+Absconditella annexa


N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006e). S



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N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006e). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on bark of deciduous, rarely of coniferous trees in humid, undisturbed forests, often on twigs of Abies, more rarely on wooden bridges on small creeks.


+Japewia tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg

Lichenologist, 22, 3: 206, 1990 - Lecidea tornoënsis Nyl., Herbar. Mus. Fenn.: 110, 1859.

Syn.: Biatora breadalbarensis (Stirt.) Walt.Watson, Biatora tornoënsis (Nyl.) Th.Fr., Lecidea breadalbarensis Stirt., Lecidea frigidella Nyl., Mycoblastus tornoënsis (Nyl.) R.A.Anderson

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), VA (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr/ 2-3, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: rc, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species, found on twigs of shrubs, on terricolous mosses and plant debris, certainly widespread throughout the Alps. J. subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg is known from the Alps of France and Austria: it should be looked for in the North.


+Japewiella carrollii (Coppins & P.James) Printzen

The Bryologist, 102, 4: 715, 1999 - Lecidea carrollii Coppins & P.James

Syn.: Lecidea tavaresiana H.Magn., Japewia carrollii (Coppins & P.James) Tønsberg

C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, Loppi & Putortì 2001).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on smooth or slightly rough bark of small deciduous trees, or on branches and twigs of larger trees, in moist woodlands, esp. by streams and bogs.


+Koerberia biformis A.Massal.

Geneac. Lich.: 6, n. 1, 1854.



N - Frl, Ven, Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si.

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on rough bark, mostly of old deciduous trees, esp. Castanea and Quercus, in humid areas, much rarer in the north than in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Koerberia sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen

Can. J. Bot., 41: 1351, 1963 - Pannaria sonomensis Tuck., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., 12: 169, 1877.

Syn.: Koerberia lusitanica Samp., Koerberia octospora Couderc, Tingiopsidium pubescens Werner

C - Laz, Sar.

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a manly mediterranean species, also knwon from California, found on sun-exposed siliceous rocks in humid areas.


+Koerberiella wimmeriana (Körb.) Stein

[in Cohn] Krypt.-Fl. von Schlesien, 2, 2: 143, 1879 - Zeora wimmeriana Körb., Denkschr. schles. Ges. vaterl. Kultur: 232, tab. 4, fig. 3, 1853.

Syn.: Aspicilia acceptanda (Nyl.) Arnold ex Hue, Aspicilia leucophyma (Leight.) Hue, Aspicilia littoralis (Vain.) Hue, Lecanora acceptanda Nyl., Lecanora creatina Norman ex Th.Fr., Lecanora leucophyma Leight., Lecanora littoralis (Vain.) Zahlbr., Lecanora wimmeriana (Körb.) Poetsch, Lecanorella josiae Frey, Perspicinora leucophyma (Leight.) Riedl, Pertusaria littoralis Vain.

N - Lomb, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on periodically wetted siliceous rocks, being often sterile, it might have been largely overlooked in the Alps.


+Lasallia brigantium (Zschacke) Llano

Monogr. Lich. Fam. Umbilicariaceae: 45, 1950 - Umbilicaria brigantium Zschacke, Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg, 69: 14, 1927.



C - Tosc, Sar.

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, apparently restricted to Sardegna, Corsica, Toscana and adjacent islands, always at low altitudes.


+Lasallia hispanica (Frey) Sancho & A. Crespo

Lichenologist, 21: 46, 1989 - Umbilicaria brigantium v. hispanica Frey, Ber. schweiz. bot. Ges., 59: 443, 1949.

Syn.: Lasallia brigantium v. hispanica (Frey) A.Crespo & Sancho

S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: a, A1: a, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on wind-exposed basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain, but avoiding seepage tracks.


+Lasallia pustulata (L.) Mérat

Nouv. Fl. Envir. Paris, 2 éd., 1: 202. 1821 - Lichen pustulatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1150, 1753.

Syn.: Gyrophora pustulata (L.) Ach., Macrodictya pustulata (L.) A.Massal., Umbilicaria pustulata (L.) Hoffm.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Pišút 1997), Sar (Feige & Lumbsch 1994). S - Camp, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Czeczuga & al. 1999, Ottonello 2005).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: r, C: rc, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on periodically wetted, but rapidly drying, basic siliceous rocks, in seepage tracks.


+Lecanactis abietina (Ach.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 276, 1855 - Lichen abietinus Ach., K. Vetensk.-Acad. N. Handl.: 139, 1795.

Syn.: Lecanactis illecebrosa v. megaspora Merr., Lecanactis megaspora (Merr.) Brodo, Lecidea abietina (Ach.) Ach., Pyrenothea leucocephala (Ach.) Fr., Schismatomma abietinum (Ach.) A.Massal. non (Humb.) Almq.

N - Frl (Egea & Torrente 1994), TAA, Piem. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a cool-temperate lichen, mostly found in mixed forests with Abies, on dry undersides of trunks and old branches, in crevices of the bark, much more rarely on old Quercus.


+Lecanactis dilleniana (Ach.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 276, 1855 - Lichen dillenianus Ach., Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr.: 57, 1798.

Syn.: Schismatomma epipolium A.Massal.

N - TAA (Lojka Lich. Univ. 86: Egea & Torrente 1994), Piem (TSB), Lig. C - Tosc. S - Camp.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 3, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on hard crystalline rocks, beneath underhangs and in crevices which are seldom wetted by rain.


+Lecanactis latebrarum (Ach.) Arnold

Lich. Exs. 1125, label, 1885 - Lichen latebrarum Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 7, 1798.

Syn.: Crocynia hueana de Lesd., Crocynia latebrarum (Ach.) Hue, Lepra candida auct. p.p., Lepraria latebrarum (Ach.) Ach. ex Sm.

N - Frl (Tretiach 2004), TAA (Egea & Torrente 1994).

Lepr/ Tr/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a mainly temperate species, found beneath underhangs and in crevices which are seldom wetted by rain. According to Egea & Torrente (1994) the generic position is unclear.


+Lecania aipospila (Wahlenb.) Th.Fr.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 7, 2: 20, 1867 - Parmelia aipospila Wahlenb. [in Ach.] Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 36, 1803.

Syn.: Aipospila wahlenbergii Trevis., Lecania sampaiana de Lesd., Lecania spodophaeiza (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Lecanora maritima Sommerf.

C - Sar. S - Si (Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks near the coast, the material from Sardegna is somehow different from that from the Atlantic coast of Europe.


+Lecania atrynoides M. Knowles

Sc. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., 14: 130, 1913.

Syn.: Lecania macrocarpa de Lesd.

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ paras Caloplaca spp./ coast/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species of acid siliceous rocks, restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Lecania cuprea (A.Massal.) Van den Boom & Coppins

[in Boom van den] Nova Hedwigia, 54, 1-2: 234, 1992 - Bilimbia cuprea A.Massal., Lotos, 6: 77, 1856.

Syn.: Bacidia albidocarnea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. v. alborubella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Bacidia chlorotica sensu Th.Fr., Bacidia cuprea (A.Massal.) Lettau, Bacidia cupreorosella (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) A.Schneid., Bacidia prasinoides (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Biatora cupreorosella (Stizenb.) Tuck., Biatorina albidocarnea ssp. chlorotropoides (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Biatorina albidocarnea v. alborubella (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Bilimbia cuprea v. areolata A.Massal., Bilimbia cuprea v. leprosa A.Massal., Catillaria herbidula (Nyl.) Hulting sensu Hulting, Catillaria umbraticula (Nyl.) P.James, Lecidea cupreorosella Stizenb.

N - VG, Ven, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Laz. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a mainly temperate species, found on underhanging or vertical, base-rich or somehow calciferous rocks in woodlands and gorges, sometimes overgrowing epilithic mosses.


+Lecania cyrtella (Ach.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 294, 1871 - Lecidea cyrtella Ach., Meth. Lich.: 67, 1803.

Syn.: Biatora anomala v. cyrtella (Ach.) Rabenh., Biatora cyrtella (Ach.) W.Mann, Biatora microcyrtella Anzi ?, Biatora phacodoides Anzi, Biatorina cyrtella (Ach.) A.Massal., Biatorina heterobaphia Anzi, Biatorina pseudocyrtella Anzi ?, Catillaria heterobaphia (Anzi) Lettau, Lecania cyrtella ssp. sambucina (Körb.) Arnold ?, Lecania cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst. ?, Lecania sambucina (Körb.) Zahlbr. ?, Lecaniella cyrtella (Ach.) Jatta, Lecaniella sambucina (Körb.) Jatta ?, Lecanora cyrtellina Nyl. ?, Lecidea austriaca Zahlbr., Lecidea cyrtellina (Nyl.) Lettau ?, Lecidea microcyrtella (Anzi) Jatta ?, Lecidea phacodoides (Anzi) Jatta, Lecidea sambucina (Körb.) Zahlbr. ?, Lecidea sphaerella Hedl. ?, Lecidea subalpina Zahlbr. non Stizenb., Sporoblastia cyrtella (Ach.) Trevis.

N - VG, Frl (Hinteregger 1994), Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Hinteregger 1994), Lomb (Anzi Lich. Lang. 516: Printzen 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Bari & al. 2000, Isocrono & al. 2003), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Anzi Lich. Etr. 26: Printzen 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1997, 1997b, 1998b), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Merlo 1993, Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: vc, E: rr, F: vc, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found on the base-rich bark of isolated trees, e.g. on Populus, Juglans, Fraxinus, Sambucus, mostly in Xanthorion communities. The records include also L.cyrtellina, that is considered as a good species by several authors.


+Lecania erysibe (Ach.) Mudd

Man. Brit. Lich.: 41, 1861 - Lichen erysibe Ach., Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 62, 1803.

Syn.: Lecania erysibe f. sorediata J.R.Laundon

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven, TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: rr, F: rc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen, found on calcareous substrata, often on mortar, concrete and brick walls, in the past often confused with other species.


+Lecania flavescens Lynge

Rep. Norw. Novaya Zemlya Exp., 43: 188, 1928.



S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on the top of calcareous boulders, probably more widespread in the mountains of the south.


+Lecania fuscella (Schaer.) A.Massal.

Alcuni Generi di Licheni: 12, 1855 - Parmelia pallida v. fuscella Schaer., Lich. Helvet. Spicil., 8: 397, 1839.

Syn.: Lecania syringea (Ach.) Th.Fr., Lecanora hagenii v. syringea (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora subfusca v. coerulata Flot.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb (Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Bari & al. 2000), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2001), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: vr, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on base-rich bark of isolated trees, esp. Populus, Juglans and Ulmus, more frequent in the past, presently most common in S Italy.


+Lecania hyalina (Fr.) R.Sant.

[in Santesson & al.] Lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Fennoscandia: §, 2004.

Syn.: Bacidia globulosa (Flörke) Hafellner & V.Wirth, Biatora anomala v. minuta Schaer, Biatora minuta (Schaer.) Hepp, Biatora sylvana Körb., Biatorina globulosa (Flörke) Körb., Bacidia pinguicula (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Bilimbia pinguicula Bagl. & Carestia, Catillaria globulosa (Flörke) Th.Fr., Lecania globulosa (Flörke) Van den Boom & Sérus. non Savicz, Lecidea globulosa Flörke, Lecidea minuta (Schaer.) A.Massal., Lecidea sylvana (Körb.) Th.Fr.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen, found on acid and rough bark of broad-leaved trees in sheltered situations, often in fissures, and in association with Caliciales. According to Printzen (1995) it does not belong to Bacidia s. str., and is related to Lecidea albohyalina and L. meiocarpa (see also Ekman 1996).


+Lecania hutchinsiae (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

Monogr. Brit. Lich., 1: 348, 1918 - Lecanora hutchinsiae Nyl., Flora, 50: 326, 1867.

Syn.: Lecania albocarnea Nyl.

S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 2, 3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ l/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found on periodically wetted or immersed siliceous rocks, esp. sandstone in sheltered situations, probably overlooked in Tyrrhenian Italy, but certainly not common.


+Lecania inundata (Körb.) M.Mayrhofer

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 111, 1987 - Biatorina inundata [Hepp ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 145, 1860.

Syn.: Biatorina proteiformis v. compacta A.Massal., Catillaria italica de Lesd., Lecania porracea (Stizenb.) Flagey, Lecania sbarbaronis de Lesd.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-5, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: vr, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate calcicolous species, often found on man-made substrata, in the past confused with L. erysibe and with L. turicensis.


+Lecania koerberiana J.Lahm

[in Körb.] Parerga Lichenol.: 68, 1859.

Syn.: Lecania opuntiae Bagl.

N - TAA, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: rr, E: vr, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate species, foundon nutrient-rich or -enriched bark, closely related to L. fuscella.


+Lecania naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & Van den Boom

[in Boom van den et al.] Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb., 95: 154, 1994 - Biatora naegelii Hepp, Flecht. Eur.: n. 19, 1853.

Syn.: Bacidia abscondita Erichsen, Bacidia naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr., Bilimbia aparallacta A.Massal., Bilimbia cyrtelloides Anzi, Bilimbia naegelii (Hepp) Anzi, Bilimbia naegelii f. pallescens Jatta, Bilimbia vallis-tellinae Anzi

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1998b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Putortì & Loppi 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate species, with optimum in the submediterranean belt, but also present within eu-mediterranean vegetation in humid, coastal sites.


+Lecania nylanderiana A.Massal.

Sched. Crit. Lich. Exs. Ital., 8: 152, n. 276a, 1856.

Syn.: Lecania athroocarpa (Nyl.) Trevis., Lecania cooperta (Ach.) Poetsch

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Laz, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a temperate species, found on vertical to underhanging calcareous rocks, several Italian records need confirmation.


+Lecania olivacella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 5: 739, 1928 - Lecanora olivacella Nyl., Flora, 58: 298, 1875.



N - Piem (TSB), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: a, A1: a, B: r, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calcareous and basic siliceous rocks, a widespread, but rare species, with a wide altitudinal range, to be looked for further in the Alps.


+Lecania polycycla (Anzi) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 199, 1912 - Rinodina polycycla Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 2, 1: 9, 1864.

Syn.: Lecania amblyospora (Harm.) Zahlbr., Lecania genevensis (Müll.Arg.) Lettau

N - Ven. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp, Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3-4, 3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate species of calcareous rocks.


+Lecania pusilla Tretiach

Lichenologist, 28, 1: 9, 1995.



N - VG (Tretiach 1995), Frl (Tretiach 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 2-3, 3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a very incospicuous lichen of calcicolous bryophytes inside woods, to be looked for in other parts of submediterranean Italy.


+Lecania rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold

Flora, 67: 403, 1884 - Patellaria rabenhorstii Hepp, Flecht. Eur.: n. 75, 1853.

Syn.: Biatorina rabenhorstii (Hepp) A.Massal., Biatorina ceramonea A.Massal., Biatorina proteiformis v. ceramonea (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Lecania alborubra de Lesd., Lecania algarbiensis Cout., Lecania erysibe v. ceramonea (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Lecania erysibe v. rabenhorstii (Hepp) Mudd, Lecaniella rabenhorstii (Hepp) Jatta

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3, 4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: er, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: on calciferous substrata, such as on walls in villages, closely related to Lecania inundata.


+Lecania spadicea (Flot.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ.: 420, 1914 - Lecanora spadicea Flot., Linnaea, 22: 362, 1849.

Syn.: Ricasolia gennarii Bagl., Lecania spadicea v. gennarii (Bagl.) Steiner, Bayrhofferia spadicea (Flot.) Trevis.

C - Tosc, Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rc, G: c, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichen, found on inclined calciferous rocks, esp. common on walls in villages, mainly Tyrrhenian.


+Lecania suavis (Müll.Arg.) Mig.

Flora v. Deutsch., Österr. u. Schweiz, 11: 331, 1926 - Callopisma suave Müll.Arg., Flora, 55: 472, 1872.

Syn.: Lecania tavaresiana Clauzade & Vězda

N - TAA (Etayo & Boom 1995), Lomb (Valcuvia 2002, 2002b), Piem, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ u/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging calcareous rocks, often near small cracks, but also on walls of mortar, probably more common: much overlooked and confused with other species in Italy.


+Lecania subfuscula (Nyl.) S. Ekman

Opera Botanica, 127: 134, 1966 - Lecidea subfuscula Nyl., Flora, 48: 604, 1865.

Syn.: Bacidia subfuscula (Nyl.) Th.Fr., Biatora siberiensis Willey

N - Ven (Nascimbene 2002, 2003b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on more or less calciferous soil. The specimen from Veneto corresponds well to the description (vidi!).



+Lecania sylvestris (Arnold) Arnold

Flora, 67: 405, 1884 - Biatorina sylvestris Arnold, Flora, 42: 152, 1859.

Syn.: Catillaria sylvestris (Arnold) Lettau

N - Ven, Lomb, Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: vr, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen of calcareous substrata, incl. mortar walls, probably more widespread, but never common, closely related to Lecania hutchinsiae.


+Lecania sylvestris v. umbratica (Arnold) M.Mayrhofer

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 112, 1987 - Biatorina proteiformis f. umbratica Arnold, Flora, 57: 569, 1874.



N - Frl. C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate lichen, probably more widespread in S Europe.


+Lecania turicensis (Hepp) Müll.Arg.

Flora, 55: 386, 1862 - Biatora turicensis Hepp, Fl. Eur.: 8, 1853.

Syn.: Biatorina albariella (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatorina proteiformis A.Massal., Biatorina proteiformis v. dispersa A.Massal., Biatorina proteiformis v. lecideina A.Massal., Biatorina rabenhorstii v. turicensis (Hepp) Anzi, Biatorina turicensis v. farinosa A.Massal., Lecania albariella (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Lecania erysibe f. dispersa (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Lecania erysibe v. proteiformis (A.Massal.) Boistel, Lecania farinosa (A.Massal.) de Lesd., Lecania phaeoleucoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecania proteiformis (A.Massal.) Arnold, Lecania subcaesia (Naegeli) de Lesd., Lecaniella rabenhorstii v. turicensis (Hepp) Jatta, Thalloidima barbeyanum Müll.Arg. ?, Toninia barbeyana (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr. ?

N - VG, Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven, TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: vc, E: rr, F: vc, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ Note: on calcareous rocks, mortar, basic siliceous rocks, brick and roofing tiles, often on man-made substrata, probably the most common species of the genus in Italy.


+Lecanographa amylacea (Pers.) Egea & Torrente

Bibl. Lichenol., 54: 122, 1994 - Lichen amylaceus [Ehrh. ex] Pers., Plant. Crypt. Exsicc.: 303, 1793.

Syn.: Lecanactis amylacea (Pers.) Arnold, Lecanactis illecebrosa (Dufour) Fr., Lecidea farinosa (Ach.) Nyl. non H.Magn., Opegrapha illecebrosa Dufour, Schismatomma illecebrosum (Dufour) A.Massal.

N - Ven, TAA. C - Tosc, Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, 2000, Munzi & al. 2004, 2007). S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate, mainly western lichen, found on isolated, old deciduous trees, esp. oaks, on faces seldom wetted by rain.


+Lecanographa farinosa (Hepp) Egea & Torrente

Bibl. Lichenol., 54: 130, 1994 - Opegrapha farinosa Hepp [in Stizenb.] N. Acta Leopoldin.-Carolin., 32, 4: 6, 1865.

Syn.: Lecanactis farinosa (Hepp) Egea, Torrente & Manrique

C - Sar (Egea & al. 1993, Egea & Torrente 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ coast/ Note: beneath overhangs of coastal siliceous rocks protected against salt-spray.


Lecanographa grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente

Bibl. Lichenol., 54: 134, 1994 - Opegrapha grumulosa Dufour, J. Phys. Chém. Hist. Nat., 87: 214, 1813.

Syn.: Chiodecton spilocarpon Nyl., Lecanactis dilleniana v. monstrosa (Bagl.) Jatta, Lecanactis dilleniana v. subfumosa Jatta, Lecanactis delimis (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Lecanactis doerfleri Zahlbr., Lecanactis grumulosa (Dufour) Fr., Lecanactis grumulosa v. monstrosa (Bagl.) Grummann, Lecanactis mirifica (Stirt.) A.L.Sm., Lecanactis monstrosa Bagl., Lecanactis nothiza (Nyl.) P.James, Lecanactis pictonica (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Lecanactis ramosa de Lesd., Lecidea pictonica Nyl., Opegrapha cavernicola Llimona & Werner, Opegrapha diaphoroides Nyl. non auct., Opegrapha dirinaria (Nyl.) Nyl., Opegrapha grumulosa v. rosea Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Opegrapha grumulosa v. dirinaria Nyl., Opegrapha grumulosa v. platycarpa Nyl., Opegrapha platycarpa (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - Ven, Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 2-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vc, H: rc/ PF: 1/ suboc/ paras Dirina, Roccella, Ingaderia/ coast/ u/ Note: on rather shaded, more or less calciferous coastal cliffs. The biology of this lichenicolous fungus is worthy of further study (see Egea & Torrente 1994).


+Lecanographa lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente

Bibl. Lichenol., 54: 142, 1994 - Lichen lynceus Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 12: 809, 1801.

Syn.: Lecanactis lyncea (Sm.) Fr., Lecanactis plocina (Ach.) A.Massal. non auct., Lecanactis stictica Durieu & Mont., Opegrapha lyncea (Sm.) Hook., Opegrapha stictica (Durieu & Mont.) Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Egea & Torrente 1994), Abr. S - Camp, Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate, mainly western lichen, found on rough, acid bark of very old isolated trees, esp. oaks, declining, esp. in the north, presently mainly Tyrrhenian. The silicicolous L. abscondita (Th.Fr.) Egea & Torrente is known from the Alps of Austria.


+Lecanographa werneri (Faurel, Ozenda & Schotter) Egea & Torrente

Bibl. Lichenol., 54: 163, 1994 - Opegrapha werneri Faurel, Ozenda & Schotter, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N., 44: 41, 1953.

Syn.: Lecanactis werneri (Faurel, Ozenda & Schotter) Egea & Torrente

C - Sar (Egea & Torrente 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ coast/ Note: a southern mediterranean species, hitherto known from N Africa and SW Europe, found beneath overhangs of siliceous rocks protected against salt-spray.


+Lecanora admontensis Zahlbr.

Ann. Mycol., 1: 357, 1903.

Syn.: Lecanora luridescens Zahlbr.

N - Ven (Nascimbene 2004), TAA (Nascimbene 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b). C - Abr. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ u/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging calciferous rocks, to be looked for in dry-continental Alpine valleys.


+Lecanora agardhiana Ach. ssp. agardhiana

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 152, 1814.

Syn.: Hymenelia cilophthalma A.Massal. nom. nud., Lecanora agardhianoides A.Massal., Lecanora agardhianoides v. cilophothalma A.Massal., Lecanora agardhianoides v. dealbata A.Massal., Lecanora agardhianoides v. melanophthalma A.Massal., Lecanora agardhianoides v. microstigma A.Massal., Lecanora agardhianoides v. pacnodes A.Massal., Lecanora microstigma A.Massal. nom. nud., Lecanora pachnodes A.Massal. nom. nud.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2005c), TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: vc, C: vc, D: rc, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ #/Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found on hard limestones and dolomite, the distinction from other related species still needs further study.


+Lecanora agardhiana ssp. catalaunica Cl.Roux

Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence, 54: 120, 2003.



C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ coast/ Note: this taxon is worthy of further study.


+Lecanora agardhiana ssp. sapaudica Cl.Roux

Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence, 54: 120, 2003.

Syn.: Lecanora agardhiana ssp. sapaudica Clauzade & Cl.Roux nom. inval., Lecanora agardhiana ssp. sapaudica v. lecidella (Poelt) Leuckert & Poelt ?, Lecanora lecidella Poelt ?

N - Ven, Piem (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: restricted to areas near or above treeline, and certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Lecanora aitema (Ach.) Hepp

Flecht. Eur.: n. 69, 1853 - Lecidea aitema Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. N. Handl.: 261, 1808.

Syn.: Lecanora symmicta v. aitema (Ach.) Hepp, Lecanora symmicta v. saepincola (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora symmictera v. aitema (Ach.) Nyl.

N - Frl, TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on twigs of Calluna and other shrubs, more rarely on lignum and bark of coniferous trees and oaks.


+Lecanora albella (Pers.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 369, 1810 - Lichen albellus Pers., N. Ann. Bot., 5: 18, 1794.

Syn.: Lecanora albella v. cinerella Flörke, Lecanora albella v. sordidescens Th.Fr., Lecanora pallida (Schreb.) Rabenh. non Chévall., Lecanora peralbella Nyl., Lecanora pseudopallida Gyeln., Lecanora scrupulosa auct., Lecanora subalbella Nyl., Lichen pallidus Schreb., Patellaria pallida (Schreb.) Trevis.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven, TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b), Lomb, Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2003), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Merlo 1993, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen, found on smooth bark, esp. of Fagus, but also of Abies, in deciduous woodlands, more frequent in the past, presently declining.


+Lecanora albellula Nyl.

Not. Sällk. Fauna Fl. Fenn. Förh., 8, 147, 1866.

Syn.: Lecanora albellula (Nyl.) Th.Fr., Lecanora ochrostomoides Nyl. ?, Lecanora piniperda v. glaucella (Flot.) Körb., Lecanora glaucella (Flot.) Nyl., Lecanora piniperda Körb., Lecanora varia v. subravida (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea albellula Nyl.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (TSB), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a probably circumboreal-montane species of hard lignum, but also found on bark of conifers, certainly widespread throughout the Alps, and becoming rarer southwards.


+Lecanora albescens (Hoffm.) Branth & Rostr.

Bot. Tidskr., 3: 196, 1869 - Psora albescens Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 165, 1796.

Syn.: Lecanora galactina Ach., Lecanora galactina v. muralis f. nigra de Lesd., Lecanora sommerfeltiana Flörke ex Sommerf., Lecanora urbana Nyl., Patellaria albescens (Hoffm.) Trevis. Placodium albescens (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Placodium albescens v. muralis A.Massal., Placodium albescens v. monsauri A.Massal., Squamaria albescens (Hoffm.) Anzi

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, Florio & al. 2004, 2006), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996 (Nimis & Tretiach 1999) Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, 2005, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 3-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: ec, E: vc, F: ec, G: ec, H: vc/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a holarctic, widespread lichen, found on a wide variety of calciferous or base-rich substrata, incl. mortar, brick, roofing tiles, walls, also in large urban areas.


+Lecanora allophana Nyl.

Flora, 55: 250, 1872.

Syn.: Lecanora subfusca (L.) Ach. nom. rej. non auct., Lecanora subfusca v. geographica (Nyl.) A.Massal.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000), TAA, Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Bassi 1995), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1996c, 1997, 1997b, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen, found on isolated deciduous trees with base-rich bark, esp. Juglans, Acer and Fraxinus, often along roads, most common in slightly continental areas, rare or absent in heavily disturbed areas of the north (e.g. the Po-plain), and in Mediterranean Italy.


+Lecanora allophana f. sorediata Vain.

Medd. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn., 3: 103, 1878



N - Frl. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: this taxon was sometimes considered as a synonym of L. impudens. According to Wirth (199x) the two taxa, although similar in general appearance, have a different chemistry.


+Lecanora anopta Nyl.

Flora, 56: 292, 1873.

Syn.: Lecidea anopta (Nyl.) Lettau

N - Ven. C - Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on decorticated trunks, more rarely on bark of conifers, probably more widespread in the Alps. The sample from Sardinia deviates in having paler apothecia and and a yellowish epihymenium.


+Lecanora argentata (Ach.) Malme

Lich. Suec. Exs., nr. 5, 1897 - Parmelia subfusca v. argentata Ach., Meth. Lich.: 169, 1803.

Syn.: Lecanora subfusca auct. p.p., Lecanora subfuscata H.Magn., Lecanora subrugosa Nyl. ?, Pertusaria nivea Fr.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006c, 2006e, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997, 1997b, 1999a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Recchia & al. 1989), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C ec:, D: vr, E: er, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread, temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen, with optimum on smooth bark, esp. of Fagus.


+Lecanora argopholis (Ach.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 346, 1810 - Parmelia atra v. argopholis Ach., Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 32, 1803.

Syn.: Lecanora blyttii (Fr.) Schaer., Lecanora frustulosa auct. p.p., Lecanora frustulosa v. argopholis (Ach.) Link, Lecanora thiodes Spreng., Patellaria frustulosa v. thiodes (Spreng.) Trevis., Schistoplaca argopholis (Ach.) Brusse

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: er, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a holarctic lichen found on base-rich, sometimes on calciferous siliceous rocks, occasionally on detritus, bryophytes and other lichens (e.g. on Psora globifera), most frequent in the Alps.


+Lecanora bandolensis de Lesd.

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 101: 223, 1954.

Syn.: Lecanora albescens v. bandolensis (de Lesd.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

C - Sar. S - Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ #/ Note: a mostly coastal lichen of calcareous rocks belonging to a critical group which badly needs revision.


+Lecanora bicincta Ramond v. bicincta

Mém. Acad. Roy. Sc. France, 6: 248, 1825.

Syn.: Lecanora glaucoma v. bicincta (Ramond) Nyl., Lecanora rupicola v. bicincta (Ramond) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Lecanora sordida v. bicincta (Ramond) Th.Fr., Lecanora stenhammarii (Fr.) Jatta, Zeora stenhammarii (Fr.) Körb.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Lig. C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vc, A1: rc, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a holarctic lichen found on vertical to underhanging, hard siliceous rocks.


+Lecanora bicincta v. sorediata (Flot.) Leuckert & Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 49, 1, 2: 147, 1989 - Zeora glaucoma v. sorediata Flot., Lich. Exs. 369: 123, 1849.



N - Frl, Lomb, Piem (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: probably more widespread, at least in the Alps, but overlooked.


+Lecanora boligera (Th.Fr.) Hedl.

Bih. K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 18 (3, 3): 42, 1892 - Lecidea fuscescens f. boligera [Norman ex] Th.Fr., Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 461, 1874.

Syn.: Biatora nylanderi auct. non Anzi

N - Frl.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species found on twigs of Rhododendron and other shrubs in open, often windy situations, on the top of small branches, sometimes on plant debris and lignum, certainly widespread throughout the Alps.


+Lecanora bryopsora (Doppelb. & Poelt) Hafellner & Türk

Stapfia, 76: 153, 2001 - Lecanora epibryon v. bryopsora Doppelb. & Poelt [in Poelt] Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 5: 254, 1964.



N - Piem (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: certainly more widespread in the Alps, but difficult to recognize, being often sterile. According to Clauzade & Roux (1985) this variety is most frequent in the montane belt.


+Lecanora cadubriae (A.Massal.) Hedl.

Bih. K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 18: 48, 1892 - Biatora cadubriae A.Massal., Geneac. Lich.: 20, n. 43, 1854.



Syn.: Biatora admixta Th.Fr., Biatora aitema sensu A.Massal., Biatora obscurella (Sommerf.) Arnold, Biatora phaeostigma Körb. ?, Lecanora nitida auct.?, Lecanora obscurella (Sommerf.) Hedl., Lecanora phaeostigma (Körb.) Almb. ?, Lecanora ramulicola H.Magn. non (H.Magn.) Hillmann, Lecidea cadubriae (A.Massal.) Nyl., Lecidea magnussoniana Hertel, Lecidea nitida Sommerf., Lecidea obscurella (Sommerf.) Nyl., Lecidea ramulicola H.Magn., Lecidea subinsequens Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (TSB). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species, fcound on bark of conifers, esp. near the base of the trunks, more rarely on lignum decorticated trunks.


+Lecanora caesiosora Poelt

Denkschr. Regensb. Bot. Gs., 26: 82, 1966

Syn.: Lecanora cenisia v. soredians Suza, Lecanora soralifera H.Magn. non (Suza) Räsänen

N - Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ m/ Note: on hard siliceous rocks, very much overlooked.


+Lecanora campestris (Schaer.) Hue

Bull.Soc. Bot. France, 35: 47, 1888 - Parmelia subfusca v. campestris Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil. 2, 8: 391, 1840.

Syn.: Lecanora atra v. expansa Ach., Lecanora genuensis de Lesd., Lecanora maceriaecola de Lesd., Lecanora ossicola Erichsen, Lecanora subfusca v. campestris (Schaer.) Rabenh., Lecanora subglabrata Werner, Lecanora viridans Maheu & Werner

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (TSB), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Lumbsch 1994, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-4, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: c, E: rr, F: c, G: rc, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found mostly on basic siliceous rocks, esp. hard sandstone, often on small stones, or faces not far from the ground, calcicolous forms are frequent in the south.


+Lecanora carpinea (L.) Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 14: 23, 1888 - Lichen carpineus L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1141, 1753.

Syn.: Lecanora albella v. angulosa (Schreb.) Flot., Lecanora angulosa (Schreb.) Ach., Lecanora chondrotypa Ach., Lecanora cinerella auct. non (Flörke) Rabenh., Lecanora erikssonii H.Magn., Lecanora pallida v. angulosa (Schreb.) Rabenh.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Alessio & al. 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Lumbsch & al. 1997, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, 2001, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, 1996b, Loppi & al. 1996b, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-4, 3-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: ec, D: ec, E: rr, F: ec, G: vc, H: c/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: a mainly temperate early colonizer of smooth bark, with a wide altitudinal range. The distinction from L. leptyrodes is not always clear to me, see note on L. subcarpinea.


+Lecanora cavicola Creveld

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