+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1999a, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006) Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign-Sax-Terr/ 1-2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: vr, C: rc, D: r, E: er, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, morphologically and chemically variable species, found on basal parts of old, acid-barked trees in montane forests, and on a wide range of other substrata, one of the most common species of the genus in Italy, esp. in the north and in the Apennines. See also note to M. micrococca.


+Micarea sylvicola (Flot.) Vězda & V.Wirth

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon., 11: 99, 1976 - Lecidea sylvicola Flot., Lich. Schles.: 171, 1829.

Syn.: Biatora smaragdina Arnold, Biatora sylvicola (Flot.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea aggerata Mudd, Lecidea hellbomii J.Lahm, Lecidea hypocyanea Vain. non Stirt., Lecidea incincta Nyl., Lecidea sylvicola v. hellbomii (J.Lahm.) Leight., Lecidea vainioi H.Magn.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 1-2, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ p/ Note: on shaded, humid siliceous rocks, in underhangs, e.g. in forests, largely misunderstood and overlooked in Italy.


+Micarea tuberculata (Sommerf.) R.A.Anderson

The Bryologist, 77: 46, 1974 - Lecidea tuberculata Sommerf., Suppl. Fl. Lapp.: 160, 1826.

Syn.: Lecidea botryocarpa Nyl., Lecidea latens Taylor, Lecidea subinfidula Nyl.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on siliceous rocks in humid forests, but also on exposed roots, in underhangs.


+Micarea turfosa (A.Massal.) Du Rietz

Sv. Bot. Tidskr., 17: 94, 1923 - Biatora turfosa A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 128, n. 232, fig. 253, 1852.

Syn.: Lecidea turfosa (A.Massal.) Jatta, Lecidea verrucula (Norman) Th.Fr., Lecidella verrucula (Norman) Stein, Micarea verrucula (Norman) Hedl., Oedemocarpus turfosus (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - Ven, TAA. C - Tosc, Abr.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species, found on peaty soil and terricolous bryophytes in upland areas. Records from central Italy, although not impossible (Nimis 1993: 437), require confirmation.


+Micarea viridileprosa Coppins & Van den Boom

[in Boom van den & Coppins] Lichenologist, 33, 2: 87, 2001.



S - Camp (Boom & Coppins 2001).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign-Terr/ 1-2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a recently described, mostly sterile species, probably more widespread in semi-natural sites of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Miriquidica atrofulva (Sommerf.) A.J.Schwab & Rambold

[in Rambold & Schwab] Nordic J. Bot., 117: 118, 1990 - Lecidea atrofulva Sommerf., Suppl. Fl. Lapp.: 143, 1826.

Syn.: Lecidea atriuscula H.Magn.

N - TAA (Rambold & Schwab 1990).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ m/ Note: a chalkophytic lichen of metal-rich rocks, mostly sterile, perhaps overlooked in the Alps, but never common.


+Miriquidica complanata (Körb.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 382, 1987 - Lecanora complanata Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 84-85, 1859.

Syn.: Aspicilia complanata (Körb.) Stein in Cohn, Aspicilia microlepis Körb., Aspicilia superiuscula (Nyl.) Hue, Lecanora coracodes Nyl., Lecanora kultalensis Vain., Lecanora superiuscula Nyl., Lecanora tenebricans Nyl.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Rhizocarpon geographicum when young/ Note: on moist siliceous rocks. The identification of the sample from Sardegna is still dubious.


+Miriquidica deusta (Stenh.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 383, 1987 - Lecidea fuscoatra v. deusta Stenh., Nov. Sched. Crit. Lich. Suec., 14: 9, 1833.

Syn.: Lecanora deusta (Stenh.) Nyl., Lecidea deusta (Stenh.) Nyl., Lecidea deustata Zahlbr. non Biatora deusta A.Massal. ex Körb., Lecidea secernens H.Magn.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA. C - Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: a, A1: er, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ paras crustose lichens when young/ PF: 1/ Note: a much misunderstood species, with a probably western and southern distribution in Europe, which is fairly common and abundant in some parts of Italy (e.g. Sardegna) on exposed, base-rich siliceous rocks.


+Miriquidica garovaglii (Schaer.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 384, 1987 - Lecidea garovaglii Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 109, 1850.

Syn.: Biatora aenea v. garovaglii (Schaer.) Jatta, Lecidea aenea (Fr.) Nyl., Lecidea aenea v. garovaglii (Schaer.) Jatta, Lecidea atrobrunnea v. garovaglii (Schaer.) Jatta, Lecidea glacialis Lynge, Parmelia aenea Fr., Parmelia garovaglii (Schaer.) Fr., Psora garovaglii (Schaer.) Anzi

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Peršoh & al. 2004), Lomb (Rambold & Schwab 1990), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: c, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine species, found on mineral-rich rocks wetted by rain in wind-exposed situations, such as on peaks and windy ridges in the Alps.


+Miriquidica griseoatra (Flot.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 384, 1987 - Lecidea panaeola v. griseoatra Flot., Bot. Z.: 675, 1828.

Syn.: Aspicilia atrocinerea (Schaer.) A.Massal., Lecidea griseoatra (Flot.) Schaer., Lecidea inserena Nyl., Lecidea inserena f. subplumbea (Anzi) Arnold ?, Lecidea leucophaea v. griseoatra (Flot.) Th.Fr., Lecidea subplumbea Anzi ?, Lecidella subplumbea (Anzi) Arnold ?, Miriquidica leucophaea v. griseoatra (Flot.) V.Wirth

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras crustose lichens when young/ Note: a probably circumpolar, arctic-alpine species, found on wind-exposed siliceous rocks in the Alps.


+Miriquidica instrata (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 385, 1987 - Lecidea instrata Nyl., Flora, 60: 224, 1877.

Syn.: Biatora instrata (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea subobscura H.Magn.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Miriquidica intrudens (H.Magn.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 386, 1987 - Lecanora intrudens H.Magn., Bot. Notiser: 8-9, 1942.



N - Frl, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ paras crustose lichens, esp. yellow Rhizocarpon spp./ PF: 1/ Note: a probably circumpolar, arctic-alpine species, which was largely overlooked in the past, and is certainly more widespread in the Alps, perhaps confused with Protoparmelia leproloma, from which it differs in important morphological and chemical characters.


+Miriquidica leucophaea (Rabenh.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 386, 1987 - Biatora leucophaea [Flörke ex] Rabenh., Deutschl. Krypt.-Fl., 2: 91-92, 1845.

Syn.: Biatora consanguinea Anzi, Lecidea confertula Stirt., Lecidea discolorella Nyl., Lecidea karaensis Lynge, Lecidea leucophaea (Rabenh.) Nyl., Lecidea mesotropa Nyl., Lecidea nodulosa (Körb.) H.Olivier, Lecidea pelidna Ach., Lecidea sporotea Stirt., Lecidella nodulosa Körb., Psora confertula (Stirt.) Stirt.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ m/ paras Rhizocarpon spp./ Note: a polymorphic species of metal-rich rocks, more hygrophytic than M. griseoatra, being most frequent in sheltered situations, such as on faces with a late snow-lie.


+Miriquidica limitata Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 387, 1987.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ S/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: §.


+Miriquidica nigroleprosa (Vain.) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 388-389, 1987 - Lecanora nigroleprosa Vain., Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 10: 208-209, 1883.

Syn.: Lecidea nigroleprosa (Vain.) H.Magn.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Rhizocarpon geographicum s.lat./ Note: on hard siliceous rocks (e.g. granite) in exposed situations such as windy ridges, most often sterile, it has been largely overlooked in the Alps. The var. liljenstroemii (Du Rietz) Owe Larsson & Rambold is known from the Alps of Austria.


+Miriquidica pulvinatula (Arnold) Hertel & Rambold

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 23: 389, 1987 - Lecidella pulvinatula Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 29: 382, 1879.

Syn.: Lecidea circumnigrata H.Magn., Lecidea pulvinatula (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ m/ Note: on iron-rich crystalline rocks, closely related to M. leucophaea.


+Mniaecia jungermanniae Boud.

Discom. 4: 100, 1907.



N - Frl (Tretiach 2004). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on mosses in humid situations over siliceous substrata.


+Moelleropsis nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln.

Rabenhorst's Krypt.-Fl., 9, 2, 2: 257, 1940 - Patellaria nebulosa Hoffm., Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 2: 55, 1794.

Syn.: Biatora triptophylla v. coronata (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Lecanora coronata (Hoffm.) Röhl., Lepidoma brunneum v. coronatum (Hoffm.) Bagl., Pannaria brunnea v. coronata (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Pannaria nebulosa (Hoffm.) Nyl., Trachyderma nebulosum (Hoffm.) Trevis., Zeora brunnea DC.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ p/ Note: a mild-temperate early colonizer of clay-sandy soil, esp. earth banks along unpaved roads, in humid areas with siliceous substrata, most frequent in Tyrrhenian Italy, from the lowlands (in very humid areas) to the mountains. M. humida (Kullh.) Coppins & M.Jørg. is known from the Alps of Austria.


+Mycobilimbia berengeriana (A.Massal.) Hafellner & V.Wirth

[in V.Wirth] Flechten Baden-Württembergs: 511, 1987 - Biatora berengeriana A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 128, n. 233, fig. 254, 1852.

Syn.: Biatora cupreiformis (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatora poetschiana Körb, Lecidea berengeriana (A.Massal.) Th.Fr., Lecidea miscella Sommerf. non Ach., Lecidea strasseri Zahlbr.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: r, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine to boreal-montane lichen, found on mosses and plant debris over calcareous substrata, most common in the Alps, but probably occurring throughout the Apennines. Probably not belonging to Mycobilimbia: closely related to Clauzadea in the Porpidiaceae.


+Mycobilimbia epixanthoides (Nyl.) Hafellner & Türk

Preslia, 76: 153, 2001 - Lecidea epixanthoides Nyl., Flora 48: 5, 1865.

Syn.: Biatora epixanthoides (Nyl.) Diederich

N - Frl (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ §/ Epiph-Terr/ Alt: 2-3/ Note: §


+Mycobilimbia fissuriseda (Poelt) Poelt & Hafellner

[in Hafellner] Herzogia, 8: 56, 1989 - Lecidea fissuriseda Poelt, Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 4: 181, 1961.



N - TAA, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a probably circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen, found in thin fissures of calciferous rocks (calcareous schist, dolomite, much more rarely pure limestone), certainly more widespread in the Alps. It does not belong into Mycobilimbia s.str.


+Mycobilimbia hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner

[in V.Wirth] Flechten Baden-Württembergs: 511, 1987 - Lecidea hypnorum Lib., Plantae Crypt. quae in Ardenna Colleg. 1: 12 (sched.), 1830.

Syn.: Biatora atrofusca Flörke ex Hepp, Biatora atrofusca v. templetonii (Taylor) Walt.Watson, Biatora cartilaginea Lönnr., Biatora fusca v. atrofusca (Hepp) Stein, Biatora fusca v. tristior (Nyl.) Hellb., Lecidea atrofusca (Hepp) Mudd, Lecidea fusca Schaer., Lecidea sanguineoatra sensu Nyl. non (Wulfen) Ach., Lecidea sanguineoatra v. templetonii (Taylor) Vain., Lecidea templetonii Taylor

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz (Ravera 2002b), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Epiph/ 3-4, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on mosses, plant debris, soil, bark and lignum, esp. in upland areas with calcareous substrata. It does not belong into Mycobilimbia s.str.


+Mycobilimbia lurida (Ach.) Hafellner & Türk

Stapfia, 76: 153, 2001 - Lecidea lurida Ach., Meth. Lich.: 77, 1803.

Syn.: Biatora lurida (Ach.) Fr., Endocarpon turgianum Pollini, Psora lurida (Ach.) DC., Psora lurida v. dispersa A.Massal., Psora petri (Tuck.) Fink

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Hafellner & al. 2004, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: c, B: c, C: c, D: vc, E: er, F: vc, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a calcicolous, ecologically and altitudinally wide-ranging species, whose development often starts in fissures of the rock.


+Mycobilimbia olivacea Aragón, Sarrión & Hafellner

[in] Sarrión, Aragón, Hafellner, Rico & Burgaz, Lichenologist, 35, 1: 3, 2003.



N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 2-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/Note: on bark, mainly of conifers, at the base of the trunks. The Italian material differs from the description in the paler thallus and in not having biseriate asci.


+ Mycobilimbia pilularis (Körb.) Hafellner & Türk

Preslia, 76: 153, 2001 - Biatorina pilularis Körb., Parerga Lich.: 136, 1860.

Syn.: Bacidia carneoalbida ("Müll.Arg.") Coppins ("Bacidia carneopallida", lapsu), Bacidia sphaeroides (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Bacidia sphaeroides f. carneoalbida (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Biatora carneoalbida (Müll.Arg.) Coppins, Biatora pilularis (Körb.) Hepp, Biatora sphaeroides (Dicks.) Körb., Bilimbia sphaeroides sensu De Not., Catillaria sphaeroides (Dicks.) Schuler non auct., Patellaria carneo-albida Müll.Arg.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr. S - Camp, Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on mosses growing on bark of old deciduous trees, esp. near the base of the trunks, in old, humid forests. Several old records are dubious, and could refer to Bilimbia sabuletorum.


+Mycobilimbia sanguineoatra auct.

Syn.: Lecidea sanguineoatra auct. non (Wulfen) Ach.



N - Piem (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: optimum in open humid forests, on mosses at the base of old boles, sometimes on soil.



+Mycobilimbia tetramera (De Not.) Hafellner & Türk

Preslia 76: 154, 2001 - Bilimbia tetramera De Not., Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1: 191, 1846.

Syn.: Bacidia fusca (A.Massal.) Du Rietz, Bacidia indurata Zahlbr., Bacidia obscurata (Sommerf.) Zahlbr., Bacidia tetramera (De Not.) Coppins, Biatora fusca auct. non (Schaer.) Th.Fr., Bilimbia fusca A.Massal., Bilimbia obscurata (Sommerf.) Th.Fr., Lecidea triplicans (Nyl.) Nyl., Mycobilimbia fusca (A.Massal.) Hafellner & V.Wirth, Mycobilimbia obscurata (Sommerf.) Rehm

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: r, A1: r, B: r, C: rr, D: r, E: er, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: most frequent in upland areas of the north, on mosses and plant debris on calcareous substrata, sometimes on bark, esp. on basal parts of old trunks in open forests.


+Mycoblastus affinis (Schaer.) T.Schauer

[in Poelt & M.Steiner] Sched. ad Lich. Alpium, 12: 230, 1964, and Nova Hedwigia, 8, 1964 - Lecidea affinis Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 132, 1850.

Syn.: Lecidea melina (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea sanguinaria v. affinis (Schaer.) Nyl., Lecidea sanguinaria v. melina Kremp. ex Nyl., Megalospora affinis (Schaer.) A.Massal., Megalospora alpina (Fr) Arnold, Mycoblastus alpinus (Fr.) Kernst. ex Kerner, Mycoblastus melinus (Kremp. ex Nyl.) Nyl., Mycoblastus sanguinarius v. alpinus (Fr.) Stein

N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an incompletely circumboreal-montane species, found on conifers, esp. Picea, in open humid woodlands, perhaps more widespread in the Alps, but never common.


+Mycoblastus fucatus (Stirt.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 4: 3, 1926 - Lecidea fucata Stirt., Scottish Nat., 5: 16, 1879.

Syn.: Mycoblastus sterilis Coppins & P.James

N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate lichen found on bark in open humid woodlands, certainly very much overlooked in the Alps, being mostly sterile.


+Mycoblastus sanguinarius (L.) Norman

Nyt Mag. Naturvid., 7, 1853 - Lichen sanguinarius L., Sp. Pl.: 1140, 1753.

Syn.: Lecanora sanguinaria (L.) Ach., Lecidea sanguinaria (L.) A.Massal., Lecidea sanguinaria v. endorhoda Th.Fr., Megalospora sanguinaria (L.) Körb., Mycoblastus sanguinarius v. endorhodes (Th.Fr.) Stein, Oedemocarpus sanguinarius (L.) Trevis.

N - Ven, TAA, Piem.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4-5, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species, found on lignum and bark of conifers (esp. Larix) in open situations.


+Myriospora heppii Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 61, 1859 - Myriospora heppii [Nägeli ex] Körb, Parerga Lichenol.: 61, 1865.

Syn.: Acarospora heppii (Körb.) Körb.

N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: r, E: er, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ p/ Note: an easily overlooked early colonizer of small calcareous pebbles in dry grasslands which also occurs on concrete and mortar in small settlements and on walls of calciferous sandstone, certainly more widespread. I has been separated from Acarospora mainly because of the I+blue reaction of the asci.


+Naetrocymbe fraxini (A.Massal.) R.C.Harris

More Florida Lichens: 62, 1995 - Arthopyrenia fraxini A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 167, n. 313, fig. 333, 1852.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia fraxini v. orbicularis A.Massal., Arthopyrenia fraxini v. rufidula A.Massal., Arthopyrenia megalospora Lönnr., Arthopyrenia punctiformis v. fraxini (A.Massal.) Anzi, Leiophloea punctiformis v. orbicularis Trevis., Naetrocymbe fraxini (A.Massal.) R.C.Harris, Pyrenula fraxini (A.Massal.) Trevis., Spermatodium malitiosum v. fraxinicolum Trevis., Verrucaria epidermidis v. fraxini (A.Massal.) Garov.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: rc, E: vr, F: rc, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on smooth bark of (mostly) deciduous trees.


+Naetrocymbe punctiformis (Pers.) R.C.Harris

More Florida Lichens: 63, 1995 - Verrucaria punctiformis Pers., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 11: 19, 1794.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia analepta auct. p.p., Arthopyrenia analepta v. crataegi A.Massal., Arthopyrenia atrosanguinea A.Massal. ?, Arthopyrenia cembrina (Anzi) D.Hawksw., Arthopyrenia laburni Arnold, Arthopyrenia padi Rabenh., Arthopyrenia persoonii A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii f. acericola A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii f. cytisi A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii f. lentisci Bagl., Arthopyrenia persoonii f. quercicola A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii f. tiliaecola A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii v. alni A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii v. caricae A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii v. mali A.Massal., Arthopyrenia persoonii v. pancina A.Massal., Arthopyrenia punctiformis (Pers.) A.Massal., Arthopyrenia punctiformis f. laricis Anzi, Arthopyrenia punctiformis v. aenea A.Massal., Arthopyrenia punctiformis v. geographica Anzi, Arthopyrenia pyrenastrella (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia pyrenastrella v. maculans (Nyl.) Keissl. ?, Arthopyrenia submicans auct. non (Nyl.) Arnold, Leiophloea punctiformis (Pers.) Trevis., Leiophloea punctiformis v. acerina (Hepp) Trevis., Leiophoea analepta v. crataegi (A.Massal.) Trevis., Naetrocymbe punctiformis (Pers.) R.C.Harris, Pyrenula punctiformis (Pers.) Trevis., Spermatodium malitiosum v. pancinum f. castaneaecolum Trevis., Verrucaria epidermidis v. spectabilis Garov.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 2000), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1997b, Ravera 2006b, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: vr, C: rc, D: c, E: r, F: c, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a holarctic, mediterranean to boreal-montane early colonizer of smooth bark, esp. on twigs of a wide variety of trees, rarer, and restricted to sheltered situations in dry Mediterranean Italy, probably non-lichenised.


+Naetrocymbe rhododendri (Arnold)

prov. § - Arthopyrenia punctiformis f. rhododendri Arnold, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 22: 304, 1872.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia rhododendri (Arnold) Arnold, Verrucaria punctiformis f. rhododendri (Arnold) Stizenb.

N - TAA (Hinteregger 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on smooth bark of shrubs in subalpine heaths, to be looked for throughout the Alps.


+Naetrocymbe rhyponta (Ach.) R.C.Harris

More Florida Lichens: 63, 1995 - Verrucaria rhyponta Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 30: 150, 1809.



Syn.: Arthopyrenia fumago (Wallr.) Körb., Arthopyrenia rhyponta (Ach.) A.Massal., Arthopyrenia rhyponta f. fumago (Wallr.) Anzi ex Arnold, Arthopyrenia rhyponta f. tiliaecola Anzi ex Garov., Leiophloea rhyponta (Ach.) Trevis., Naetrocymbe rhyponta (Ach.) R.C.Harris, Pyrenula rhyponta (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria fumago Wallr.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: probably circumpolar, found on smooth bark, esp. on twigs and branches of deciduous trees, most common in upland areas (esp. in the south), perhaps non-lichenised.


+Naetrocymbe saxicola (A.Massal.) R.C.Harris

More Florida Lichens: 63, 1995 - Arthopyrenia saxicola A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 107, 1855.

Syn.: Leiophloea saxicola (A.Massal.) H. Riedl, Naetrocymbe massalongiana (Hepp) R.C.Harris ?, Pyrenocollema saxicolum (A.Massal.) Coppins, Sagedia massalongiana Hepp ?, Segestrella massalongiana Beltr. ?, Spermatodium saxicolum (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - Frl (Tretiach 2004), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999), Pugl.

Cr.end/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: an early colonizer of calcareous rocks. According to Harris (1995), Sagedia massalongiana is perhaps a distinct species, with larger spores and less distinctly pyriform asci, perhaps non-lichenised.


+Neocatapyrenium radicescens (Nyl.) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 40, 1996 - Verrucaria radicescens Nyl., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 10: 267, 1863.

Syn.: Catapyrenium radicescens (Nyl.) Breuss, Dermatocarpon pachylepis (Anzi) Zahlbr., Endocarpon pachylepis Anzi

N - Lomb.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: hitherto known only from S France, Italy and Switzerland.


+Nephroma bellum (Spreng.) Tuck.

Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 293, 1841 - Peltigera bella Spreng., Caroli Linnaei Syst. Veget., ed. 16, 4, 1: 306, 1827.

Syn.: Nephroma papyraceum auct. p.p., Nephroma laevigatum auct. non Ach.

N - Frl (Nascimbene & al. 1998), Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a holarctic Lobarion-species of bark, epiphytic bryophytes and mossy rocks in humid forests.


+Nephroma expallidum (Nyl.) Nyl.

Flora, 48: 428, 1865 - Nephromidium expallidum Nyl., Oefv. K. Vetensk.-Acad. Forh., 17: 295, 1860.



N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species, found on soil and amongst bryophytes over siliceous substrata.


+Nephroma helveticum Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 532, 1810.



N - Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2006c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), Lomb. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a cool-temperate to S boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on bark, exceptionally on siliceous rocks in humid, but somehow subcontinental areas, probably more widespread in the Alps, but never common, and strongly declining.


+Nephroma laevigatum Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 242, 1814.

Syn.: Nephroma lusitanicum Schaer.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Benco & al. 2004). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen, found on bark, epiphytic bryophytes, mossy rocks in humid, open forests, this is the most frequent species of Nephroma in the country, descending to sea level in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 522, 1810 - Lichen parilis Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 164, 1799.

Syn.: Nephromium laevigatum v. parile (Ach.) Nyl., Nephroma laevigatum f. sorediatum Schaer.

N - VG, Frl (Nascimbene & al. 1998, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Lich. Graec. 246: Obermayer 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Philippi 1983), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax-Terr/ 2-3, 3, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen, found on bark, epiphytic mosses, basic siliceous rocks and soil in humid and sheltered situations.


+Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 522, 1810 - Lichen resupinatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1148, 1753.

Syn.: Nephroma filarszkyanum Gyeln., Nephroma papyraceum (Hoffm.) De Not., Nephroma rameum (Schaer.) A.Massal., Nephroma resupinatum f. helvum A.Massal., Nephroma resupinatum v. tomentosum (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Nephroma tomentosum (Hoffm.) Flot., Nephromium resupinatum (L.) Fr., Nephromium tomentosum (Hoffm.) Nyl., Peltidea resupinata (L.) Ach., Peltigera resupinata (L.) DC.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate, holarctic lichen, found on mossy trunks, rocks, more rarely on soil, in cool and sheltered habitats, with optimum in humid beech forests.


+Nephroma tangeriense (Maheu & A. Gillet) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 8: 317, 1932 - Nephromium tangeriense Maheu & A. Gillet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 869, 1926.



N - Piem. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz (TSB), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.b/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Sax-Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species, found on rocks, more rarely on bark, in exposed situations, but in humid areas.


+Normandina acroglypta (Norman) Aptroot

[in Wirth], Flechtenflora, 2. Aufl.: 634 (1995) - Thelidium acroglyptum Norman [in Fries], Bot. Notiser: 154, 1868 [1867].

Syn: Lauderlindsaya acroglypta (Norman) R.Sant., Lauderlindsaya chlorococca (Leight.) Diederich & Sérus., Sphaerulina chlorococca (Leight.) R.Sant., Lauderlindsaya erichsenii (Keissl.) Diederich & Sérus., Thelidium erichsenii Keissl.

N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, most often found on trees with subacid to base-rich bark. To be looked for further in Italy.


+Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl.

Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 15: 382, 1861 - Verrucaria pulchella Borrer [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot. Suppl. 1: tab. 2602, 1829.

Syn.: Endocarpon pulchellum (Borrer) Borrer, Laurendlindsaya borreri (Tul.) J.C.David & D.Hawksw., Lenormandia jungermanniae Delise, Lenormandia pulchella (Borrer) A.Massal., Normandina jungermanniae (Delise) Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Philippi 1983, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene & Cadorin 2004, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Frati & al. 2004), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Ravera 2001, 2002, Ravera & al. 2003, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, most often found on epiphytic Frullania and other liverworts, most common in NE and Tyrrhenian Italy, very rare along the E side of the peninsula.


+Ochrolechia alboflavescens (Wulfen) Zahlbr.

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 76: 94, 1927 - Lichen alboflavescens Wulfen [in Jacq.] Coll. Bot., 3: 111, 1789.

Syn.: Lecanora tartarea v. alboflavescens (Wulfen) Flot., Ochrolechia alboflavescens v. plana Verseghy, Ochrolechia papillata (Räsänen) Verseghy

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Nascimbene 2006b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Abr. S - Camp, Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: c, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane species, found on bark of conifers, more rarely of acid-barked deciduous trees, most frequent in the Alps, but locally common in humid parts of the Apennines.


+Ochrolechia androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold

Flora, 68: 236, 1885 - Lichen androgynus Hoffm., Enum. Lich.: 56, 1784.

Syn.: Lecanora subtartarea Nyl., Ochrolechia androgyna v. pergranulosa Räsänen, Ochrolechia androgyna v. saxorum auct. non (Oeder) Verseghy, Ochrolechia subtartarea (Nyl.) A.Massal., Ochrolechia tartarea v. arborea (DC.) Körb.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b), TAA (Nascimbene 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1997, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006b), Laz (Ravera 2001), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax-Terr/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on bark and on steeply inclined rock faces in humid montane forests, sometimes also on soil and bryophytes, a polymorphic species, closely related to O. tartarea.


+Ochrolechia arborea (Kreyer) Almb.

Bot. Notiser: 254, 1952 - Variolaria lactea v. arborea Kreyer, Acta Horti Petropolit., 31: 322, 1913.

Syn.: Pertusaria arborea (Kreyer) Zahlbr., Pertusaria myriosora Erichsen, Pertusaria sordidogrisea Erichsen

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2006b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on isolated deciduous trees with mineral-rich bark.


+Ochrolechia balcanica Verseghy

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 1: 85, 1962.



N - Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Tretiach & Ganis 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002b), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: c, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: common and abundant in humid beech forests of the Apennines, rarer in Quercus forests of Tyrrhenian Italy. Apparently absent from the Alps, this conspicuous lichen probably belongs, together with such species as Parmelia submontana and Physconia venusta, to an ancient, pre-glacial, mediterranean-montane element wich is well worthy of further study.


+Ochrolechia crozalsiana Clauzade & Vězda

Acta Mus. Siles., ser. A, 19: 25, 1970.

Syn.: Ochrolechia erichsenii Hafellner & Türk, Pertusaria tumidula Erichsen

N - Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ #/ Note: worthy of further study, related to O. tartarea, with a Tyrrhenian distribution in Italy.


+Ochrolechia dalmatica (Erichsen) Boqueras

[in Boqueras & al.] Cryptogamie, Mycol., 20, 4: 313, 1999 - Pertusaria dalmatica Erichsen, Rabenhorst's Krypt.-Fl. 9, 5, 1: 540, 1936.



N - Emil (Boqueras & al. 1999). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ #/ Note: a poorly understood, rarely collected lichen, which badly deserves further study. Indicator values are only tentative. The record from Venezia Giulia reported by Nimis (1993: 510) was due to a misidentification.


+Ochrolechia frigida (Sw.) Lynge

Rep. Sc. Res. Norw. Exp. Novaya Zemlya 1921, 43: 121, 1928 - Lichen frigidus Sw., Meth. Muscor.: 36, 1871.

Syn.: Ochrolechia elisabethae-kolae Verseghy, Ochrolechia gonatodes (Ach.) Räsänen, Ochrolechia lapuënsis (Vain.) Räsänen, Ochrolechia pterulina (Nyl.) G.E.Howard, Ochrolechia tartarea v. telephoroides (Th.Fr.) Arnold

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 5-6/ A: er, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on mosses, plant debris and soil in the Alps. All of the Italian records need confirmation (see Nimis 1993: 455).


+Ochrolechia inaequatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Ann. Naturhist. Hofsmus. Wien, 27: 270, 1913 - Lecanora inaequatula Nyl., Flora, 68: 603, 1885.



N - TAA (TSB), Piem (TSB), VA (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine lichen, found on mosses, plant debris and soil, certainly widespread in the Alps, but overlooked and undercollected in the past.


+Ochrolechia microstictoides Räsänen

Lich. Fenn. Exs.: n. 226, 1936

Syn.: Pertusaria jurana v. grisea Erichsen, Pertusaria leprarioides auct. non Erichsen, Pertusaria silvatica H.Magn.

N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007). C - Tosc, Sar (Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Cal (Nimis & Puntillo 2003), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, mostly found on conifers in open, humid forests.


+Ochrolechia pallescens (L.) A.Massal.

N. Ann. Sc. Nat. Bologna, 7: 212, 1853 - Lichen pallescens L., Sp. Pl.: 1142, 1753.

Syn.: Lecanora pallescens (L.) Fr. non A.Massal., Lecanora pallescens v. corticola A.Massal., Ochrolechia anomala (Harm.) Verseghy, Ochrolechia parella ssp. pallescens (L.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Ochrolechia parella v. tumidula auct. non (Pers.) Arnold, Ochrolechia tumidula auct. non (Pers.) Arnold, Parmelia pallescens (L.) Fr.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate species, found on deciduous trees in humid areas. The relationships with O. parella remain to be clarified: the two species are similar, but have a different ecology and distribution, and they hardly can be treated as formae of one and the same species, in my opinion, only a DNA study can clarify this problem. Temp.


+Ochrolechia parella (L.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 30, 1852 - Lichen parellus L., Mantissa Pl.: 132, 1767.

Syn.: Gasparrinia pallescens v. parella (L.) Tornab., Ochrolechia euganea Sambo ?, Ochrolechia pallescens v. parella (L.) Körb., Ochrolechia parella f. striata Verseghy, Ochrolechia parella v. albissima Zschacke, Parmelia pallescens v. parella auct., Parmelia parella (L.) Ach.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Adamo & al. 1993, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Pišút 1997), Marc, Umbr (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Kerstin & al. 1994). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: er, F: vc, G: c, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: closely related to O. pallescens, but silicicolous, and much more common, esp. in Tyrrhenian Italy. See note on O. pallescens. S Temp.


+Ochrolechia subviridis (Høeg) Erichsen

Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenburg, 72: 3, 1930 - Pertusaria subviridis Høeg, Nyt Mag. Naturvid., 61: 150, 1923.

Syn.: Ochrolechia bahusiensis H.Magn., Ochrolechia gallica Verseghy, Ochrolechia yasudae auct. non Vain., Pertusaria inaequalis Erichsen

N - VG, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Sar (Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on old, isolated deciduous trees in humid areas, certainly more widespread, esp. in the north.


+Ochrolechia szatalaensis Verseghy

Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Nat. Hung., 50: 80, 1958.

Syn.: Ochrolechia pseudotartarea (Vain.) Verseghy, Ochrolechia szatalaensis v. macrospora Verseghy

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane species, with optimum on twigs in humid and cold sites, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Ochrolechia tartarea (L.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 30, 1852 - Lichen tartareus L., Sp. Pl.: 1141, 1753.

Syn.: Lecanora tartarea (L.) Ach., Lecanora tartarea f. crassissima Nyl., Ochrolechia androgyna v. saxorum (Oeder) Verseghy non auct., Ochrolechia tartarea f. crassissima (Nyl.) Cout., Parmelia tartarea (L.) Ach., Pertusaria gyrocheila Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Laz, Abr, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: er, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on rocks and on thin soil layers in humid situations.


+Ochrolechia turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot

Sv. Bot. Tidskr., 39: 130, 1945 - Lichen turneri Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 12: tab. 857, 1801.

Syn.: Buellia farinosa Malme, Lecanora parella v. turneri (Sm.) Nyl., Lecanora turneri (Sm.) Ach., Ochrolechia alboflavescens v. turneri (Sm.) Verseghy, Ochrolechia pallescens v. turneri (Sm.) Körb., Ochrolechia parella v. turneri (Sm.) Arnold, Pertusaria henrici Harm. non sensu Erichsen, Pertusaria leprarioides auct. p. max. p. non Erichsen

N - VG (TSB), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c), TAA, Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997, 1998b), Umbr (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002b), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Otttonello & Isocrono 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on bark of isolated (mostly) deciduous trees in open, humid woodlands.


+Ochrolechia upsaliensis (L.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 31, 1852 - Lichen upsaliensis L., Sp. Pl.: 1142, 1753.

Syn.: Lecanora parella v. upsaliensis (L.) Ach.

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c), TAA (Dupla Graec. Lich. 64: Obermayer 1999), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-6/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species of calciferous soil and plant debris.

+Opegrapha atra Pers.

Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 1: 30, 1794.

Syn.: Opegrapha atra f. lignicola Leight., Opegrapha atra f. platanoides Nyl., Opegrapha atra v. cerasi (Chevall.) Arnold, Opegrapha atra v. denigrata (Ach.) Schaer., Opegrapha atra v. hapalaea (Ach.) Nyl., Opegrapha atra v. limitata Opiz, Opegrapha atra v. recta Bagl., Opegrapha atra v. rimosa Zahlbr., Opegrapha atra v. stenocarpa (Ach.) Dufour, Opegrapha atra v. vulgaris Körb., Opegrapha bullata auct. ital. p. max. p., Opegrapha denigrata Ach., Opegrapha fuliginosa Pers. ex Ach., Opegrapha salicina A.Massal., Opegrapha stenocarpa (Ach.) Zahlbr., Opegrapha stenocarpa v. abbreviata W.Mann, Opegrapha taxicola Leight.

N - VG, Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA, Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Putortì & Loppi 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: c, E: er, F: vc, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread temperate lichen, the most common epiphytic species of Opegrapha throughout Italy.


+Opegrapha calcarea Sm.

[Turner ex] Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 25: 1790, 1807.

Syn.: Opegrapha chevallieri Leight., Opegrapha conferta auct. p.p. non Anzi, Opegrapha confluens auct. non (Ach.) Stizenb., Opegrapha decandollei (Stizenb.) Arnold, Opegrapha saxicola v. decandollei Stizenb., Opegrapha trifurcata Hepp ex Müll. Arg.

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Genco & al. 2007).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 1-3, 1-2, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: er, C: rc, D: c, E: er, F: vc, G: rc, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on limestone, brick, roofing tiles, etc. in sheltered situations, the most common calcicolous species of Opegrapha throughout Italy.


+Opegrapha celtidicola (Jatta) Jatta

N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., 12: 231, 1880 - Lecanactis lyncea v. celtidicola Jatta, N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., 7: 229, 1875.

Syn.: Opegrapha betulinoides de Lesd., Opegrapha thallincola de Lesd., Opegrapha xylographoides J.Steiner

N - Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997c, 1999a), Laz. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found esp. on old trees, near the base of the trunks, mainly Tyrrhenian.


+Opegrapha conferta Anzi

Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 3: 160, 1862.

Syn.: Opegrapha confluens (Ach.) Stizenb. non auct.

N - Lomb. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 3, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean lichen, mostly coastal, probably overlooked, or confused with other species in the past, but certainly not common.


+Opegrapha corticola Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 11: 162, 1979.



C - Tosc, Laz.

Cr/ Tr/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a western European, mild-temperate species, easy to overlook, being always sterile, but certainly extremely rare, and confined to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Opegrapha culmigena Lib.

Plantae Cryptogamae quas in Arduenna coll., fasc. 1, nr. 15, 1830.

Syn.: Opegrapha atrorimalis Nyl., Opegrapha betulina Sm. non Pers., Opegrapha herbarum Mont., Opegrapha prosiliens Stirt. non Mont. & Bosch, Opegrapha protuberans Zahlbr., Opegrapha turneri Leight., Opegrapha varia v. herbarum (Mont.) Källsten comb. inval.

N - Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Senese & Critelli 2000). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: mostly Tyrrhenian. The records from Trentino (see Nimis 1993: 459) and Piemonte (Caniglia & al. 1992) are dubious. For nomenclatural matters see Sérusiaux & al. (1999). S Temp.


+Opegrapha dolomitica (Arnold) Torrente & Egea

[Clauzade & Cl. Roux ex] Torrente & Egea, Bibl. Lichenol., 32: 146,1989 - Opegrapha rupestris v. dolomitica Arnold, Flora, 43: 78, 1860.

Syn.: Opegrapha saxicola auct. non Ach.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ u/ PF: 1/ Note: on vertical or underhanging dolomitic rocks and (more rarely) hard limestone.


+Opegrapha durieui Mont.

[in Durieu] Flore Algérie Crypt., 1: 279, 1846-1849.

Syn.: Opegrapha arthonioidea (Nyl.) Nyl., Opegrapha grumulosa v. arthonioidea Nyl., Opegrapha polymorpha (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Stigmatidium polymorphum Müll.Arg.

C - Tosc, Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species, found on steeply inclined, generally north-facing, hard calcareous rocks near the coast. probably not belonging into Opegrapha s str.


+Opegrapha glaucomaria (Nyl.) Källsten

[in Hafellner] Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence, 44: 227, 1997 - Lecidea glaucomaria Nyl., Nya Bot. Notiser: 177, 1852.

Syn.: Dactylospora maculans Arnold, Leciographa maculans (Arnold) Rehm, Opegrapha maculans (Arnold) Hafellner

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Piem (TSB), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: r, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecanora rupicola s.lat./ Note: a lichenicolus fungus, very much overlooked, more widespread in the Alps.


+Opegrapha gyrocarpa Flot.

Flora, 1825: 345, 1825.

Syn.: Opegrapha gyrocarpa v. arenaria Körb., Opegrapha rupestris v. arenaria (Körb.) Stein, Opegrapha rupestris v. schisticola Eitner, Opegrapha saxicola v. gyrocarpa (Flot.) Stizenb., Opegrapha saxicola v. schisticola (Eitner) Zahlbr.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Hinteregger 1994), Lomb, Piem (TSB), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Camp, Cal.

Cr/ Tr/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-3, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging siliceous rocks, often in forests, in cold-humid situations, more rarely on subacid bark.


+Opegrapha lithyrga Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 247, 1810.

Syn.: Opegrapha lithyrgoides Nyl.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 1-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ Note: on vertical, hard siliceous rocks in deep gorges or in mature forests. Closely related to O. vulgata


+Opegrapha lutulenta Nyl.

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 3: 201, 1855.



N - Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Si (TSB).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 3, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ Note: on steeply inclined, basic siliceous rocks, often with Dirina and Roccella, restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Opegrapha mougeotii A.Massal.

Mem. Lichenogr.: 103, n. 209, fig. 123, t. 19, 1853.

Syn.: Opegrapha leightonii Cromb. ex Nyl., Opegrapha rupestris v. pisana Bagl. ex Jatta, Opegrapha rupestris v. tiburtina Jatta

N - VG (TSB), Ven, Piem, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Genovesi 2003a), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: er, F: r, G:, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ #/ Note: a critical taxon of calcareous or basic substrata (limestone, calcareous sandstone, roofing tiles), related to O. varia.


+Opegrapha multipuncta Coppins & P.James

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