+Absconditella annexa



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§+§Parabagliettoa cyanea (A.Massal.) Gueidan & Cl.Roux

* - Verrucaria cyanea A.Massal., Memor. Lichenogr.: 144, n. 352, fig. 172, t. 26, 1853.

Syn.: Involucrothele limitata (Kremp.) Servít, Thelidium limitatum (Kremp.) Servít, Verrucaria decussata Garov., Verrucaria glauconephela Nyl. ?, Verrucaria limitata Kremp. in A.Massal.

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rc, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, compact limestone and dolomite rocks in sheltered situations, optima in the submediterranean belt (in the north), and in the montane belt (in the south), much rarer, and mostly coastal in shaded-humid situations, in the eu-Mediterranean belt.


§+§Parabagliettoa dufourii (DC.) Gueidan & Cl.Roux

* - Verrucaria dufourii DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 318, 1805.

Syn.: Involucrothele concinna (Borrer) Servít, Involucrothele dufourii (DC.) Servít, Verrucaria concinna Borrer, Verrucaria amylophora Lettau ?, Verrucaria dufourii f. orbicularis A.Massal., Verrucaria malhamensis Nyl.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: vr, C: rr, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, hard limestone rocks, reaching the eu-Mediterranean belt in humid-shaded situations.


+Parmelia omphalodes (L.) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 204, 1803 - Lichen omphalodes L., Sp. Pl.: 1153, 1753.

Syn.: Imbricaria saxatilis v. omphalodes (L.) Körb., Parmelia discordans Nyl., Parmelia insensitiva (H.Magn.) Anders, Parmelia omphalodes v. discordans (Nyl.) H.Magn., Parmelia pinnatifida Kurok., Parmelia saxatilis v. omphalodes (L.) Fr.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.f/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: rc, A1: vc, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine circumpolar lichen, found on rocks, epilithic bryophytes, more rarely on soil, less common in the mountains of the south, and rarer in the Apennines for the scarcity of suitable substrata. The record from Umbria by Panfili (2000) is dubious.


+Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 204, 1803 - Lichen saxatilis L., Sp. Pl.: 1142, 1753.

Syn.: Imbricaria saxatilis (L.) Körb., Parmelia saxatilis f. pallida Tosco, Parmelia saxatilis f. rubricosa J.Steiner, Parmelia saxatilis v. laciniata Erichsen, Parmelia saxatilis v. laevis Nyl., Parmelia saxatilis v. microphylla Erichsen, Parmelia saxatilis v. muscicola Tosco, Parmelia saxatilis v. pseudoviridis Gyeln., Parmelia saxatilis v. retiruga (DC.) Th.Fr.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Giordani & al. 2003b), Ven (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Ghiraldi 2003, Isocrono & al. 2005, 2006), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, 2003b, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Modenesi & al. 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997b, 1999a, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Baruffo & Tretiach 2005, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Boom & Giralt 2002), Si (Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rc, B: rr, C: c, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: somehow heterogeneous in Italy, some populations near the Tyrrhenian coast, in particular, deserve further study, the species can even reach the Mediterranean belt in humid situations.


+Parmelia submontana Hale

[Nádv. ex] Hale, Smithsonian Contr. to Botany, 66: 44, 1987.

Syn.: Parmelia bohemica Nádv. non Gyeln., Parmelia contorta Bory non (Hoffm.) Spreng., Parmelia saxatilis v. contorta (Bory) Zahlbr., Parmelia sulcata v. contorta (“Bory”) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata v. contortoides Zahlbr.

N - Frl (Nascimbene & al. 1998), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2000b, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2000b, Nascimbene 2005b), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: locally very abundant in humid beech forests of the Apennines, much rarer in the Alps.


+Parmelia sulcata Taylor

[in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern., 2: 145, 1836.



Syn.: Imbricaria saxatilis v. leucochlora Flot., Parmelia saxatilis v. leucochlora (Flot.) Mudd, Parmelia saxatilis v. sulcata (Taylor) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata v. laevis Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach 1996, Giordani & al. 2003b), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000, 2002b, 2002c, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Serio & al. 2001, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Chiappetta & al. 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Modenesi & Piana 1998, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, Rizzio & al. 2001, Buzio 2003, Giordani & al. 2003b, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Giordani & al. 2003b), Emil (Bassi 1995, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Crespo & al. 1997, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Marconi & al. 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, 2003b, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Modenesi & al. 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1997f, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, 1999b, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, 2001, Loppi 1996, 1996b, 1998, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Crespo & al. 1997, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Baruffo 2000, Benesperi 2000a, Del Guasta 2001, Crisafulli & al. 2003, Baruffo & Tretiach 2005, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Crespo & al. 1997, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Crespo & al. 1997, Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Crespo & al. 1997, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Boom & Giralt 2002, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-3, 3-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: vr, C: ec, D: vc, E: rr, F: ec, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: certainly the most common and wide-ranging Parmelia in Italy, also present near large urban settlements in the north, rare only in the eu-Mediterranean belt.


+Parmeliella jamesii Ahlner & M.Jørg.

Opera Bot., 45: 35, 1978.



C - Tosc.

Sq/ Cy.h/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, mainly corticolous on ancient trees in open, but very humid forests, but also found on silicicolous bryophytes.


+Parmeliella testacea M.Jørg.

Opera Bot., 45: 70, 1978.



N - Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Cy.h/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on bark of ancient deciduous trees in mature forests, mostly in old plantations of Castanea.


+Parmeliella triptophylla (Ach.) Müll.Arg.

Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève, 16: 376, 1862 - Lecidea triptophylla Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 29: 272, 1808.

Syn.: Lecanora triptophylla (Ach.) Link, Lecidea microphylla v. corallinoides sensu Ach., Lecidea microphylla v. schraderi Schaer., Lecidea triptophylla v. velutina Ach., Pannaria lasiella Stirt., Pannaria triptophylla (Ach.) A.Massal., Pannaria triptophylla f. incrassata Nyl., Pannaria triptophylla v. oryctogena Anzi, Pannaria triptophylla v. xamia A.Massal., Parmeliella corallinoides auct. non (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Parmeliella corallinoides f. incrassata Gyeln., Parmeliella corallinoides v. nigra Gyeln., Parmeliella corallinoides v. nigrocarpa Gyeln., Parmeliella corallinoides v. pulvinata H.Magn., Parmeliella triptophylla f. luxurians Vain.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996, Nascimbene & al. 1998, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a widespread, cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, found on old trees and upon epiphytic bryophytes in humid forests, sometimes on mossy siliceous rocks.


+Parmelina pastillifera (Harm.) Hale

Smithsonian Contr. to Botany, 33: 39, 1976 - Parmelia scortea v. pastillifera Harm., Lich. de France, 4: 558, "1909" (1910).

Syn.: Parmelia tiliacea v. pastillifera (Harm.) Grummann, Parmelia pastillifera (Harm.) R. Schub. & Klem.

N - VG, Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, Modenesi & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1997, 1999b, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: rc, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a temperate lichen, fond on deciduous trees, most frequent in rainy upland areas than P. tiliacea, but descending to the mediterranean belt in humid regions.


+Parmelina quercina (Willd.) Hale

Smithsonian Contr. to Botany, 33: 42, 1976 - Lichen quercinus Willd., Fl. Berol. Prodr.: 353, 1787.

Syn.: Parmelia carporrhizans Taylor ?, Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vain., Parmelia quercina v. carporrhizans (Taylor) V.Wirth ?, Parmelia tiliacea ssp. carporrhizans (Taylor) Nyl. ?, Parmelia tiliacea v. carporrhizans (Taylor) Flagey ?, Parmelina carporrhizans (Taylor) Poelt & Vězda ?

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Brunialti & Giordani 2000, 2003, Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1994, 1995, 1996b, 1997, 1997b, 1998, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Loppi & Putortì 2001), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Recchia & Villa 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean lichen, found on isolated, mostly broadleaved trees, more photo- and thermo-, and less hygrophytic than the closely related P. pastillifera and P. tiliacea.


+Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Hale

Smithsonian Contr. to Botany, 33: 48, 1976 - Lichen tiliaceus Hoffm., Enum. Lich.: 96, pl. 16, fig. 2, 1784.

Syn.: Imbricaria tiliacea (Hoffm.) DC., Imbricaria tiliacea v. aetnensis Caruso, Parmelia quercifolia v. scortea f. microphylla A.Massal., Parmelia scortea (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia tiliacea (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia tiliacea v. scortea (Ach.) Duby

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Marconi & al. 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, 1996b, Pišút 1997, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Senese & Critelli 2000, Del Guasta 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 2, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: rc, D: c, E: er, F: vc, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen, mostly found on broadleved trees, sometimes on mossy rocks, rare only in somehow continental areas, as along the E part of the peninsula. In the continental Alpine valleys, however, P. tiliacea can be found on N exposed faces of isolated basic siliceous boulders. The occurrence of "epipytic" lichen communities on N-exposed rocks, a rather common phenomenon in strongly continental areas of Eurasia (e.g. in parts of the Baykal region, vidi) is also typical of dry-continental Alpine valleys. Temp.


+Parmelinopsis horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale

Mycotaxon, 29: 242, 1987- Parmelia horrescens Taylor [in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern., 2: 144, 1836.

Syn.: Hypotrachyna horrescens (Taylor) Krog & Swinscow, Parmelia dissecta Nyl., Parmelia minarum Vain., Parmelia scortella Nyl., Parmelina dissecta (Nyl.) Hale, Parmelina horrescens (Taylor) Hale, Parmelinopsis horrescens (Taylor) Elix & Hale

N - TAA, Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar.

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen, found on old trees in ancient, open, humid forests.


+Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl.

Syn. Lich., 2: 54, 1863 - Lichen ambiguus Wulfen [in Jacq.] Coll. Austriac., 4: 239, 1790.

Syn.: Foraminella ambigua (Wulfen) S. L. F. Meyer, Imbricaria diffusa auct., Parmelia ambigua (Wulfen) Ach., Parmelia diffusa auct. non (Hoffm.) Sandst., Parmelia diffusa v. ochromatica (Wallr.) Schaer., Parmeliopsis diffusa auct.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001, Ghiraldi 2003, Isocrono & al. 2005), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: ec, B: a, C: rc, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on basal parts of trunks, esp. of conifers, with a long snow-lie, much rarer, but widespread throughout the Apennines, in Castanea woodlands.


+Parmeliopsis hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 30: 117, 1880 - Parmelia hyperopta Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 208, 1814.

Syn.: Imbricaria ambigua v. albescens (Wahlenb.) Flot., Imbricaria hyperopta (Ach.) Körb., Foraminella hyperopta (Ach.) S. F. Meyer, Parmelia ambigua v. albescens (Wahlenb.) Schaer., Parmelia diffusa v. albescens (Wahlenb.) Rabenh., Parmelia diffusa v. leucochroa Wallr.


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