+Absconditella annexa



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+Lecanora subintricata (Nyl.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 265, 1871 - Lecanora varia v. subintricata Nyl., Flora, 51: 478, 1868.

Syn.: Lecanora varia v. atrocinerea Schaer.

N - Frl, TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: c, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane lichen, found on lignum and bark of conifers.


+Lecanora sulphurea (Hoffm.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 399, 1810 - Lichen sulphureus Hoffm., Enum. Lich., Ic.: 32, 1784.

Syn.: Lecanora polytropa v. sulphurea (Hoffm.) Schaer., Lecanora sulphurea v. tumidula Bagl., Lecidea sulphurea (Hoffm.) Wahlenb., Zeora sulphurea (Hoffm.) Flot.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Garofalo & al. 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-5, 4-5, 2-3, 2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: rr, E: er, F: rc, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ paras Tephromela atra/ Note: in S and C Italy this species is almost as common on limestone and on siliceous rocks.


+Lecanora swartzii (Ach.) Ach. ssp. swartzii

Lich. Univ.: 363, 1810 - Lichen swartzii Ach., K. Vetensk.-Acad. N. Handl.: 185, 1794.

Syn.: Lecanora glaucoma v. swartzii (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora pachycarpa Samp., Lecanora rupicola v. leucogaea (Ach.) R.Sant., Lecanora sordida v. swartzii (Ach.) Rabenh., Lecanora subradiosa auct. non Nyl., Lecanora subradiosa v. caulescens J.Steiner, Lecanora swartzii ssp. caulescens (J.Steiner) Leuckert & Poelt, Zeora sordida v. swartzii (Ach.) Körb.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar (Roux & Triebel 1994). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: an arctic-alpine lichen, found on steeply inclined to underhanging siliceous rocks. Ssp. caulescens (J.Steiner) Leuckert & Poelt is known from the Austrian Alps.


+Lecanora swartzii ssp. nuorensis Leuckert & Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 49, 1-2: 164, 1989.



C - Sar. S - Cal.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: a, A1: a, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: distinguished by the presence of sordidone in the thallus, and thiophanic acid in the apothecial margin.


+Lecanora swartzii ssp. nylanderi (Räsänen) Leuckert & Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 49, 1-2: 162, 1989 - Lecanora subradiosa v. nylanderi Räsänen, Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo, 12, 1: 70, 1939.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: more frequent at high altitudes, to be looked for in the Alps.

+Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 340, 1814 - Lecanora varia v. symmicta Ach., Lich. Univ.: 379, 1810.

Syn.: Biatora maculiformis (Hoffm.) Beltr., Biatora symmicta (Ach.) A.Massal., Lecanora saepincola (Ach.) Arnold, Lecanora symmicta v. symmictera (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecanora symmictera Nyl., Lecanora trabalis (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora varia v. maculiformis (Hoffm.) Schaer., Lecidea symmicta (Ach.) Ach., Zeora maculiformis (Hoffm.) Trevis.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lecid. Exs. 244: Hertel 1992a, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Alessio & al. 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (TSB), Emil, Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1996, 1999a, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar (Zedda 2002), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: rr, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a holarctic, boreal-montane to temperate lichen, found on acid bark, often on twigs of shrubs, most frequent in the north.


+Lecanora umbrina (Ach.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 10, 1852 - Lecanora hagenii v. umbrina Ach., Lich. Univ.: 368, 1810.

Syn.: Lecanora hagenii v. umbrina (Ach.) Arnold

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Lazzarin 1997), TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia 2002, 2002b, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007), Piem (Valcuvia 2002, 2002b), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006b), Laz, Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Recchia & Villa 1996). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: c, E: rc, F: rc, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-3/ #/ Note: on base-rich bark (e.g. of Populus), esp. in rather polluted areas, but also on calciferous rocks and dust-covered lignum, this taxon is in urgent need of revision. N Temp (Eur, N Amer).


+Lecanora umbrosa Degel.

Bot. Notiser: 105, 1943.

Syn.: Ionaspis epulotica v. macrocarpa Creveld, Lecanora neglecta (Räsänen) Räsänen, Lecanora sorediifera (Th.Fr.) Räsänen non Fée, Lecanora subfusca v. sorediifera Th.Fr.

N - Frl, Ven (TSB). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-4, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen, found on steeply inclined to underhanging, weakly calciferous or base-rich, weathered siliceous rocks, certainly more widespread in the Alps, but overlooked, being often sterile.


+Lecanora valesiaca (Müll.Arg.) Stizenb.

Ber. Thät. St. Gall. Naturw. Ges.: 342, 1882 - Placodium valesiacum Müll.Arg., Bull. Trav. Soc. Murithienne Valais, 10: 56, 1881.

Syn.: Squamaria valesiaca (Müll.Arg.) H.Olivier

N - TAA, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 1-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on base-rich rocks (gneiss, porphyr, schists, etc.) containing some calcium, in warm-dry situations. (Eur, Himalayas, N Amer).


+Lecanora varia (Hoffm.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 377, 1810 - Patellaria varia Hoffm., Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 1: 102, 1790.

Incl.: Lecanora varia v. denudata Bagl.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995b), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rc, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen, found on hard lignum, more rarely on smooth, hard, acid bark, esp. of conifers, most frequent in the Alps, but also occurring in the Mediterranean mountains.


+Lecanora variolascens Nyl.

Flora, 64: 183, 1881.

Syn.: Lecanora bavarica Poelt ?

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on bases of trunks of isolated deciduous trees. For the differences towards L. intumescens see Lumbsch & al. (1997). N Temp.


+Lecanora vinetorum Poelt & Huneck

Österr. bot. Z., 115: 414, 1968.



N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ §/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 2/ #/ Note: a very poorly known species of the L. varia complex.


+Lecanora xanthostoma Cl.Roux & Fröberg

Symb. Bot. Ups., 32, 1: 33, 1997.



N - Frl (Poelt & Leuckert 1995), Ven (TSB), Piem (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Poelt & Leuckert 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rc, C: c, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras crustose lichens/ Note: on the top of calcareous boulders, often on other crustose lichens, not rare in the mountains of the south, and certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Lecidea albofuscescens Nyl.

Flora, 50: 370, 1867.

Syn.: Biatora albofuscescens (Nyl.) Th.Fr.

N - Ven, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on conifers, esp. Picea, rarely on acid-barked deciduous trees such as Betula and Sorbus aucuparia. According to Printzen (1995), closely related to Lecidella.


+Lecidea albohyalina (Nyl.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 431, 1874 - Lecidea anomala f. albohyalina Nyl., Lichenes Scand.: 203, 1861.

Syn.: Biatora albohyalina (Nyl.) Bagl. & Carestia

N - Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on smooth, acid bark. According to Printzen (1995) it does not belong neither to Biatora nor to Lecidea, and should be probably segregated into a new genus.


+Lecidea alpestris Sommerf.

K. Norske Vidensk. Skrifter, 2, 2: 54, 1825.



N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, found on naked soil, mosses and plant debris over siliceous substrata, more rarely on bark, on basal parts of conifers in the subalpine belt. Systematic position and delimitation of this species are still not clear (see Printzen 1995).


+Lecidea antiloga Stirt.

Scottish Natural., 4: 164, 1877.

Syn.: Biatora antiloga (Stirt.) Walt.Watson, Lecidea infralapponica Vain., Lecidella antiloga (Stirt.) M.Choisy

S - Cal (Puntillo 1996, Boom & Giralt 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, found on hard, exposed lignum, more rarely on conifer bark, to be looked for in the Alps. According to Printzen (1995) the generic position of this species, related to the N American Lecidea paddensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr., is not clear.


+Lecidea atrobrunnea (Lam. & DC.) Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil., sect. 3: 134, 1828 - Rhizocarpon atrobrunneum [Ramond ex] Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 367, 1805.

Syn.: Lecidea atrobrunnea v. reagens Sancho, Lecidea funckii (Flot.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecidea protecta H.Magn., Lecidea pseudassimilis Hertel nom. prov., Lecidella atrobrunnea (Lam. & DC.) Körb., Psora atrobrunnea (Lam. & DC.) A.Massal., Sporastatia funckii (Flot.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - TAA, Ven (TSB), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & al. 1998, 2004, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Lig (TSB). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: ec, A1: rc, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ m/ paras Bellemerea spp. and Lecidea silacea when young/ Note: a bipolar, arctic-alpine species of acid siliceous rocks in exposed situations, common only in the Alps.


+Lecidea auriculata Th.Fr.

Lich. Arctoi, n. 213, 1860.

Syn.: Lecidea auriculata v. subinops Vain., Lecidea confoederans Nyl.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine species found on siliceous rocks in wind-exposed, sunny situations, a much misunderstood species of the high-Alpine belt of humid mountains, much rarer in the Alps than the closely related L. promiscens. Italian records need to be checked against that species.


+Lecidea auriculata ssp. brachyspora Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 501, 1874.

Syn.: Lecidea brachyspora (Th.Fr.) Nyl., Lecidea brachyspora v. dissentiens Bagl. & Carestia ?

N - Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: ecologically similar to the typical subspecies, the only certain record in the Alps is from Tyrol, and all Italian records need confirmation.


+Lecidea cerviniicola de Lesd.

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 102: 231, 1955.



Syn.: Lecidea promiscua v. cerviniicola (de Lesd.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Hertel 1995, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on low siliceous boulders and flat stones scattered over the ground in Alpine heaths.


+Lecidea commaculans Nyl.

Flora, 51: 476, 1868.

Syn.: Lecidea intercalanda Arnold

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species of humid rocks, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Lecidea confluens (Weber) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 14, 1803 - Lichen confluens Weber, Spicil. Fl. Gött.: 180-182, tab.2, 1778.

Syn.: Lecidea confluens v. leucitica Schaer.?, Lecidea confluens v. oxydata Körb., Lecidea lepadina Sommerf. ?, Lecidea leucitica (Schaer.) Arnold ?, Lecidea vapulata Anzi

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, Peršoh & al. 2004), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Allisiardi 2001, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, 2004), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: vr, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on low stones and boulders with a long snow-lie, most common in the Alps, much rarer in the high Mediterranean mountains.


+Lecidea confluentula Müll.Arg.

Flora, 55: 536, 1872.

Syn.: Lecidea matildae H.Magn., Lecidea rimiseda Nyl.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: known from NW Europe, this species is related to L. fuscoatra. Reported from Italy by Hertel (1995) without further details.


+Lecidea confluescens Nyl.

Flora, 57: 12, 1874.

Syn.: Lecidea venustula Arnold

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on inclined to vertical faces of calciferous rocks, esp. lime-containing schists, related to L. lapicida, but calcicolous, locally not rare in the Alps, and probably much more widespread, but overlooked.


+Lecidea diducens Nyl.

Flora, 48: 148, 1865.

Syn.: Lecidea auriculata v. diducens (Nyl.) Th.Fr., Lecidea auriculata v. subfoederata Vain., Lecidea sarcogyniza Nyl.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, ecologically similar to, and doubtfully different from L. auriculata.


+Lecidea doliiformis Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 24: 361, 1992.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: the only Italian sample, collected on Olea at 385 m, is the first extra-British record.


+Lecidea ecrustacea (Arnold) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 26: 359, 1876 - Lecidella polycarpa v. ecrustacea [Anzi ex] Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 18: 954, 1868.

Syn.: Lecidea complicata H.Magn., Lecidea lactea v. ecrustacea (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Lecidea pseudopilati (Vain.) Vain.

N - TAA, Lomb (Anzi Lich. Lang. 39: Hertel 199§), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Sar.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: doubtfully distinct from L. lapicida v. pantherina


+Lecidea erythrophaea Sommerf.

[Flörke ex] Sommerf., Suppl. Fl. Lapp.: 163, 1826.

Syn.: Biatora alnicola Anzi, Biatora erythrophaea (Sommerf.) Fr., Lecidea alnicola (Anzi) Jatta, Lecidea cupuliformis (Räsänen) H.Magn. ?, Lecidea hyalinella (Körb.) Jatta, Lecidea tenebricosa auct. non Ach.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb. C - Tosc (Printzen 1995), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b) , Laz (Ravera 2006), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species of acid bark, esp. of conifers, in humid-cold situations, e.g. in Sphagnum bogs, which apparently descends along the Apennines south to Sicilia (Sicilian records, however, need to be checked), closely related to "Biatora rhododendri" and certainly not a Lecidea s.str.


+Lecidea exigua Chaub.

[in St.-Amans] Flore Agenaise: 478, 1821.

Syn.: Biatora decandollei Hepp, Biatora exigua (Chaub.) Fr., Biatora geographica A.Massal., Lecidea decandollei (Hepp) Jatta

N - VG (TSB), Ven, Lomb, Piem, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Ravera 2001), Abr. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ suboc/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean lichen found in very open woodlands, on smooth bark, esp. on branches of deciduous trees, records from S Italy are the first from Italy in the XX century.


+Lecidea fuliginosa Taylor

[in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern.: 131, 1836.

Syn.: Biatora conglomerata A.Massal., Biatora fuliginosa (Taylor) Fr., Lecidea confusa Nyl., Psora conglomerata (A.Massal.) Körb., Psora fuliginosa (Taylor) Stein, Psora koerberi A.Massal., Toninia confusa (Nyl.) Boistel

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Favero-Longo & al. 2006). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3-4, 3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: in small fissures of hard siliceous rocks in open, but wind-protected situations. Most probably not a Lecidea s.str.


+Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 44, 1803 - Lichen fuscoater L., Sp. Pl.: 1140, 1753.

Syn.: Biatora livescens (Leight.) Walt.Watson, Lecidea algeriensis Zahlbr., Lecidea cechumena Ach., Lecidea contigua v. tectorum A.Massal., Lecidea fumosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea fumosa v. confluens Bagl., Lecidea fumosa v. grisella (Schaer.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea fumosa v. polygonia (Körb.) Hazsl., Lecidea fumosa v. subcontigua Rabenh., Lecidea fuscoatra v. fumosa (Hoffm.) Spreng., Lecidea fuscoatra v. grisella (Flörke ex Schaer.) Nyl., Lecidea grisella Flörke ex Schaer., Lecidea gypsicola Llimona ?, Lecidea livescens Leight., Lecidea maculosa Stizenb. ex Flagey nom. illegit., Lecidea prostratula Stirt., Lecidea psoroides Bagl. & Carestia, Lecidea sardoa Bagl. in Arnold, Lecidea trabicola Erichsen, Psora fumosa (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Psora fumosa v. turgida Anzi, Psora prostratula (Stirt.) Walt.Watson


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