+Absconditella annexa



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N - TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem. C - Sar. S - Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1996, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine lichen found amongst bryophytes on rocks or on soil in open shrublands and grasslands on basic siliceous substrata.


+Leptogium biatorinum (Nyl.) Leight.

Lich. Fl. Gr. Brit., 3rd ed.: 25, 1879 - Collema biatorinum Nyl., Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 268, 1856.

Syn.: Leptogium pusillum Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Marc.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a temperate ephemeral lichen of disturbed habitats, most frequent on concrete walls, but also found on calciferous soil, certainly more widespread, esp. in disturbed areas, but overlooked, or confused with other species


+Leptogium brebissonii Mont.

[in Webb & Berthel.] Hist. Nat. Iles Canar., 3, 2: 130, 1840.

Syn.: Leptogium chloromelum auct. ital. p.p., Leptogium ruginosum (Dufour) Nyl., Synechoblastus ruginosus (Dufour) Hepp

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen, a typically western-Tyrrhenian species in Italy, most frequent in open, humid woodlands, esp. in old, coastal plantations of Olea.


+Leptogium burnetiae C.W.Dodge

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 12: 120, 1964.

Syn.: Leptogium menziesii f. fuliginosum Müll.Arg., Leptogium menziesii v. coralloideum Jatta

N - Lomb, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on the often mossy bark of isolated trees, esp. Fraxinus. Several Italian records of L. saturninum could refer to this species, a revision of herbarium material is badly needed.


+Leptogium byssinum (Hoffm.) Nyl.

[Zwackh ex] Nyl., Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 270, 1857 - Collema byssinum Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 105, 1796, non Lichen byssinum Hoffm. 1874, nec Scop. 1772.

Syn.: Collema cheileum v. byssinum (Hoffm.) Körb., Leptogium amphineum Ach. ex Nyl., Polychidium byssinum (Hoffm.) Trevis.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 2, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: an inconspicuous, perhaps overlooked, ephemeral lichen of calciferous-clayey soil.


+Leptogium cochleatum (Dicks.) M.Jørg. & P.James

Lichenologist, 15: 113, 1983 - Lichen cochleatus Dicks., Fasc. Crypt. Brit., 1: 13, 1785.

Syn.: Leptogium azureum auct. p.p., Leptogium tremelloides (L. fil.) Gray non auct.

C - Laz. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean species, found on mossy trees and rocks in ancient, humid woodlands of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Leptogium coralloideum (Meyen & Flot.) Vain.

Suom. Tied. Toim., ser. A 6 (7): 110, 1915 - Leptogium diaphanum v. coralloideum Meyen & Flot., Nova Acta Acad. Caesar. Leop. Carol., 19 (suppl.): 226, 1843.

Syn.: Leptogium corrugatomontuosum Couderc

N - Lig (Gyelnik Lichenoth. Parva 25: Jørgensen 1994). C - Tosc (Jørgensen 1994), Abr (Jørgensen 1994). S - Bas (Jørgensen 1994).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: A mediterranean-atlantic species found on bark of broadleaved trees, mostly Tyrrhenian.


+Leptogium corniculatum (Hoffm.) Minks

Flora, 56: 353, 1873 - Collema corniculatum Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 105, 1796.

Syn.: Collema palmatum (Huds.) Ach., Leptogium palmatum (Huds.) Mont., Obryzum corniculatum auct. ital. non Wallr.

N - Ven, TAA, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found amongst terricolous or epilithic mosses in areas with siliceous substrata, sometimes on soil, mainly Tyrrhenian.


+Leptogium corticola (Taylor) Tuck.

[in Lea] Cat. Pl. Cinc.: 47, 1849 - Collema corticola Taylor, London J. Bot., 5: 195, 1847.

Syn.: Leptogium cimiciodorum A.Massal.

N - VG, Ven, Lomb, Piem. C - Tosc, Laz (Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species, found in ancient, humid forests, most of the records are old: presently extinct in large parts of Italy, esp. in the north.


+Leptogium cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 420, 1855 - Collema cyanescens Rabenh., Deutsch. Krypt.-Fl.: 50, 1845.

Syn.: Leptogium caesium (Ach.) Vain., Leptogium tremelloides auct.

N - VG (TSB), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Marc, Abr (Ravera 2002b), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & al. 2005).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen, found in humid, old, open forests, occasionally on rocks and epilithic mosses, most of the records are old. A recent record from Val d'Aosta, a "continental" region, by Piervittori & Isocrono (1999) being dubious, is not accepted here.


+Leptogium diffractum Körb.

[Kremp. ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 424, 1865.

Syn.: Leptogium placodiellum Nyl., Pseudoleptogium diffractum (Körb.) Müll.Arg.

N - VG, Frl, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998).

Cr.pl/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: rr, H: r/ w/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate to mediterranean species, found on steeply inclined seepage tracks of hard calcareous rocks.


+Leptogium furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk

The Bryologist, 67: 266, 1964 - Leptogium hildenbrandii f. furfuraceum Harm., Lich. Fr., 1: 118, 1905.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species of open woodlands in warm-humid areas, probably more widespread in, and restricted to, Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Leptogium gelatinosum (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 219, 1984 - Lichen gelatinosus With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: 710, 1776.

Syn.: Collema scotinum (Ach.) Ach., Leptogium scotinum (Ach.) Fr., Leptogium scotinum v. sinuatum (Huds.) Torss., Leptogium sinuatum (Huds.) A.Massal.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: r, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, most common on base-rich siliceous substrata, esp. in open grasslands, and apparently well distinguished from the more calcicolous L. lichenoides. In my opinion, however, this could be a good training ground for DNA people: the distinction between the two "species" is not always easy.


+Leptogium hildenbrandii (Garov.) Nyl.

Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 272, 1856 - Collema hildenbrandii Garov., Lich. Prov. Comen., 1: 3, 1837.

Syn.: Leptogium saturninum v. complicatum Anzi

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Tretiach 1996, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Marc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999). S - Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: on isolated tress with base-rich bark, esp. Juglans and Populus, in humid valleys.


+Leptogium imbricatum M.Jørg.

Lichenologist, 26, 1: 7, 1994.



N - Piem (TSB).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H:a/ PF: 1/ Note: on more or less calciferous ground in alpine grasslands. In my opinion, the intricated distinction among the several "pulvinate" Leptogium "species" can be only solved by DNA analyses. This species, segregated by Jørgensen (1994) is probably a good one, it is likely to occur throughout the Italian Alps, and it was formerly filed under pulvinate forms of L. gelatinosum and L. lichenoides.


+Leptogium intermedium (Arnold) Arnold

Flora, 68: 212, 1885 - Leptogium minutissimum v. intermedium Arnold, Flora, 50: 122, 1867.



Syn.: Leptogium minutissimum auct. non (Flörke) Fr.

N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb (Jørgensen 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Sar. S - Camp, Si.

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr-Epiph/ 3-4, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate spèecies, found on soil, occasionally on the bases of ancient trunks, more more rarely on calcareous rocks.


+Leptogium lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 3: 136, 1924 - Tremella lichenoides L., Sp. Pl.: 1157, 1753.

Syn.: Collema atrocaeruleum (Schaer.) Rabenh., Collema lacerum (Retz.) DC., Leptogium atrocaeruleum (Schaer.) A.Massal., Leptogium atrocaeruleum v. pulvinatum (Hoffm.) Beltr., Leptogium lacerum (Retz.) Gray, Leptogium lacerum v. majus Körb., Leptogium lacerum v. sendtneri Müll.Arg., Leptogium lichenoides v. pulvinatum (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Leptogium lophaeum (Ach.) Cromb., Leptogium pellucidum (Dill.) M.Choisy, Leptogium pulvinatum (Hoffm.) Cromb., Lichen tremelloides Weiss

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Philippi 1983), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Otálora & al. 2004). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Otálora & al. 2004, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr-Epiph/ 3-5, 3-5, 2-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: c, A1: ec, B: c, C: ec, D: vc, E: er, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, the most common species of Leptogium in Italy, mostly found on soil and amongst mosses in dry grasslands, more rarely on basal parts of trunks. The more photophytic v. pulvinatum, in my opinion, does not deserve any taxonomical recognition (but see notes on L. imbricatum and L. gelatinosum).


+Leptogium magnussonii Degel. & M.Jørg.

[in Jørgensen] Lichenologist, 26, 1: 14, 1994.



N - Lomb (Jørgensen in litt.).

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: in seepages of granitic rocks or gneiss. The only Italian specimen was collected by U. Gröner (Cannero Municipality, Valle Piancassone, on the road to Travego). Described from Scandinavia, and also known from W Europe and Austria.


+Leptogium massiliense Nyl.

Flora, 62: 354, 1879.



N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995), Lig (Jørgensen 1994). C - Tosc (Jørgensen 1994, Benesperi 2007, 2007b), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Jørgensen 1994), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Jørgensen 1994, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 2006b).

Frut.f/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: rc, E: a, F: rc, G: rc, H: r/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean species, found on steeply inclined calcareous rocks with periodical seepage of water, certainly more widespread in the north.


+Leptogium plicatile (Ach.) Leight.

Lich. Fl. Gr. Brit., 3rd ed.: 30, 1879 - Lichen plicatilis Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 11, 1795.

Syn.: Collema hydrocharum (Ach.) Ach., Collema plicatile (Ach.) Nyl., Collema subplicatile Nyl. ?, Collemodium plicatile (Ach.) Nyl., Leptogium cataclystum (Körb.) Harm., Leptogium cataclystum v. fluctuans (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Leptogium hydrocarum (Ach.) Zahlbr.

N - VG, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate to mediterranean lichen, found on steeply inclined, but not fully sun-exposed seepage tracks of calcareous rocks.


+Leptogium saturninum (Dicks.) Nyl.

Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 272, 1856 - Lichen saturninus Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit., 2: 21, 1790.

Syn.: Collema myochroum (Bernh.) Rabenh., Collema saturninum (Dicks.) DC., Leptogium myochroum (Bernh.) Nyl., Mallotium saturninum (Dicks.) A.Massal., Mallotium tomentosum (Hoffm.) Körb.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2001), Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on bark, rarely on mossy rocks, only locally common, esp. in upland areas. See note on L. burnetiae.


+Leptogium schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl.

Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 272, 1856 - Lichen schraderi Bernh., J. Bot., 1: 22, 1799.

Syn.: Collema turgidum Ach. ?, Collema bacillare (Wallr.) Schaer., Leptogium turgidum (Ach.) Cromb. ?

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2002), TAA, Piem (TSB), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Frut/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on calciferous rocks, soil, often on other lichens (e.g. Mycobilimbia lurida), sometimes on terricolous mosses.


+Leptogium subaridum M. Jørg. & Gowards

Acta Bot. Fennica 150: 76, 1994.



C - Sar (Aragón & al. 2004).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen also known from N America, found on the base of old trees, perhaps more frequent in the south, but possibly confused with L. lichenoides.


+Leptogium subtile (Schrad.) Torss.

Enum. Lich. et Byssac. Scand.: 54, 1853 - Lichen subtilis Schrad., Spicil. Fl. Germ., 1: 95, 1794.

Syn.: Collema minutissimum Flörke non auct., Collema subtile (Schrad.) Hoffm., Leptogium minutissimum (Flörke) Fr. non auct.

N - Ven (Anzi Lich. Lang. 539: Jørgensen 1994), TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Ravera 2001), Sar (Zedda 2002).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: a, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on the base of old trees with a base-rich bark, esp. Juglans, sometimes on wood, and even more rarely on soil.


+Leptogium tenuissimum (Dicks.) Körb.

Corp. Fl. Prov. Suec., 1: 293, 1855 - Lichen tenuissimus Dicks., Pl. Crypt. Brit., 1: 12, 1785.

Syn.: Collema atrocaeruleum v. tenuissimum (Dicks.) Schaer., Collema tenuissimum (Dicks.) Hoffm., Leptogium humosum Nyl., Leptogium spongiosum (Sm.) Nyl., Polychidium tenuissimum (Dicks.) Trevis.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Emil, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr-Epiph/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich soil, but also on bark, in the basal parts of old trunks, rarely on base-rich rocks.


+Leptogium teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold

Ber. bayer. bot. Ges., 2: 26, 1892 - Parmelia teretiuscula Wallr., Fl. Crypt. Germ., 3: 551, 1831.

Syn.: Garovaglina microscopica (Nyl.) Trevis., Leptogium microscopicum Nyl.

N - Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & al. 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph-Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen, found on basal parts of old trees, certainly present in the Alps, and to be looked for there.


+Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue

Nouv. Arch. Mus., sér. 4, 1: 57, 1899 - Lichen vulpinus L., Sp. Pl.: 1155, 1753.

Syn.: Chlorea vulpina (L.) Nyl., Evernia vulpina (L.) Ach., Parmelia vulpina (L.) Ach.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, De Marco & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Nascimbene 2006b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Serio & al. 2001, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Triebel 1997, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane lichen, common only in parts of the Alps with a continental climate, mostly on Larix and Pinus cembra.


+Lethariella intricata (Moris) Krog

Norw. J. Bot., 23: 94, 1976 - Stereocaulon intricatum Moris, El. Stir. Sard., 3: 22, 1827.

Syn.: Chlorea arboricola Jatta, Chlorea soleirolii v. arborea Jatta, Letharia soleirolii (Schaer.) Hue, Neuropogon arboricola (Jatta) Jatta, Neuropogon soleirolii (Schaer.) Jatta, Usnea arboricola (Jatta) Jatta, Usnea intricata (Moris) Du Rietz, Usnea soleirolii (Schaer.) Jatta

C - Tosc (Obermayer 1997) , Laz (Ravera 2006), Sar (Obermayer 1997, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Bas (Obermayer 1997, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Obermayer 1997), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: this is probably an old, relict mediterranean species, found on siliceous rocks and acid bark (e.g. of old Pinus leucodermis near treeline in the S Apennines).


+Leucocarpia biatorella (Arnold) Vězda

Herzogia, 1: 192, 1969 - Microglaena biatorella Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 23: 501, 1873.



N - Frl.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 4-5, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an inconspicuous lichen found on thin layers of calciferous, humus-rich ground, or over epilithic mosses, probably overlooked and more widespread, but never common, in the Alps.


+ Lichenomphalia alpina (Britzelm.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

Mycotaxon, 83: 36, 2002 - Agaricus alpinus Britzelm., Ber. naturhist. Ver. Augsburg 30: 13, 1890.

Syn.: Botrydina vulgaris Bréb. p.p., Gerronema alpinum (Britzelm.) Bresinsky & Stangl,. Omphalia flava (Sommerf.) Möller, Omphalia alpina (Britzelm.) Sacc., Omphalia luteovitellina Pilat & Nannf., Omphalina alpina (Britzelm.) Bresinsky & Stangl, Omphalina flava (Sommerf.) M.Lange, Omphalina luteovitellina (Pilat & Nannf.) M.Lange

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a basidiolichen of acid organic soil, most common around treeline.

+Lichenomphalia hudsoniana (H.S.Jenn.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

Mycotaxon, 83: 38, 2002 - Hygrophorus hudsonianus H. S. Jenn., Mem. Carnegie Mus. 3, 12: 2, 1936.

Syn.: Botrydina viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper, Cladonia digitata v. endocarpea Fr., Coriscium viride (Ach.) Vain., Clitocybe hudsoniana (H.S.Jenn.) H.E.Bigelow, Dermatocarpon viride (Ach.) W.Mann, Endocarpon laetevirens (Borrer) Taylor, Endocarpon viride Ach., Gerronema hudsonianum (H.S. Jenn.) Singer, Lenormandia laetevirens (Borrer) Nyl., Lenormandia viridis (Ach.) Arnold, Normandina laetevirens (Borrer) Nyl., Normandina viridis (Ach.) Nyl., Omphalia luteolilacina J.Favre, Omphalina coriscium Gams, Omphalina hudsoniana (H.S.Jenn.) H.E.Bigelow, Omphalina luteolilacina (J.Favre) D.M.Hend., Phytoconis hudsoniana (H.S. Jenn.) Redhead & Kuyper, Phytoconis viridis (Ach.) Redhead & Kuyper, Verrucaria laetevirens Borrer

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Roux & Triebel 1994, Caniglia & al. 2002, De Marco & al. 2003), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane basidiolichen of wet mosses and peaty soil, found more rarely on rotting wood in siliceous areas, probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Lichenomphalia meridionalis (Contu & La Rocca) §

- Omphalina meridionalis Contu & La Rocca, Fungi non Delineati, 9: 32-33, 1999.

Syn.: Omphalina hiemalis Barrasa & Esteve-Rav.

C - Sar (Contu & La Rocca 1999, Barrasa & Esteve Raventós 2000, Barrasa & Rico 2001).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ A mediterranean to mediterranean-montane basidiolichen of acid soils, road sides and opening of evergreen oak woodlands, often associated with Cistus-stands, to be looked for in other parts of Mediterranean Italy.


+Lichenomphalia umbellifera (L.:Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

Mycotaxon, 83: 38, 2002 - Agaricus umbelliferus L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1175, 1753.

Syn.: Agaricus chrysoleucus Pers., Agaricus pseudoandrosaceus Bull., Agaricus umbelliferus L.:Fr., Agaricus umbelliferus v. myochrous Fr., Botrydina vulgaris Bréb. p.p., Omphalia umbellifera (L.:Fr.) P.Kumm., Omphalia umbellifera f. albida J.E.Lange, Omphalia umbellifera v. chrysoleuca (Pers.) Singer, Omphalia umbellifera v. myochroa (Fr.) Massee, Omphalina ericetorum (Fr.) H.E.Bigelow, Omphalina fulvopallens P.D.Orton, Omphalina pseudandrosacea (Bull.) M.M.Moser non auct., Omphalina umbellifera (L.) Quél.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a basidiolichen of acid organic soil and rotting wood, ecologically similar to O. hudsoniana, but rarer above treeline.


+Lichenomphalia velutina (Quélet) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

Mycotaxon, 83: 43, 2002 - Omphalia velutina Quél. Comptes rendu Assoc. Franc. Avanc. Sci.: tab. 12, 1885.

Syn.: Botrydina velutina (Quél.) Redhead & Kuyper, Botrydina vulgaris Bréb. p.p., Lichenomphalia grisella (P.Karst.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys, Omphalia grisella P.Karst., Omphalina grisella (P.Karst.) M.M.Moser, Omphalina pseudandrosacea auct. non (Bull.) M.M.Moser, Omphalina rustica auct., Omphalina velutina (Quél.) Quél., Phytoconis pararustica (Clémençon) P.Roux & P.-A.Moreau, Phytoconis velutina (Quél.) Redhead & Kuyper

N - TAA.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on acid soil, often in clearings of Pinus-stands, known only from Europe and N America.


+Lichina confinis (O.F. Müll.) C. Agardh

Spec. Algar., 1: 105, 1821 - Lichen confinis O.F. Müll., Icon. Plant. Daniae, 5: 5, 1782.

Syn.: Lichina confinis v. elisabethae (A.Massal.) Jatta, Lichina elisabethae A.Massal.

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Laz. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 329), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Frut/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2-5, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: at the interface between the littoral and the mesic supralittoral belts, overlooked and perhaps more widespread, esp. in the south.


+Lichinella cribellifera (Nyl.) P.Moreno & Egea

Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 13, 3: 243, 1992 - Omphalaria cribellifera Nyl., Flora, 67: 387, 1884.

Syn.: Gonohymenia cribellifera (Nyl.) Henssen, Omphalaria granitica Samp., Reichingeria cribellifera (Nyl.) Servít, Thyrea granitica (Samp.) Zahlbr., Thyrea cribellifera (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

C - Tosc (Pišút 1997), Sar.

Fol.u/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined faces, esp. in seepage tracks, probably more widespread in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Lichinella heppii (Müll.Arg.) P.Clerc & Cl.Roux

[in Clerc] 2004§ - Omphalaria heppii Müll.Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16: 422, 1862.

Syn.: Gonohymenia heppii (Müll.Arg.) Henssen, Thyrea heppii (Müll.Arg.) Lettau

N - Emil.

Fol.u/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a critical taxon, purported to be most frequent in humid stands by rivers. The type is from France: "sandstone boulders along the Arve near Mornex". The Italian record (Nimis 1993: 422) needs confirmation.


+Lichinella jodopulchra (Croz.) P.Moreno & Egea

Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 13, 3: 245, 1992 - Omphalaria jodopulchra [Couderc ex] Croz., Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot., 19: 240, 1910.

Syn.: Gonohymenia jodopulchra (Croz.) Henssen

C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Frut/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: rc/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on vertical to steeply inclined seepage tracks of calcareous or basic siliceous rocks, most common in the Mediterranean belt. Most of the south Italian records of L. nigritella reported by Nimis (1993: 422) belong here.


+Lichinella nigritella (Lettau) P.Moreno & Egea

Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 13, 3: 246, 1992 - Thyrea nigritella Lettau, Beih. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg., 119, 5: 276, 1942.

Syn.: Gonohymenia nigritella (Lettau) Henssen

N - VG, TAA, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal.

Frut/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: rr, E: er, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: certainly more widespread in the Alps and in the Apennines. See note to L. jodopulchra.


+Lichinella robusta Henssen

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 18: 73, 1963.



C - Sar.

Frut.f/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: sometimes confused with L. stipatula, but certainly very rare in Italy.


+Lichinella stipatula Nyl.

Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 6: 301, 1872.

Syn.: Psorotichia isidiosa Werner ?

N - TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (TSB), Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Frut/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: er, F: rc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ w/ Note: a holarctic lichen, found on steeply inclined, sun-exposed seepage tracks of slightly calciferous or basic siliceous rocks, often overgrowing other lichens, certainly more widespread in the Alps, esp. in dry-warm areas.


+Lithographa tesserata (DC.) Nyl.

Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 441, 1857 - Opegrapha tesserata DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 313, 1805.

Syn.: Haplographa tumida Anzi, Lithographa petraea (Ach.) Nyl., Lithographa tesserata v. petraea (Ach.) Redinger, Lithographa tumida (Anzi) Ozenda & Clauzade, Opegrapha petraea Ach., Placographa nivalis Th.Fr., Placographa tesserata (DC.) Th.Fr.

N - TAA, Lomb, Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on sheltered base-rich siliceous rocks in humid areas, probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Lithothelium triseptatum (Nyl.) Aptroot

Bibl. Lichenol., 44: 70, 1991 - Verrucaria conoidea v. triseptata Nyl., Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 435, 1856.

Syn.: Acrocordia triseptata (Nyl.) Vězda, Porina acrocordioides (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr., Porina lilacina Zschacke, Spermatodium triseptatum (Nyl.) Trevis.

C - Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998).

Cr.end/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1/ coast/ u/ Note: a subtropical coastal species of sheltered, warm-humid, shaded calcareous rocks near the sea, to be looked for further in S Italy.


+Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forssell var. amplissima

Bih. K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 8, 3: 111, 1883 - Lichen amplissimus Scop., Fl. Carniol., 2 ed.: 386, 1772.

Syn.: Lobaria laciniata (Huds.) Vain., Parmelia amplissima (Scop.) Schaer., Parmelia glomulifera (Ach.) Wallr., Ricasolia amplissima (Scop.) De Not., Ricasolia glomulifera (Ach.) De Not., Sticta amplissima (Scop.) Rabenh., Sticta glomulifera (Ach.) Delise

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven, TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Fascetti & al. 2005, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si.

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on old, isolated deciduous trees in humid areas with high rainfall, formerly more widespread in the north, presently extinct in Venezia Giulia and in the Po-Plain. See note on v. umhausensis.


+Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forssell var. umhausensis (Auersw.) Nimis, comb. nov. Bas.: Cornicularia umhausense Auersw., Hedwigia, 8: 13, 1869.

Syn.: Dendriscocaulon bolacinum (Ach.) Nyl., Dendriscocaulon dendroides auct. eur., Leptogium bolacinum (Ach.) Nyl., Dendriscocaulon umhausense (Auersw.) Degel., Polychidium umhausense (Auersw.) Henssen



N - Ven (Nascimbene 2003b), TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Frut/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on bark of broad-leaved trees and on epiphytic mosses in warm-humid areas. This is the cyanobacterial morph of Lobaria amplissima. Besides the obvious differences in morphology, it has a rather different ecology and distribution, and well deserves a separate name. Mainly Tyrrhenian.


+Lobaria linita (Ach.) Rabenh.

Deutschl. Krypt.-Fl., 2: 65, 1845 - Sticta linita Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 234, 1814.

Syn.: Sticta linita v. garovaglii (Schaer.) A.Massal.

N - Frl (Nascimbene & al. 1998, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Nascimbene 2002), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2, 4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine species found on bryophytes and soil rich in humus over siliceous substrata, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 146, 1796 - Lichen pulmonarius L., Sp. Pl.: 1145, 1753.

Syn.: Lobaria pulmonacea f. sorediata Harm., Lobaria pulmonaria v. meridionalis auct. eur. non (Vain.) Zahlbr., Sticta pulmonacea Ach., Sticta pulmonaria (L.) Biroli

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996, Nascimbene & al. 1998, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003, 2003b, Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2001, 2003b, Caniglia & al. 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003, Serafini & al. 2003), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006b), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2002, Giordani & al. 2003b, Viglione & al. 2005). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997b, Benesperi & Sàmari Fappiano 2006, Sàmari Fappiano 2006, Nascimbene & al. 2006b, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Fascetti & al. 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006b, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo 1996, Nascimbene & al. 2006b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate, holarctic species, found on bark, epiphytic and epilithic mosses, in humid forests, extinct in the plains of the north, still abundant in montane woods of C and S Italy, reaching the coast in moist areas of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Lobaria virens (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 227, 1984 - Lichen virens With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: 710, 1776.

Syn.: Lobaria herbacea (Huds.) DC., Lobaria laetevirens (Lightf.) Zahlbr., Ricasolia herbacea (Huds.) De Not., Ricasolia laetevirens (Lightf.) Leight., Sticta herbacea (Huds.) Delise

N - Ven, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006) Laz, Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, Schumm 2003), Si.

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species, found on old deciduous trees, more rarely on mossy rocks in old, natural, warm-humid forests, probably exctinct in the north and along the E side of the Peninsula, except in the Gargano peninsula, and very much declining, locally abundant only in few humid forests of the south.


+Lobarina scrobiculata (Scop.) Nyl.

Flora, 60: 233, 1877 - Lichen scrobiculatus Scop., Fl. Carn., ed. 2, 2: 384, 1772.

Syn.: Lobaria scrobiculata (Scop.) DC., Lobaria verrucosa (Huds.) Hoffm., Lobaria verrucosa f. esorediosa Gyeln., Parmelia scrobiculata (Scop.) Ach., Sticta scrobiculata (Scop.) Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Nascimbene 2003b, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2002b), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Fascetti & al. 2005, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on old deciduous trees and on mossy rocks in humid open forests, formerly more frequent, presently extinct in several parts of the country (e.g. the whole Po-plain), and declining elsewhere, optimum in old Castanea-stands


+Lobothallia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner

Acta Bot. Malacitana, 16, 1: 138, 1991 - Parmelia alphoplaca Wahlenb. [in Ach.] Meth. Lich.: 428, 1803.

Syn.: Acarospora polycarpa Th.Fr., Aspicilia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Leuckert & Poelt, Lecanora alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Ach., Lecanora alphoplaca v. inflata Ach., Lecanora inflata (Ach.) Jatta, Lecanora melanaspis v. alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Th.Fr., Lobothallia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner, Placodium alphoplacum (Wahlenb.) Link, Placodium alphoplacum v. inflatum (Ach.) Arnold, Placodium inflatum (Ach.) A.Massal., Squamaria alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Duby, Squamaria alphoplaca v. olivacea Anzi

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: vr, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread species with an apparently disjunct distribution in mountain areas of the Northern Hemisphere, found on basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain, locally abundant only in the Alps, wherever appropriate substrata are available.


+Lobothallia melanaspis (Ach.) Hafellner

Acta Bot. Malacitana, 16, 1: 138, 1991 - Parmelia melanaspis Ach., Meth. Lich.: 196, 1803.

Syn.: Aspicilia melanaspis (Ach.) Poelt & Leuckert, Lecanora melanaspis (Ach.) Ach.

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005), Lomb, Piem (TSB).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane species, found on acidic or slightly calciferous rocks in the inundation zone on shores of lakes, brooks, streams, to be looked for throughout the Alps.


+Lobothallia parasitica (de Lesd.)

§ - Aspicilia parasitica de Lesd., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 78: 728, 1932.

Syn.: Lecanora parasitica (de Lesd.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl, Lig (Loppi & Mariotti 1995). C - Tosc (Loppi & Mariotti 1995), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (TSB), Sar (Loppi & Mariotti 1995). S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ paras crustose lichens/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species, found on steeply inclined, sunny faces of basic siliceous rocks. After having examined several samples, I am convinced that this is a good species, differing from L. radiosa in several morphological, chemical and biological (its parasitic growth) characters.


+Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner

Acta Bot. Malacitana, 16, 1: 138, 1991 - Lecanora praeradiosa Nyl., Flora, 67: 389, 1884.

Syn.: Aspicilia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Poelt & Leuckert

N - TAA (Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 1996), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, esp. calciferous schist, restricted to dry-warm Alpine valleys.


+Lobothallia radiosa (Hoffm.) Hafellner

Acta Bot. Malacitana, 16: 138, 1991 - Lichen radiosus Hoffm., Enum. Lich. Eur., tab. 4, 1874.

Syn.: Aspicilia radiosa (Hoffm.) Poelt & Leuckert, Aspicilia subcircinata (Nyl.) Coppins, Lecanora circinata (Pers.) Ach., Lecanora radiosa (Hoffm.) Schaer., Lecanora subcandicans Müll.Arg., Lecanora subcircinata Nyl., Lecanora velebitica (Zahlbr.) Kusan, Lobothallia radiosa (Hoffm.) Hafellner, Placodium circinatum (Pers.) Gray, Placodium circinatum v. myrrhinum Körb., Placodium radiosum (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Placodium subcircinatum (Nyl.) Arnold, Psoroma circinatum Pers., Squamaria circinata (Pers.) Anzi, Squamaria subcircinata (Nyl.) H.Olivier

N - VG (Tretiach & Pecchiari 1995, Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 1996, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 1996, Nascimbene 2003), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004), Emil (Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 1996, Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 1996, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Adamo & al. 1993, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Navarro-Rosinés & Hafellner 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 3-4, 3-5/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: c, C: vc, D: ec, E: rr, F: ec, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen with a very wide altitudinal and latitudinal range, and with correspondingly broad ecological requirements, found on a wide variety of substrata, including basic siliceous rocks, limestone, dolomite, more rarely brick, roofing tiles and mortar. See also note on L. parasitica.


+Lopadium disciforme (Flot.) Kullh.

Not. Sällsk. F. Fl. Fenn., 11: 275, 1870 - Heterothecium pezizoideum v. disciforme Flot., Bot. Zeit., 8: 553, 1850.

Syn.: Lopadium pezizoideum v. disciforme (Flot.) Körb., Sporopodium pezizoideum v. disciforme (Flot.) Vain.

N - Frl (Tretiach 2004),TAA, Ven (Nascimbene 2003b). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on bark and epiphytic bryophytes on trunks of old Picea and other conifers, rarely of deciduous trees, esp. Quercus, in cold-humid forests, perhaps overlooked in the Alps, but certainly not common.


+Lopadium pezizoideum (Ach.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 210, 1855 - Lecidea pezizoidea Ach., Lich. Univ.: 182, 1810.

Syn.: Lopadium muscicolum (Sommerf.) Körb., Lopadium pezizoideum v. muscicolum (Sommerf.) Th.Fr. p.p., Sporopodium pezizoideum v. muscicolum (Sommerf.) Vain.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane lichen found on bryophytes and plant debris over siliceous rocks, probably restricted to the Alps.


+Loxospora cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner

[in V.Wirth] Flechten Baden-Württembergs: 511, 1987 - Haematomma cismonicum Beltr., Lich. Bassan.: 127, 1858.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995), Ven.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a cool-temperate suboceanic lichen, found on mature trees (mostly Abies) in humid, old forests.


+Loxospora elatina (Ach.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 138, 1852 - Lecanora elatina Ach., Lich. Univ.: 387, 1810.

Syn.: Haematomma elatinum (Ach.) A.Massal., Lecanora chloropolia (Erichsen) Almb. ?, Lecanora lutescens Ach., Pertusaria chloropolia Erichsen ?

N - Frl, Ven, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: on Abies and Picea, more rarely on deciduous trees (e.g. Betula), certainly overlooked in the Alps, being most often sterile, but never common.


+Maronea constans (Nyl.) Hepp

Flecht. Eur.: n. 771, 1860 - Lecanora constans Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 3: 199, 1855.

Syn.: Maronea berica A.Massal.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Ven, Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on smooth bark, esp. on twigs of deciduous and, more rarely, coniferous trees, probably more frequent in the past.


+Massalongia carnosa (Dicks.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 109, 1855 - Lichen carnosus Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit., 2: 21, 1790.

Syn.: Biatora carnosa (Dicks.) Rabenh., Lecanora muscorum Ach.

N - Frl, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (TSB), Lig. C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 2, 2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar arctic-alpine to boreal-montane lichen found on bryophytes and soil rich in humus, on steeply inclined or underhanging faces near the ground level.


+Megalaria grossa (Nyl.) Hafellner

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 302, 1984 - Lecidea grossa [Pers. ex] Nyl., Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 385, 1856.

Syn.: Biatorina premnea (Fr.) A.L.Sm., Buellia premnea (Fr.) Kickx, Catillaria grossa (Nyl.) Körb., Catillaria leucoplaca auct., Catillaria premnea (Fr.) Körb., Catinaria grossa (Nyl.) Vain., Catinaria leucoplaca auct., Lecidea premnea Fr.

N - Ven, Lomb, Emil. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz, Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen, found on base-rich bark, esp. of Acer and Fraxinus, locally still abundant in very humid forests of the south, probably extinct in the north.


+Megalaria laureri (Th.Fr.) Hafellner

[in Nimis] The Lichens of Italy: 429, 1993 - Catillaria laureri [Hepp ex] Th.Fr., Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 582, 1874.

Syn.: Biatorina intermixta auct., Catillaria intermixta auct. non (Nyl.) Arnold, Catinaria intermixta auct., Catinaria laureri (Th.Fr.) Degel., Gyalecta livida (Mudd) Zahlbr., Phialopsis livida Mudd

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b), Piem. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on bark of Quercus and Fagus, more rarely of Abies in humid forests, certainly declining.


+Megalaria pulverea (Borrer) Hafellner & E. Schreiner

[in Schreiner & Hafellner] Bibl. Lichenol., 45: 146, 1992 - Lecidea pulverea Borrer [in Hook. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot. Suppl. 2: tab. 2726, 1834.

Syn.: Biatora commutata (Ach.) Lettau, Biatorina commutata (Ach.) A.Massal., Biatorina pulverea (Borrer) Mudd, Catillaria pulverea (Borrer) Lettau, Catinaria pulverea (Borrer) Vězda & Poelt, Pertusaria miniescens Erichsen

N - TAA.

Cr/ Tr/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate lichen found on bark and mossy trunks of deciduous trees and Abies in old humid montane woodlands. According to Printzen (1995) the ascus of Biatora-type and other anatomical characters do not support the inclusion of this species into Megalaria.


+Megalospora tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman

Bibl. Lichenol. 156, 1983 - Lecidea tuberculosa Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. Offic.: 107, 1824.

Syn.: Bacidia tuberculosa (Fée) Trevis., Bombyliospora incana A.L.Sm., Bombyliospora pachycarpa auct. non (Delise ex Duby) A.Massal., Bombyliospora tuberculosa (Fée) A.Massal.

N - Frl. C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ oc/ Note: a mainly pantropical species, found on old deciduous (mainly Fagus) and coniferous (mainly Abies) trees in humid forests, sometimes overgrowing epiphytic bryophytes. Megalospora pachycarpa (Duby) H.Olivier was reported from the Alps of France, Austria and Slovenia.


+Megaspora verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V.Wirth v. verrucosa

[in V.Wirth] Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs: 511, 1987 - Lecanora verrucosa Ach., Lich. Univ.: 354, 1810.

Syn.: Amygdalaria verrucosa (Ach.) Norman, Aspicilia verrucosa (Ach.) Körb., Lecanora urceolaria (Fr.) Wetmore, Lecanora verrucosa (Ach.) Laurer, Pachyospora verrucosa (Ach.) A.Massal., Pertusaria freyi Erichsen, Urceolaria scruposa v. verrucosa (Ach.) Schaer.

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: ec, B: rr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen found on mosses and plant debris over calciferous ground in open situations, it descends to lower altitudes in dry-continental areas, common also in the Apennines.


+Megaspora verrucosa v. mutabilis (Ach.) Nimis & Cl.Roux

[in Nimis] The Lichens of Italy: 430, 1993 - Urceolaria mutabilis Ach., Lich. Univ.: 335, 1810.

Syn.: Aspicilia mutabilis (Ach.) Körb., Lecanora mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl., Pachyospora mutabilis (Ach.) A.Massal., Patellaria mutabilis (Ach.) Trevis., Pertusaria lapieana de Lesd.

N - VG, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Fornasier & al. 2005), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on basal parts of old decidous trees, doubtfully distinct from the typical variety.


+Melanelia commixta (Nyl.) Thell

Nova Hedwigia, 60, 3-4: 417, 1995 - Platysma commixtum Nyl., Syn. Lich., 1, 2: 310, 1860.

Syn.: Cetraria commixta (Nyl.) Th.Fr., Cetraria fahlunensis auct. p.p., Imbricaria fahlunensis (L.) DC. et auct. p.p., Parmelia fahlunensis (L.) Ach. et auct. p.p., Platysma fahlunense (L.) Nyl. et auct. p.p.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol. b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, found on hard siliceous rocks wettted by rain, somehow more bound to cold-humid sites than the closely related M. hepatizon. The var. sorediella (Lettau) Hafellner & Türk is known from the Alps of Austria.


+Melanelia disjuncta (Erichsen) Essl.

Mycotaxon, 7: 46, 1978 - Parmelia disjuncta Erichsen, Ann. Mycol., 37: 78, 1939.

Syn.: Melanelia granulosa (Lynge) Essl., Parmelia granulosa Lynge nom. illegit., Parmelia granulosula Oksner, Parmelia sorediata v. coralloidea Lynge

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Nascimbene 2006). C - Sar.

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread lichen of dry-cool areas, found on steeply inclined siliceous rocks.


+Melanelia hepatizon (Ach.) Thell

Nova Hedwigia, 60, 3-4: 419, 1995 - Lichen hepatizon Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 110, 1799.

Syn.: Cetraria fahlunensis auct. p.p., Cetraria hepatizon (Ach.) Vain., Cetraria polyschiza (Nyl.) Jatta, Imbricaria fahlunensis auct. p.p., Parmelia fahlunensis auct. p.p., Parmelia fahlunensis (L.) Ach. var. hepatizon (Ach.) Ach., Platysma hepatizon (Ach.) Vain., Platysma polyschizum Nyl., Tuckermannopsis hepatizon (Ach.) Kurok.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Thell & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Sar. S - Si.

Fol. b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: r, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, found on hard siliceous rocks wetted by rain, somehow less bound to cold-humid sites than the closely related M. commixta.


+Melanelia panniformis (Nyl.) Essl.

Mycotaxon, 7: 46, 1978 - Parmelia prolixa f. panniformis Nyl., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 397, 1860.

Syn.: Parmelia crustificans Hilitzer, Parmelia panniformis (Nyl.) Vain., Parmelia pannariiformis (Lamy) Vain., Parmelia panniformis v. pulvinata (Laurer) Hillmann

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.f/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly northern species in Europe, found on steeply inclined siliceous rocks in upland areas, almost certainly restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Melanelia sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti

[in Ahti & al.] Mycotaxon, 28: 94, 1987 - Parmelia stygia v. sorediata Ach.

Syn.: Imbricaria sorediata (Ach.) Arnold, Imbricaria sprengelii (Flörke) Körb., Melanelia sorediosa (Almb.) Essl., Parmelia sorediata (Ach.) Th.Fr., Parmelia sorediosa Almb., Parmelia sorediifera R.Sant., Parmelia sprengelii Flörke

N - Ven, TAA, Lig. C - Sar (Nöske & al. 2000).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on vertical seepages of siliceous rocks. All records from the Alps (see Nimis 1993: 484) require confirmation.


+Melanelia stygia (L.) Essl.

Mycotaxon, 7: 47, 1978 - Lichen stygius L., Sp. Pl.: 1143, 1753.

Syn.: Imbricaria stygia (L.) DC., Lichen fahlunensis L., Parmelia fahlunensis v. stygia (L.) Schaer., Parmelia reagens (Servít) Gyeln., Parmelia stygia (L.) Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Thell & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: vc, A1: rc, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, found on siliceous rocks in open habitats. Specimens from Calabria and Sardegna (TSB) are worthy of further study.


+Melanelia tominii (Oksner) Essl.

Lichenologist, 24, 1: 17, 1992 - Parmelia tominii Oksner, Zh. Bio-Bot. Tsyklu, Kyev, 7-8: 171, 1933.

Syn.: Melanelia substygia (Räsänen) Essl., Parmelia saximontana R.A.Anderson & W.A.Weber, Parmelia substygia Räsänen

N - Ven, TAA, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen of exposed siliceous rocks. According to some Russian authors (e.g. T. Makryi, pers. comm.), the synonymization of P. tominii and P. substygia by Esslinger (1977) might be incorrect, the correct basyonym for European samples being "substygia", this problem requires further study.


+Melanelixia fuliginosa (Duby) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch

Mycol. Res., 108, 8: 881, 2004 - Parmelia olivacea v. fuliginosa [Fr. ex] Duby, 1830§

Syn.: Imbricaria olivacea v. isidioides auct. ital., Melanelia fuliginosa (Duby) Essl., Melanelia glabratula (Lamy) Essl., Parmelia budae (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Parmelia ferruginascens (Rosend.) Gyeln., Parmelia flotowiana Gyeln., Parmelia fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Nyl. non (Ach.) Schaer., Parmelia fuliginosa v. glabratula Lamy, Parmelia fuliginosa v. laetevirens (Flot.) Nyl., Parmelia glabratula (Lamy) Nyl., Parmelia glabratula ssp. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) J.R.Laundon, Parmelia glabratula v. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Grummann, Parmelia laetevirens (Flot.) F.Rosend., Parmelia olivacea v. pannosa Trevis.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Lazzarin 1997), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Ricchiardone & al. 2002, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2001, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1998, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, 2001, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatellil 2005).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 1-3, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: ec, D: vc, E: r, F: vc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly temperate, ecologically wide-ranging species, occurring both on wayside trees and in open forests (e.g. on Fagus).


+Melanelixia glabra (Schaer.) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch

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