+Absconditella annexa



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N - Ven, Lomb. C - Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b) Cal (Puntillo 1996)

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate, probably holarctic species, found on deciduous trees in open and humid woodlands, e.g. along creeks and rivers on Fraxinus, Populus and Salix, sometimes also on oaks. The genus is poorly known in Italy: A. macrocarpum (Körb.) V.Wirth and A. viridescens (Coppins) R.C.Harris, known from neighbouring countries, should be looked for, especially in the North.


+Anisomeridium polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M.E.Barr

Mem. New York Bot. Gard., 79: 76, 1996 - Apiospora polypori Ellis & Everh., North American Pyrenomycetes: 33, 1892.

Syn: Anisomeridium nyssaegenum (Ellis & Everh.) R.C.Harris, Anisomeridium juistense (Erichsen) R.C.Harris, Anisomeridium willeyanum (R.C.Harris) R.C.Harris, Apiosporella polypori (Ellis & Everh.) Höhnel, Arthopyrenia willeyana R.C.Harris, Didymella polypori (Ellis & Everh.) Ellis & Everh., Ditremis nyssaegena (Ellis & Everh.) R.C.Harris, Melanopsamma corticola Ellis & Everh., Mycosphaerella hepaticarum (Patouillard) Petrak, Sarcinulella banksiae B.Sutton & Alcorn, Stigmatea hepaticarum Patouillard, Thelidium juistense Erichsen, Zygonella nyssaegenum Ellis & Everh.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1993), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Piem (TSB), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Carvalho 1993, Tretiach & Nimis 1994). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 2, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: a, F: rc, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate, perhaps holarctic species, mainly found on Sambucus along rivers and brooks. Overlooked for a long time, and certainly more widespread.


+Anthracocarpon virescens (Zahlbr.) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 40, 1996 - Dermatocarpon virescens Zahlbr., Österr. Bot. Z., 68: 69, 1919.

Syn.: Catapyrenium virescens (Zahlbr.) Breuss

S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranean lichen of dry grasslands on calcareous substrata.


+Anzina carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. v. carneonivea

[in Vězda] Sched. ad Lich. Sel. Exs., 73: 5 (nr. 1815), 1982 - Gyalolechia carneonivea Anzi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 11: 163, 1868.

Syn.: Caloplaca carneonivea (Anzi) Jatta, Diphratora carneonivea (Anzi) Jatta, Gyalecta carneonivea (Anzi) Lettau, Lecidea carneonivea (Anzi) Nyl., Pertusaria carneonivea (Anzi) Vain., Pertusaria infralapponica Vain., Pertusaria tauriscorum Zahlbr., Secoliga carneonivea (Anzi) Arnold, Varicellaria carneonivea (Anzi) Erichsen

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on acidic substrata such as bark - esp. of conifers - wood, plant debris, muribund bryophytes, in upland areas of the Alps. The var. tetraspora Scheid., known from neighbouring countries, should be looked for in the Italian Alps.


+Aphanopsis coenosa (Ach.) Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 248, 1984 - Collema coenosum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 629, 1810.

Syn.: Aphanopsis terrigena (Ach.) P.Syd., Biatora comensis Anzi, Lecidea comensis (Anzi) Jatta, Lecidea humigena Taylor, Lecidea praecox Vězda, Lecidea terrigena Ach.

N - Lomb (Anzi E. C. I. II 1123: Printzen 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on humid, bare, clayey or fine-grained sandy soil on track sides or ditch margins in woodlands. Easy to overlook, but certainly not common in Italy.


+Aplotomma turgida (A.Massal.) A.Massal.

[in Beltramini de’ Casati] Licheni Bassanesi: 181, 18588 - Diplotomma turgidum A.Massal. , Lotos, 6: 76, 1856.

Syn.: Buellia betulina (“Hepp”) Th.Fr., Buellia elenkinii Tomin, Buellia griseovirens (Sm.) Almb , Buellia griseovirens v. superreagens (Servit) Poelt, Buellia turgida (A.Massal.) Lettau, Diplotomma betulinum (“Hepp”) Arnold, Diplotomma turgidum A.Massal., Rhizocarpon betulinum (“Hepp”) Zwackh, Rhizocarpon efflorescens Th.Fr., Variolaria griseovirens Turner & Borrer ex Sm.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (TSB), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Brunialti & al. 2001, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1998, Senese & Critelli 2000, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: rc, E: er, F: c, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a probably holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen found on smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs in rather humid, well-lit situations, rarely on wood. Optimum above the mediterranean belt, but also occurring in heavily disturbed areas (e.g. in the Po-plain).


+Arctoparmelia centrifuga (L.)Hale

Mycotaxon, 25: 252, 1986 - Lichen centrifugus L., Sp. Pl.:1142, 1753.

Syn.: Parmelia centrifuga (L.) Ach.

N - Piem, Ven.

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 4, 1-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine lichen of exposed siliceous rocks, certainly very rare in the Alps (Austria). Italian records need confirmation (see Nimis 1993: 490).

+Arctoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale

Mycotaxon, 25: 252, 1986- Lichen incurvus Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 3: 24, 1794.

Syn.: Imbricaria incurva (Pers.) DC., Parmelia incurva (Pers.) Fr., Parmelia incurva v. laxata Hillmann, Xanthoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale

N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil.

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine to boreal-montane species, found on steeply inclined, hard, acidic siliceous rocks in cold, wind-exposed mountain summits, in dry-continental parts of the Alps also found on wood and roofing tiles. Perhaps more widespread in the Alps, but never common.


+Arthonia albopulverea Nyl.

Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 3, 20: 319, 1853.

Syn.: Arthonia crozalsiana de Lesd., Arthonia variiformis Nyl., Arthothelium adriaticum Zahlbr., Arthothelium burolletii de Lesd., Arthothelium crozalsianum (de Lesd.) de Lesd., Arthothelium xylographoides Müll.Arg.

C - Tosc (Grube & Giralt 1996), Laz (Grube & Giralt 1996), Sar (Grube & Giralt 1996, Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grube & Giralt 1996, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ p/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, also known from W North America, mainly found near the coast, mostly on the smooth bark of Pinus in stands subject to humid maritime winds, but less bound to humid situations than A. beccariana.


+Arthonia anombrophila Coppins & P.James

[in Coppins] Lichenologist, 21, 3: 196, 1989.



C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ u/ PF: 0/ Note: on dry, usually rough bark towards bases of ancient oaks, more rarely on smooth bark, in long-established woodlands and parklands. Mostly Tyrrhenian.


+Arthonia apatetica (A.Massal.) Th.Fr.

Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 94, 1860 - Lecidea synothea v. exilis Flörke, Deutsch. Lich.: 187, 1821.

Syn.: Abrothallus exilis auct. non (Flörke) A.Massal., Allarthonia exilis auct. non (Flörke) Sandst., Arthonia exilis auct., Arthonia rugulosa (Kremp.) Almq., Biatorina exilis auct. non (Flörke) Jatta, Catillaria exilis auct. non (Flörke) A.Massal., Lecania zinaidae Oxner

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (van den Boom & Khodosovtsev 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a temperate species, found on base-rich and soft bark, esp. of Sambucus, in sheltered situations. This taxon is hereogeneous, and Italian material needs revision.


+Arthonia arthonioides (Ach.) A.L.Sm.

Monogr. Brit. Lich., 2: 213, 1911 - Lecidea arthonioides Ach., Lich. Univ.: 178, 1810.

Syn.: Arthonia aspersa Leight., Arthonia lecideoides Th.Fr., Arthonia trachylioides Nyl., Arthonia xylophila V.Wirth & P.James, Trachylia arthonioides (Ach.) Fr.

N - Lomb. S - Camp, Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax-Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ u/ Note: a southern species, known from Europe and N America, found on acidic rocks and exposed roots in dry underhangs, also on dry undersides of trees in sheltered, humid situations, such as in forests.


+Arthonia beccariana (Bagl.) Stizenb.

Ber. Tätigk. St. Gall. naturw. Ges. 1889/1890: 200, 1891 - Arthothelium beccarianum Bagl., N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., 7: 252, t. 9, fig. 14.

Syn.: Arthothelium beccarianum v. leprosum Bagl., Arthothelium beccarianum v. opegraphoides Bagl., Arthonia beccariana f. leprosa (Bagl.) Stizenb., Arthonia sardoa (Bagl.) H.Olivier, Arthothelium sardoum Bagl., Arthothelium pruinascens Zahlbr.

C - Tosc, Laz, Sar (Grube & Giralt 1996). S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Grube & Giralt 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a mild-temperate species also reported from California, found on smooth bark of broad-leaved trees in sites subject to humid maritime winds. Restricted to a few sites in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Arthonia byssacea (Weigel) Almq.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 17, 6: 25, 1880 - Sphaeria byssacea Weigel, Observ. Bot.: 42, 1772.

Syn.: Arthonia biformis (Flörke) Schaer., Arthonia velata (Nyl.) Jatta ("velana", lapsus cal.), Pyrenothea biformis (Flörke) A.Massal., Pyrenothea byssacea (Weigel) A.Massal.

N - Ven, TAA. C - Abr, Tosc. S - Camp.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ u/ PF: 0/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on very old deciduous trees (in Italy oaks) in open woodlands, often near rivers.


+Arthonia caesia (Flot.) Arnold

Flora, 47: 315, 1864 - Coniangium caesium Flot. [in Körb.] Syst. Lich. Germ.: 295, 1855.

Syn.: Allarthonia caesia (Flot.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate species also known from N America, found on the smooth bark of deciduous tres, esp. Carpinus. Often sterile and overlooked, being easily confused with species of Lepraria.


+Arthonia caesiella Nyl.

Bot. Notiser: 161, 1853.

Syn.: Arthonia galactites v. halepensis Bagl., Arthonia galactiformis Flagey, Arthonia aphthosa Flagey, Arthonia aphthoides Flagey nom. superfl.

C - Sar (Sundin 1999).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ p/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species, found on smooth bark of deciduous and coniferous trees. Perhaps more widespread in the humid parts of Mediterranean Italy.


+Arthonia calabrella Puntillo

I Licheni di Calabria: 200, 1996.



C - Laz (Ravera 2001). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, Grube & Giralt 1995).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: er/ suboc/ PF: 0/ Note: only locally abundant in humid riparian forests of C and S Italy, mostly on smooth, base-rich bark of broadleved deciduous trees (e.g. Fraxinus).


+Arthonia calcicola Nyl.

Bot. Notiser, 1853: 162, 1853.

Syn.: Allarthonia calcicola (Nyl.) Redinger

N - TAA. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 4, 2-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: er, F: r, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: an early colonizer on calcareous walls and mortar. Overlooked and probably more common, esp. in the eu-mediterranean belt. It also occurs in warm-dry Alpine valleys.


+Arthonia cinereopruinosa Schaer.

Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 243, 1850.

Syn.: Arthonia lilacina (Ach.) Körb., Arthonia pinicola (Hepp) A.Massal., Pyrenotheca stictica Fr., Trachylia cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) A.Massal.



N - Frl, Ven, Lomb.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on smooth bark of deciduous trees in dense humid forests. The records from Campania and Basilicata cited by Nimis (1993: 74) are dubious.


+Arthonia cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.

Fl. Crypt. Germ., 1: 320, 1831 - Coniocarpon cinnabarinum DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç. 3, 2 éd.: 323, 1805.

Syn.: Arthonia affinis (A.Massal.) Jatta, Arthonia gregaria (Weigel) Körb. non Fée, Arthonia gregaria v. coccinea (A.Massal.) Jatta, Arthonia gregaria v. fusca A.Massal. ex Anzi, Arthonia gregaria v. pruinosa A.L.Sm., Arthonia tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Coniocarpon affine A.Massal., Coniocarpon gregarium v. coccineum A.Massal., Coniocarpon gregarium v. glabrum A.Massal., Coniocarpon gregarium v. opegraphoides A.Massal., Lepra kermesina auct. ital., Lepra rubens auct. ital., Spiloma tumidulum Ach.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007), Piem, Emil, Lig. C - Marc, Abr, Tosc (Putortì & Loppi 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, (Ravera & al. 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar. S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Sérusiaux 1998), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate, perhaps holarctic species, found on Fraxinus, but also on trees with harder, more acid bark, such as Carpinus, Fagus and even Quercus ilex, in open, humid woodlands, e.g. along rivers. More frequent in the past, esp. in the north.


+Arthonia clemens (Tul.) Th.Fr.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 7, 2: 46, 1867 - Phacopsis clemens Tul., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot., ser. 3, 17: 124, 1852.

Syn.: Arthonia apotheciorum (A.Massal.) Almq., Arthonia apotheciorum v. caerulescens Almq., Arthonia subvarians Nyl., Arthonia vagans v. lecanorina Almq., Coniangium clemens (Tul.) Körb., Conida apotheciorum (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Conida clemens (Tul.) A.Massal., Sphaeria apotheciorum A.Massal.

N - Ven, TAA (Hafellner 1995b, Nascimbene & al. 2004), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: vr, E: er, F: rr, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ paras Lecanora dispersa, L. albescens, and other crustose lichens/ Note: a holarctic lichenicolous fungus, certainly occurring throughout the country, but much overlooked.


+Arthonia cretacea Zahlbr.

Österr. Bot. Z., 68: 148, 1919.



S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ u/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: in shaded underhangs of calcareous rocks subject to humid maritime winds.


+Arthonia cytisi A.Massal.

Summa Animadv.: 10, 1853.

Syn.: Arthonia astroidea f. cembrae Anzi, Arthonia epipasta f. ribis-petraei Carestia ?, Lecideopsis cytisi (A.Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - Ven (Sundin 1999), Lomb (Sundin 1999).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: only known from the Italian Alps, on Laburnum, Fraxinus, Pinus cembra and Ribes, perhaps non-lichenised and worthy of further study.


+Arthonia didyma Körb.

Denkschr. schles. Ges. vaterl. Kultur: 235, 1853.

Syn.: Arthonia aspersella Leight., Arthonia atrofuscella Nyl., Arthonia pineti Körb., Caldesia didyma (Körb.) Trevis.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-4, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate species, found on smooth bark in humid areas. Earlier Italian records, esp. those from the north (see Nimis 1993: 76), need confirmation.


+Arthonia diploiciae Catalayud & Diederich

[in Catalayud, Atienza & Barreno] Mycotaxon, 55: 366, 1995.



C - Sar (Hafellner 1995b).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Diploicia canescens/ suboc/ Note: a recently-described lichenicolous fungus, to be looked for further, esp. in Tyrrhenian Italy.

+Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl.

Lichenogr. Scand.: 261, 1861 - Opegrapha dispersa Schrad., N. Ann. Bot., 13: 86, 1796.

Syn.: Arthonia astroidea v. anastomosans Ach., Arthonia astroidea v. epipasta (Ach.) Nyl., Arthonia astroidea v. epipastoides Nyl., Arthonia ectropoma (A.Massal.) Anzi, Arthonia epipasta (Ach.) Körb., Arthonia epipasta f. ribis Bagl. & Carestia, Arthonia epipastoides (Nyl.) Nyl., Arthonia minutula (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia ectropoma A.Massal., Lichen epipastus Ach., Opegrapha dispersa v. livida Chevall., Opegrapha epipasta (Ach.) Ach.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rc, D: rc, E: r, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a holarctic species, found on smooth, nutrient-rich bark, e.g. of Fraxinus. A taxon of a difficult complex which still awaits elucidation.


+Arthonia elegans (Ach.) Almq.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 17, 6: 19, 1880 - Spiloma elegans Ach., Lich. Univ.: 135, 1810.

Syn.: Arthonia ochracea Dufour, Coniocarpon ochraceum (Dufour) Fr.

N - Ven, Lomb (Sundin & Tehler 1998), Piem. C - Abr, Tosc, Laz. S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on smooth bark, e.g. of Corylus, in humid woodlands, such as along rivers, often with Opegrapha rufescens. Some earlier Italian records (Nimis 1993: 77) need confirmation.


+Arthonia endlicheri (Garov.) Oksner

Flora Lish. Ukraini, 1: 284, 1956 - Opegrapha endlicheri Garov., Lich. Prov. Com., 1: 4, 1837.

Syn.: Arthonia decussata Flot., Arthonia lobata (Flörke) A.Massal., Lecanactis lobata Flörke, Pachnolepia decussata (Flot.) Körb., Pachnolepia endlicheri (Garov.) A.Massal.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc. S - Camp, Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ Note: on vertical or underhanging faces of basic siliceous rocks seldom wetted by rain, much more rarely on calcareous rocks or, exceptionally, on rain-protected bases of ancient trees. Known from S Europe and Turkey.


+Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl.

Flora, 58: 361, 1875.

Syn.: Conida epiphyscia (Nyl.) Arnold


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