+Absconditella annexa



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C - Laz (Sérusiaux & al. 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a: D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a recently-described species of dry calcareous grasslands, perhaps more widespread in Italy.


+Agonimia octospora Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 10: 181-182, 1978.



C - Tosc, Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species with subtropical affinities, found on basal parts of old broad-leaved trees, on bark or amongst mosses, in rather open, humid woodlands, to be looked for further in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Agonimia opuntiella (Poelt & Buschardt) Vězda

Schedae ad Lichenes Rariores Exsiccati, Fasc. 330: 4, 1997 - Physcia opuntiella Buschardt & Poelt [in Poelt] Flora, 169: 24, 1980.

Syn.: Phaeophyscia opuntiella (Poelt & Buschardt) Hafellner

N - VG, Frl, TAA, Lomb, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Munzi & al. 2007).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate species found on terricolous mosses and plant debris over calcareous substrata, sometimes amongst mosses on basal parts of old trees. Probably overlooked and more widespread, but not common.


+Agonimia tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Österr. bot. Z., 59: 351, 1909 - Verrucaria tristicula Nyl., Flora, 48: 356, 1865.



Syn.: Endocarpon uvulare Norman, Polyblastia tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold, Sporodictyon tristiculum (Nyl.) Arnold

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Piem (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: rr, C: c, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a probably holarctic species with a wide altitudinal and latitudinal range, found on terricolous mosses, but also - albeit rarely - on basal parts of old trunks in calcareous areas.


+Ainoa mooreana (Carroll) Lumbsch & I.Schmitt

Mycological Research, 105, 3: 273, 2002 - Lecidea mooreana Carroll, Nat. Hist. Rev., 6: 529, 1859.

Syn.: Biatora brujerana (Schaer. ex D. Dietr.), Biatora lopadioides Th.Fr., Biatora torellii Anzi, Lecidea brujerana (Schaer. ex D. Dietr.) Leight., Lecidea lopadioides (Th.Fr.) Grummann, Lecidea oblita Bagl. & Carestia, Lecidea torellii (Anzi) Nyl., Trapelia mooreana (Carroll) P.James, Trapelia torellii (Anzi) Hertel

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a circumboreal-montane early colonizer of weathered siliceous rocks, mostly found on pebbles, or on large boulders near the soil surface in rather disturbed habitats (e.g. on track sides, in clearings of light forests, etc.). The terricolous A. geochroa (Körb.) Lumbsch & I.Schmitt, known from Austria, should be looked for in the Italian Alps.


+Alectoria nigricans (Ach.) Nyl.

Lichenes Scand.: 71, 1861 - Cornicularia ochroleuca v. nigricans Ach., Lich. Univ.: 615, 1810.

Syn.: Alectoria thulensis Th.Fr.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr-Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on bare ground or rocks in wind-exposed siliceous ridges, mostly in moss-lichen heaths. Restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A.Massal.

Sched. Crit.: 47, 1856 - Usnea ochroleuca Hoffm., Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 2, 1: 7 1794.

Syn.: Alectoria ochroleuca v. rigida (Schaer.) Th.Fr., Alectoria variegata (Samp.) Tav., Bryopogon ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Cornicularia ochroleuca (Hoffm.) DC.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 1-3, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on windy ridges in moss-lichens heaths, more frequent on siliceous substrata, but sometimes also occurring in areas with dolomite. Restricted to the Alps and the N Apennines in Italy.


+Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 595, 1810 - Lichen sarmentosus Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 16: 212, 1795.

Syn.: Alectoria cincinnata (Fr.) Lynge, Alectoria luteola Mont. ex De Not., Alectoria sarmentosa v. cincinnata (Fr.) Nyl., Alectoria sarmentosa v. crinalis Ach., Alectoria sarmentosa v. genuina Körb., Alectoria sarmentosa v. sorediosa (K.G.W.Lang) Du Rietz, Alectoria sarmentosa v. tortilis Sambo, Alectoria vexillifera (Nyl.) Stizenb.

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil. C - Tosc, Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Ravera 2002b). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species, found on branches, more rarely on trunks of (mainly) conifers in forests with frequent fog. More common in the past, it is presently confined to upland areas and is certainly declining, being very sensitive to forest management.


+Allantoparmelia alpicola (Th.Fr.) Essl.

Mycotaxon, 7: 46, 1978 - Parmelia alpicola Th.Fr., N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 157, 1861.

Syn.: Hypogymnia alpicola (Th.Fr.) Hav., Parmelia encausta v. alpicola (Th.Fr.) Nyl., Parmelia jinretienii Gyeln., Parmelia nigrita (Flot.) Hillmann

N - TAA, Lomb.

Fol. b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on hard siliceous rocks, often on quartz, in wind-exposed ridges, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Allocetraria madreporiformis (Ach.) Kärnefelt & Thell

Nova Hedwigia, 62, 3-4: 508, 1996 - Dufourea madreporiformis Ach., Lich. Univ.: 525, 1810.

Syn.: Dactylina madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck., Evernia madreporiformis (Ach.) Fr.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species, found in open grasslands and in wind-exposed ridges above treeline, probably widespread throughout the Italian Alps. The record from Abruzzi is the southernmost in Europe.


+Allocetraria oakesiana (Tuck.) Randlane & Thell

[in Thell & al.] Flechten Follmann: 363, 1995 - Cetraria oakesiana Tuck., Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 445, 1841.

Syn.: Cetraria bavarica Kremp., Platysma oakesianum (Tuck.) A.Massal., Tuckermannopsis oakesiana (Tuck.) Hale

N - Frl (Nascimbene & al. 1998), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, incompletely circumpolar species, found on basal parts of conifers in humid-cold montane forests, more rarely on lignum (e.g. on stumps). Restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Amandinea lecideina (H.Mayrhofer & Poelt) Scheid. & H.Mayrhofer

[in Scheid.] Lichenologist, 25, 4: 342, 1993 - Rinodina lecideina H.Mayrhofer & Poelt, Bibl. Lichenol., 12: 112, 1979.

Syn.: Buellia punctata f. crassior (Erichsen) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata f. litoralis Erichsen, Rinodina biatorina v. buellioides C. A. Berg non Rinodina buellioides Metzler in Arnold

C - Sar (Scheidegger in litt.).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a probably mild-temperate species of siliceous rocks and pebbles.


+Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid.

[in Scheid.] Lichenologist, 25, 4: 343, 1993 - Verrucaria punctata Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora: 192, 1796.



Syn.: Buellia aequata (Ach.) Szatala, Buellia cupreola Müll.Arg., Buellia myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia myriocarpa v. chloropolia (Fr.) Th.Fr., Buellia myriocarpa v. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Mudd, Buellia myriocarpa v. stigmatea (Körb.) H.Olivier, Buellia ocellata f. depauperata Anzi ex Arnold, Buellia oleicola auct. medit., Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Buellia punctata f. capitata (Bagl.) Jatta, Buellia punctata f. fuliginosa (Hepp) Jatta, Buellia punctata f. lignicola Anzi ex Arnold, Buellia punctata f. muscicola (Hepp) Körb. ?, Buellia punctata v. aequata (Ach.) Zahlbr., Buellia punctata v. chloropolia (Fr.) Körb., Buellia punctata v. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Hazsl., Buellia punctata v. tumidula A.Massal., Buellia punctiformis (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Buellia stigmatea Körb., Buellia vagans Müll. Arg. ?, Lecidea myriocarpa DC., Lecidea parasema v. punctata (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea parasema v. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Wahlenb., Lecidea punctata (Hoffm.) Flörke

N - VG (Castello 1996, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Bari & al. 2000, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996b, 1996c, 1997b, 1998, Loppi 1996b, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi 2000a, Helms & al. 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Grillo & al. 1996, 2002, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Epiph-Lign/ 1-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: vr, C: r, D: rc, E: vr, F: c, G: rc, H: er/ PF: 1-3/ #/ Note: in its present circumscription, an almost cosmopolitan lichen, found on a wide variety of substrata, including bark, lignum, siliceous rocks, roofing tiles and brick. The Italian material is heterogeneous and in need of revision.


+Amygdalaria panaeola (Ach.) Hertel & Brodo

[in Brodo & Hertel] Herzogia, 7: 510, 1987 - Lecidea panaeola Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 267, 1808.

Syn.: Huilia panaeola (Ach.) Hertel, Lecidea panaeola v. vulgaris Th.Fr., Psora panaeola (Ach.) Anzi

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch-Cy. h/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, incompletely circumpolar species of weathered mineral-rich siliceous rocks close to the ground. Restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Amylora cervinocuprea (Arnold) Rambold

Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, 45: 344, 1994 - Aspicilia cervinocuprea Arnold, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 26: 357, 1876.

Syn.: Aspicilia olivacea f. cervinocuprea (Arnold) Arnold, Lecanora cervinocuprea (Arnold) Mig.

N - TAA (Rambold 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 5/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on vertical to overhanging faces of gneissic rocks. Perhaps more widespread in the Alps, but not common.


+Anaptychia bryorum Poelt

The Bryologist, 74, 2: 154, 1971.

Syn.: Anaptychia aquila v. stippaea sensu Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Anaptychia fusca v. stippaea auct., Anaptychia stippaea sensu Nádv.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene 2003b), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (TSB).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species, found amongst mosses and muribund plants on base-rich siliceous substrata. Restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Körb.

Sci. Rep. Fac. Agric. Kyoto Prefect. Univ.: 197, 1853 - Lichen ciliaris L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1144, 1753.



Syn.: Anaptychia ciliaris ssp. mammillata (Taylor) D.Hawksw. & P.James, Anaptychia ciliaris v. melanosticta (Ach.) Boistel, Anaptychia ciliaris v. schultzkorthii Szatala, Anaptychia ciliaris v. vulgaris Körb., Anaptychia melanosticta (Ach.) Trass, Borrera ciliaris (L.) Ach., Borrera ciliaris v. verrucosa Ach., Borrera solenaria Duby, Hagenia ciliaris (L.) W.Mann, Parmelia ciliaris (L.) Ach., Parmelia ciliaris v. solenaria (Duby) Anzi, Physcia ciliaris (L.) DC., Physcia ciliaris f. verrucosa (Ach.) Boistel, Physcia ciliaris v. melanosticta (Ach.) Th.Fr., Physcia ciliaris v. nigrescens (Bory) Zahlbr., Physcia ciliaris v. vulgaris (Körb.) Syd.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Brunialti & Giordani 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & al. 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rc, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a temperate species found on bark of more or less isolated trees, sometimes also on rock and amongst terricolous mosses in open situations. Formerly more common and widespread, it is presently very rare in the North, but still locally abundant in the Apennines and in the Islands. Narrow-lobed forms on plant debris reach the oromediterranean belt and the subalpine belt of the Alps. See also note on A. crinalis.


+Anaptychia crinalis (Schleich.) Vězda

comb. inval. - Physcia ciliaris v. crinalis Schleich. [in Schaer.], Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 10, 1850.

Syn.: Anaptychia ciliaris f. angusta A.Massal.?, Anaptychia ciliaris v. crinalis (Schleich.) Rabenh., Physcia ciliaris v. crinalis (Schleich.) Schaer.



N - Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Lich. Graec. 222: Obermayer 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb, Piem, Emil. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 2/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: confined to humid beech forests. Perhaps just a morphotype of A. ciliaris (intermediate morphs are common): a molecular study could solve the problem.


+Anaptychia runcinata (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 225, 1984 - Lichen runcinatus With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: 712, 1776.

Syn.: Anaptychia aquila (Ach.) A.Massal., Anaptychia fusca (Huds.) Vain., Parmelia aquila Ach., Physcia aquila (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia fusca (Huds.) A.L.Sm., Pseudophyscia aquila (Ach.) Hue

N - Lig. C - Tosc (Pišút 1997, Helms & al. 2001), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol. n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic, European species, found on hard siliceous boulders, sometimes overgrowing epilithic mosses, most common along the Tyrrhenian coast, but also found in the montane belt of the Tyrrhenian mountains (e.g. M. Amiata in Toscana).


+Anema decipiens (A.Massal.) Forssell

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., 3, 13, 6: 92, 1885 - Omphalaria decipiens A.Massal., Framm. Lichenogr.: 14, 1855.

Syn.: Collema decipiens (A.Massal.) Nyl., Thyrea decipiens (A.Massal.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995).

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: er, F: rr, G: rr, H: rr/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined, sunny calcareous rocks (mainly limestone, but also calciferous schists and sandstone) with periodical water seepage. Probably widespread throughout the country.


+Anema nummularium (Durieu & Mont.) Nyl.

Flora, 62: 355, 1869 - Collema nummularium [Dufour ex] Durieu & Mont. [in Durieu] Flore Algér. Crypt., 1: 209, 1846-1849.

Syn.: Anema notarisii (A.Massal.) Forssell, Anema nummulariellum Nyl., Omphalaria frustillata Nyl., Omphalaria notarisii A.Massal., Tyrea nummularia (Durieu & Mont.) Zahlbr.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: c, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: rc/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined faces of limestone and dolomite with periodical water seepage. Some older records could refer to A. moedligense.


+Anema prodigulum (Nyl.) Henssen

[in Henssen & Jørgensen] Lichenologist, 22, 2: 139, 1990 - Omphalaria prodigula Nyl., Flora, 62: 353, 1879.

Syn.: Thyrea prodigula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl (TSB). S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 5, 5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on sunny seepage tracks of calcareous rocks.


+Anema suffruticosum P.Moreno & Egea

Acta Botanica Barcinonensia, 41: 26, 1992.



N - TAA (Nascimbene 2002). C - Abr (TSB). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 5, 5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on sunny seepage tracks of calcareous rocks, not common, but perhaps more widespread.


+Anema tumidulum Henssen ined.

N - Frl (TSB). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: rr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: following Wirth (1995), I apply this name to a squamulose, peltate, marginally lobed cyanolichen with a shiny, black upper surface and globose isidia-like outgrowths, collected on seepage tracks of metamorphic siliceous rocks. Italian material, congruent with two specimens from STU identified by A.Henssen (Marburg) was referred by Nimis & Tretiach (1999) to A. moedlingense Zahlbr., a variously interpreted taxon (see e.g. Henssen & Jørgensen 1990 and Hafellner & Türk 2001, Moreno & Egea 1992), which lacks the characteristic spherical outgrowths of A. tumidulum (see also Zahlbruckner 1898).


+Anisomeridium biforme (Borrer) R.C.Harris

[in Vězda] Sched. ad Lich. Sel. Exs., 61: nr. 1305, 1978 - Verrucaria biformis Borrer [in Hook. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., Suppl. 1, pl. 2617, f. 1, 1831.

Syn.: Acrocordia biformis (Borrer) Arnold, Acrocordia polycarpa (Körb.) Körb., Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) A.Massal., Arthopyrenia byssacea (Taylor) A.L.Sm., Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia tersa Körb. non auct., Ditremis biformis (Borrer) R.C.Harris, Epicymathia thallophila (Cooke) Sacc., Leiophloea biformis (Borrer) Trevis., Sagedia callopisma A.Massal. ?, Verrucaria conformis Nyl.


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