria symbalana Nyl., Verrucaria trachynodes Norman, Verrucaria zschackeana Erichsen

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ Alt: 1/ 3-5, 3-4, 1, 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: * on maritime rocks. The whole complex of the mediterranean-atlantic brown maritime Verrucarias - which is listed in the synonyms here - badly needs revision. Italian records of V. maura could refer to V. amphibia, or to other taxa. I prefer to merge all of the Italian records of brown maritime Verrucarias under the oldest available name, which might well prove to be wrong. Maritime lichens of the Mediterranean are a fruitful field for further research.

§+§Hydropunctaria rheitrophila (Zschacke) Keller, Gueidan & Thu*es

* - Verrucaria rheitrophila Zschacke, Hedwigia, 67: 67, 1922.

Syn.: Verrucaria cinereolutescens Zschacke, Verrucaria kernstockii Zschacke, Verrucaria minutipuncta Erichsen, Verrucaria sagedioides Servit, Verrucaria scotinoides Zschacke, Verrucula rheitrophila (Zschacke) M.Choisy

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on siliceous rocks submerged for long periods in cold creeks, to be looked for further in the Alps.


+Hymenelia coerulea (DC.) A.Massal.

Geneac. Lich.: 12, 1854 - Verrucaria coerulea DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 318, 1805.

Syn.: Aspicilia coerulea (DC.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Hymenelia hiascens A. Massal., Hymenelia prevostii v. coerulescens Kremp., Lecanora cantiana (Garov.) Zahlbr., Lecanora coerulea (DC.) Nyl., Lecanora pseudocoerulea Zahlbr., Manzonia cantiana Garov.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: ec, A1: rr, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, hard calciferous rocks, incl. dolomite, certainly widespread and locally abundant throughout the Alps, the record from Abruzzo is the southernmost known in Italy. Those from Campania by Aprile & al. (2003b) are from low altitudes, and appear as dubious.


+Hymenelia cyanocarpa (Anzi) Lutzoni

[in Lutzoni & Brodo] The Bryologist, 20, 3: 250, 1995 - Aspicilia cyanocarpa Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 3: 145, 1862.

Syn.: Ionaspis cyanocarpa (Anzi) Jatta

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on periodically inundated siliceous rocks, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Hymenelia epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni

[in Lutzoni & Brodo] The Bryologist, 20, 3: 250, 1995 - Gyalecta epulotica Ach., Lich. Univ.: 151, 1810.

Syn.: Aspicilia epulotica (Ach.) Anzi, Ionaspis epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell, Pinacisca epulotica (Ach.) Trevis.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: rr, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to cool-temperate, circumpolar species, found on calciferous rocks, such as limestone, dolomite, calcareous schists in sheltered-humid situations, most frequent in the Alps.


+Hymenelia heteromorpha (Kremp.) Lutzoni

[in Lutzoni & Brodo] Systematic Botany 20(3): 250 (1995) - Aspicilia cinereorufescens v. heteromorpha Kremp., Denkschr. bot. Ges. Regensburg, 4, 2: 175, 1861.

Syn.: Ionaspis annularis H.Magn., Ionaspis heteromorpha (Kremp.) Arnold, Ionaspis ochracella (Nyl.) H.Magn., Ionaspis reducta H.Magn., Ionaspis rhodopsis v. melanopsis (Sommerf.) Zahlbr., Ionaspis schismatopsis (Nyl.) Hue

N - Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a probably holarctic species, found on dolomite and hard limestones.


+Hymenelia melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold

Flora, 52: 255, 1869 - Hymenelia prevostii v. melanocarpa Kremp., Flora, 35: 25, 1852.

Syn.: Ionaspis cyrtaspis auct., Ionaspis melanocarpa (Kremp.) Arnold, Lecanora prevostii f. melanocarpa (Kremp.) Stizenb.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, most common on dolomite, probably widespread throughout the Alps, very rare in the Apennines.


+Hymenelia prevostii (Duby) Kremp.

Flora, 35: 25, 1852 - Urceolaria prevostii [Fr. ex] Duby, Bot. Gall., 2: 671, 1830.

Syn.: Aspicilia prevostii (Duby) Anzi, Ionaspis prevostii (Duby) Arnold, Lecanora prevostii (Duby) Th.Fr.

N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004) Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on hard calcareous rocks, esp. compact limestone, most frequent in the Alps, but also present in the Mediterranean mountains, probably occurring throughout the country. According to Roux (in litt.), this is just a phycotype of H. epulotica.


+Hymenelia similis (A.Massal.) M.Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 20: 133, 1951 - Pinacisca similis A.Massal., Neagen. Lich.: 5, n. 4, 1854.

Syn.: Aspicilia isabellina Jatta, Lecanora carneopallens Nyl., Lecanora similis (A.Massal.) Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on shaded and steeply inclined calciferous rocks, esp. limestone and dolomite, descending to low altitudes in humid, coastal areas, probably more frequent in the south than the few records would suggest.


+Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Flörke) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

[in Hafellner & al.] Herzogia, 5: 62, 1979 - Lecanora adglutinata Flörke, Deutsch. Lich., 4: 7, 1819.

Syn.: Anaptychia obscura auct. v. lecanorina A.Massal., Physcia adglutinata (Flörke) Nyl., Physcia elaeina auct. non (Wahlenb.) A.L.Sm., Physciopsis adglutinata (Flörke) M.Choisy

N - VG (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995, Castello 1996, 2002, Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Lich. Graec. 134: Obermayer 1997, Arosio & al. 2000, Zieger & al. 2003), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Griselli & al. 2000, Castino & Ropolo 2003, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach 1997, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Senese & Critelli 2000, Benesperi 2000a, Del Guasta 2001), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vc, E: rc, F: ec, G: c, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a widespread mild-temperate species, common throughout Italy on isolted, mostly deciduous trees, also in areas with intensive agriculture (esp. in the Po-plain).


Hypocenomyce anthracophila (Nyl.) P.James & Gotth.Schneid.

[in Gotth.Schneid.] Bibl. Lichenol., 13: 81 1980 (1979) - Lecidea anthracophila Nyl., Flora, 48: 603, 1865.

Syn.: Biatora anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner, Lecidea cladonioides Th.Fr., Lecidea cladonioides v. albocervina Räsänen

N - Piem (TSB). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane lichen found on charred wood.


+Hypocenomyce caradocensis (Nyl.) P.James & Gotth.Schneid.

[in D.Hawksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 107, 1980 - Lecidea caradocensis [Leight. ex] Nyl., Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 383, 1857.

Syn.: Bilimbia caradocensis (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Lecidea acutula Nyl., Psora acutula (Nyl.) Walt.Watson, Toninia caradocensis (Nyl.) J.Lahm

N - Ven. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, mostly found on conifers, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal

Opera Bot., 4, 1: 97, 1984 - Psora cladonioides v. castaneocinerea Räsänen, Lich. Fenn. Exs.: 282, 1936.



S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign/ 1-2, 4, 4, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate ot boreal-montane lichen, found on charred wood, probably present also in the Alps, and to be looked for there.


+Hypocenomyce friesii (Ach.) P.James & Gotth.Schneid.

[in Gotth.Schneid.] Bibl. Lichenol., 13: 84, 1980 ("1979") - Lecidea friesii Ach. [in Lilj.] Utkast Svensk Fl., 3: 610, 1816.

Syn.: Lecidea myrmecina (Fr.) Ach., Psora friesii (Ach.) Hellb., Psora ostreata v. athroocarpa Anzi sec. descr.

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb. C - Tosc.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane lichen, found on charred wood, perhaps more widespread in the Alps.


+Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach.) M.Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 22: 103, 1953 - Lichen scalaris [Lilj. ex] Ach., Utkast. Sv. Fl.: 422, 1792.

Syn.: Biatora ostreata (Hoffm.) Th.Fr., Lecidea ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaer., Lecidea scalaris (Ach.) Ach., Psora ostreata Hoffm., Psora scalaris (Ach.) Hook.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Lecid. Exs. 262: Hertel 1992b, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Sq/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vc, B: a, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on acid bark, esp. of conifers, and on lignum, incl. charred wood, much more common in the north than in the mountains of the south.


+Hypogymnia austerodes (Nyl.) Räsänen

Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo, 18, 1: 13, 1943 - Parmelia austerodes Nyl., Flora, 64: 537, 1881.

Syn.: Parmelia obscurata (Ach.) Bitter non auct., Parmelia obscurata v. isidiata (Lynge) H.Magn.


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