+Absconditella annexa



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N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Rivellini 1994, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2003, Castino 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani & al. 2003b). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996b, 1997, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi 1995c, 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Del Guasta 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: rr, D: c, E: vr, F: c, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly temperate species, altitudinally intermediate between Ph. biziana and Ph.stellaris, most frequent at low elevations only in humid areas.


+Physcia albinea (Ach.) Nyl.

Observ. Lich. Pyren. Orient.: 6, 1873 - Parmelia albinea Ach., Lich. Univ.: 491, 1810.

Syn.: Parmelia caesia v. albinea (Ach.) Torss., Physcia albonigra (Schleich.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Physcia caesia v. albinea auct. non Anzi, Physcia stellaris ssp. albinea (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Physcia stellaris v. saxatilis Sambo

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002) Lig. C - Sar.

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, certainly rare in Italy. Earlier records from S Italy (see Nimis 1993: 532), being dubious, are not accepted here.


+Physcia biziana (A.Massal.) Zahlbr. v. biziana

Österr. Bot. Z., 51: 26, 1901 - Squamaria biziana A.Massal., Miscell. Lichenol.: 35, 1856.

Syn.: Physcia ragusana Zahlbr.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2007), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Marconi & al. 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996b, 1997, 1998b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Pišút 1997, Del Guasta 2001), Umbr (Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Caniglia & Grillo 2004, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: rc, E: er, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate species, found on isolated trees at low altitudes throughout the country.


+Physcia biziana v. leptophylla Vězda

Sched. ad Lich. Sel. Exs., 12: 6, 298, 1964.

Syn.: Physcia rondoniana Clauzade & Vězda

N - Lomb (Delucchi & Valcuvia 2004), Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc (TSB), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (TSB), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 3, 4-5, 3, 3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: rc, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1-3/ #/ Note: an interesting taxon well worth of further study, with a mainly Tyrrhenian distribution in Italy.


+Physcia caesia (Hoffm.) Fürnr. v. caesia

Natur. Topogr. Regensburg, 2: 250, 1839 - Lichen caesius Hoffm., Enum. Lich.: 65, 1788.

Syn.: Hagenia caesia (Hoffm.) Bagl. & Carestia, Parmelia caesia (Hoffm.) Ach., Parmelia pulchella v. caesia (Hoffm.) Schaer., Physcia caesia v. ventosa (Lynge) Frey, Physcia ventosa (Lynge) Sántha

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 2-5/ A: c, A1: rc, B: rr, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, common only in upland areas, from the Alps to Sicilia, mostly in natural habitats (e.g. on the top of calcareous boulders).


+Physcia caesia v. caesiella (de Lesd.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, N. sér., n. spéc. 7: 1985 - Physcia tribacoides v. caesiella de Lesd., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 70: 844, 1923.

Syn.: Physcia subalbinea Nyl., Physcia wainioi Räsänen

N - TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Laz, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 3-5/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: ecologically similar to the typical variety, but most common in dry-warm alpine valleys. The Ph. caesia complex would be worthy of a DNA study.


+Physcia caesia v. rhaetica Frey

1952, v.Lamb§



N - Piem (TSB).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: a morph with orange medulla, most frequent in continental Alpine areas, which is worth of further study.


+Physcia clementei (Turner) Maas Geest.

Blumea, 7, 1: 228, 1952 - Lichen clementei Turner [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 25: 1779, 1807.

Syn.: Hagenia stellaris v. caricae Schaer. ex A.Massal., Parmelia caricae (A.Massal.) Clem., Parmelia sideralis Ach., Physcia astroidea auct. non (Clem.) Nyl., Physcia clementiana (Ach.) Kickx, Physcia stellaris v. caricae (A.Massal.) Beltr.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 2000), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Castino 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1995, 1997, 1998b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Benesperi 2000a), Marc, Mol (Frati & al. 2004), Laz (Ravera & al. 2003, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate, mainly western species, rare throughout the country, but most frequent in Tyrrhenian Italy and in the upper Friulian plain (humid climate).


+Physcia dimidiata (Arnold) Nyl.

Flora, 64: 573, 1881 - Parmelia pulverulenta v. dimidiata Arnold, Flora, 47: 594, 1864.

Syn.: Parmelia albinea v. dimidiata (Arnold) Jatta, Physcia dimidiata v.ornata (Nádv.) Moberg ?

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Castino 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001), Lig. C - Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Pugl.

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax-Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate, probably holarctic lichen, found on steeply inclined calcareous sandstone, on old walls, more rarely on basal parts of old trees.


+Physcia dubia (Hoffm.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 254, 1912 - Lobaria dubia Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora: 156, 1796.

Syn.: Parmelia caesia v. teretiuscula Ach., Parmelia pulchella v. dubia (Hoffm.) Schaer., Physcia caesia v. dubia (Hoffm.) Th.Fr., Physcia caesitia Nyl., Physcia dubia v. teretiuscula (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Physcia intermedia Vain., Physcia lyngei Nádv., Physcia teretiuscula (Ach.) Lynge, Physcia tribacia auct. p.p. non (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia wahlenbergii Lynge

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Giordani & al. 2003b, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani & al. 2003b). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: vc, B: rr, C: c, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a widespread holarctic species, with a broad latitudinal and altitudinal range, found on base-rich substrata, both in natural situations and on walls in villages.


+Physcia erumpens Moberg

Nordic J. Bot., 6: 856, 1986.



N - Lig.

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2-3, 4, 2, 3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a humid subtropical species, probably restricted to the Tyrrhenian coast in Italy.


+Physcia leptalea (Ach.) DC.

Flore Française, ed. 3, 2: 395, 1805- Lichen leptaleus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 108, 1798.

Syn.: Lichen semipinnatus J. F. Gmel., Physcia subteres Lettau, Physcia semipinnata (J. F.Gmel.) Moberg

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997), Piem (Castino 2004), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996b, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-4, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: er, F: rc, G: c, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen, most common on twigs of shrubs in S Italy, but reaching the beech belt in the mountains of the south.


+Physcia magnussonii Frey

Erg. wiss. Unters. Schweiz. Nationalpark Unterengadin, 3, n. F. 27: 481, 1952.

Syn.: Physcia aipolia v. subincisa (Th.Fr.) Lynge, Physcia albinea (Anzi) H.Magn. non (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia caesia v. albinea Anzi, Physcia stellaris v. subincisa Th.Fr.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined, base rich siliceous rocks, often starting its development in fissures of the rock, for Italy hitherto known only from the Alps, but likely to be found on some Mediterranean mountains with suitable substrata.


+Physcia phaea (Tuck.) J.W.Thomson

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 7: 54, 1963 - Parmelia phaea Tuck. [in Darl.] Flora Cestrica, ed. 3: 440, 1853.

Syn.: Physcia aipolia ssp. phaea (Tuck.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Physcia melops Dufour ex Nyl.

N - TAA.

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on siliceous rocks slightly manured by birds. The record from Emilia by Valcuvia & Delucchi (2001), being very dubious, is not accepted here.


+Physcia scopulorum (Lambinon & Vězda) Poelt & Nimis

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 176, 1987 - Physcia aipolia ssp. scopulorum Lambinon & Vězda [in Vězda] Sched. ad Lich. Sel. Exs.: n. 871, 1970.



C - Tosc (Paz Bermudez & al. 1998, Senese & Critelli 2000), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Sar (Paz Bermudez & al. 1998).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: hitherto known only from the Tyrrhenian region (Corsica, Sardegna, Tyrrhenian Italy) and from the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, always near the sea.


+Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl.

Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 307, 1856 - Lichen stellaris L., Sp. Pl.: 1144, 1753.

Syn.: Hagenia stellaris (L.) De Not., Parmelia stellaris (L.) Ach., Physcia aipolia v. ambigua (Ehrh.) H.Olivier

N - VG (TSB), Frl (Giordani & al. 2003b), Ven (Hafellner 1997, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 196, Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1996b, 1997b, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 2-4/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: vc, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a (cool) temperate to S boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen of isolated trees. Ph. biziana, Ph. aipolia and Ph. stellaris, although often overlapping in their altitudinal distributions, are altitudinal vicariants in Italy, Ph. stellaris has its optimum in and above the beech-belt, from Sicilia to the Alps, where it is most common, and is the most "continental" of the three species.


+Physcia tenella (Scop.) DC.

[in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 396, 1805 - Lichen tenellus Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 394, 1772.

Syn.: Borrera tenella (Scop.) Ach., Hagenia tenella (Scop.) De Not., Parmelia stellaris v. tenella (Scop.) Spreng., Parmelia tenella (Scop.) Ach., Physcia adscendens v. tenella (Scop.) H.Olivier, Physcia leptalea v. italica de Lesd. sec. descr., Physcia stellaris v. tenella (Scop.) Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Zieger & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Rizzio & al. 2001, Casarini & al. 2000, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Giordani 2006), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1995, 1997, 1997e, 1998b, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 2001, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Rambold & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2-4, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly temperate species. The separation of this "species" from Ph. adscendens is not always clear to me: very characteristic specimens, hardly referrable to Ph. adscendens, are most common in the submediterranean belt, in the mountains of the Peninsula and of the islands, mostly in semi-natural situations, Ph. tenella certainly occurs throughout Italy, but it is not so common as the many records could suggest (several of them - esp. those from polluted areas of the north - are probably due to confusion with young or poorly developed specimens of Ph. adscendens).


+Physcia tribacia (Ach.) Nyl.

Flora, 57: 48, 1874 - Lecanora tribacia Ach., Lich. Univ.: 415, 1810.

Syn.: Physcia erosa (Borrer) Leight., Physcia tribacia v. exempta (Ach.) K.G.W.Lang

N - TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001), Lig. C - Tosc (Pišút 1997), Laz, Abr, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: rc/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a widespread mediterranean to xeric subtropical lichen, found on basic siliceous rocks in sunny situations, often with Peltula euploca and ecologically related species, but less bound to periodical seepage of water, fairly common in parts of Mediterranean Italy, wherever suitable substrata are available, rarer in dry-warm Alpine valleys.


+Physcia tribacioides Nyl.

Flora, 57: 307, 1874.



N - Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc, Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 2, 3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a humid subtropical to mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found on isolated, mostly old trees, generally near the coast but not in maritime situations, in Italy certainly confined to the Tyrrhenian region. Recent records from Toscana (Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1994, 1995, 1996b) are certainly wrong (Putortì in litt.).


+Physcia vitii Nádv.

Stud. Bot. Cech., 8: 94, 1947.



N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Lazzarin 2000), Lomb (Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2003), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1996), Laz (Ravera & al. 2000, Munzi & al. 2007). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996) , Si (Otttonello & Isocrono 2004).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: rc, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 2-3/ #/ Note: the circumscription of this species is not clear to me: it resembles a very stout Ph. adscendens without fibrils, and it is most common in heavily polluted areas of the Po-plain. I wonder whether this name, at least as it was applied by Italian authors, does not refer to a morph of Ph. adscendens induced by environmental stess.


+Physconia detersa (Nyl.) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 12: 123, 1966 - Parmelia pulverulenta v. detersa Nyl., Syn. Lich., 1: 420, 1860.

Syn.: Hagenia detersa (Nyl.) Bagl., Parmelia pulverulenta v. leucoleiptes Tuck., Physcia detersa (Nyl.) Nyl., Physcia detersella Nádv., Physcia grisea v. detersa (Nyl.) Lynge, Physcia leucoleiptes (Tuck.) Lettau, Physcia leucoleiptes v. detersa (Nyl.) Nádv.

N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1995, 1997, Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (TSB), Marc, Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996 (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on mossy rocks along steep slopes, and on trunks of deciduous trees. Some Italian records could refer to Ph. perisidiosa, which is much more common in Italy.


+Physconia distorta (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 218, 1984 - Lichen distortus With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit., 1, 2: 711, 1776.

Syn.: Hagenia pulverulenta auct. ital., Parmelia argyphaea Ach., Parmelia pulverulenta ("Hoffm.".) Ach., Parmelia pulverulenta v. allochroa Schaer., Parmelia pulverulenta v. angustata (Hoffm.) Ach., Physcia pulverulenta ("Hoffm.") Fürnrh. Physcia pulverulenta v. turgida (Schaer.) Mong., Physconia pulverulacea Moberg, Physconia pulverulenta ("Hoffm.") Poelt

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Philippi 1983, Nascimbene 2001b, 2005b), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Rivellini 1994, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Brunialti & Giordani 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, 2003b, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1995, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, 1996b, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Del Guasta 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996, 1998, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Caniglia & Grillo 2004, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: c, E: vr, F: vc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mediterranean to temperate lichen of isolated trees, rare in truly mediterranean vegetation and in polluted areas. In the south there are morphs which are worthy of further study.


+Physconia enteroxantha (Nyl.) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 12: 125, 1966 - Physcia enteroxantha Nyl., Flora, 56: 196, 1873.

Syn.: Physcia enteroxanthella (Harm.) H.Olivier, Physcia leucoleiptes auct. eur. non (Tuck.) Lettau, Physcia subdetersa Nyl.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Brusoni & al. 1997, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Roella 1999, Valcuvia 2002, 2002b, Castino 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1996c, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2-4, 4-5, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean to temperate species, found on isolated trees, sometimes on mossy rocks, most frequent in the south, and along the Tyrrhenian coast at low altitudes (below 800 m), much rarer elsewhere.


+Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt ssp. grisea

Nova Hedwigia, 2: 30, 1965 - Lichen griseus Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot., 3: 480, 1789.

Syn.: Hagenia pulverulenta v. pityrea (Ach.), Parmelia farrea Ach. non auct. p,p., Parmelia pityrea (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia pulverulenta v. grisea (Lam.) Spreng., Physcia grisea (Lam.) Zahlbr., Physcia grisea v. hillmannii (Lynge) Nádv., Physcia grisea v. pityrea (Ach.) Flagey, Physcia grisea v. subnitens (Vain.) Lynge, Physcia pityrea (Ach.) Nyl., Physconia farrea (Ach.) Poelt non sensu Poelt

N - VG (Carvalho 1997, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Roella 1999, Buzio 2003, Castino & Ropolo 2003, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2007, Castino 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Giordani & al. 2003b), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Tretiach 1997, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996b, 1997, 1997e, 1998b, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Dupla Graec. Lich. 64: Obermayer 1999, Del Guasta 2001), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 3-4, 3-5, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: vc, E: rr, F: vc, G: rc, H: er/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen, found both on bark (often on basal parts of isolated trees) and on calciferous rocks (esp. calcareous sandstone, e.g. on walls), locally common in urban areas.


+Physconia grisea ssp. algeriensis (Flagey) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 12: 119, 1966 - Physcia farrea v. pulverulenta f. algeriensis Flagey, Cat. Lich. Alg.: 17, 1896.

Syn.: Physcia grisea v. algeriensis (Flagey) J.Steiner

N - Lig. C - Laz, Sar (Zedda 2002).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Sax/ 3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: this taxon is worthy of further investigation: it could prove to be the primary, sexually reproducing species of Ph. grisea.


+Physconia grisea ssp. lilacina (Arnold) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 12: 120, 1966 - Parmelia pulverulenta f. lilacina Arnold, Flora, 46: 589, 1863.

Syn.: Physcia grisea v. lilacina (Arnold) Nádv., Physcia lilacina (Arnold) Poelt

N - VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: in Italy mostly restricted to dry-warm sites (in the Mediterranean belt and in dry-warm Alpine valleys).


+Physconia muscigena (Ach.) Poelt v. muscigena

Nova Hedwigia, 9: 30, 1965 - Parmelia muscigena Ach., Lich. Univ.: 472, 1810.

Syn.: Hagenia pulverulenta v. muscigena (Ach.) Bagl. & Carestia, Physcia muscigena (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia pulverulenta v. muscigena (Ach.) Nyl.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil, Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, 2007b), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (TSB), Si.

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 3-5/ A: ec, A1: ec, B: rr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on mosses and plant debris in open situations, such as in grasslands and on mosses growing on isolated calcareous boulders, from the subalpine and alpine belts of the Alps, throughout the Apennines, to the mountains of Sicilia.


+Physconia muscigena v. bayeri (Nádv.) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 9: 30, 1965 - Physcia bayeri Nádv., Stud. Bot. Cech., 8: 124, 1947.



N - VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a critical taxon, which needs further study.


+Physconia perisidiosa (Erichsen) Moberg

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 22, 1: 90, 1977 - Physcia perisidiosa Erichsen, Verh. bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg, 72: 57, 1930.

Syn.: Physcia farrea auct. p.p. non Ach., Physconia farrea auct. et sensu Poelt non (Ach.) Poelt

N - VG (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995, Carvalho 1997), Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Giordani & al. 2003b, Castino 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Giordani & al. 2003b), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1994, 1995, 1997, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen with a fragmented holarctic distribution, found both on bark and on epiphytic mosses, most common in submediterranean areas with a warm-suboceanic climate, but rare in disturbed habitats.


+Physconia petraea (Poelt) Vězda & Poelt

[in Vězda] Sched. ad Lich. Sel. Exs.: n. 899, 1970 - Physconia muscigena v. petraea Poelt, Nova Hedwigia, 12: 123, 1966.



N - TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on base-rich siliceous rocks and epilithic mosses in dry-warm situations, known only from S Europe, and in need of further study.


+Physconia servitii (Nádv.) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 9: 30, 1965 - Physcia servitii Nádv., Stud. Bot. Cech., 9: 154, 1948.



N - VG, TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic to mild-temperate, mainly western lichen, found on old trees in open woodlands, mostly Tyrrhenian in Italy.


+Physconia subpulverulenta (Szatala) Poelt v. subpulverulenta

Nova Hedwigia, 12: 127, 1966 - Physcia subpulverulenta Szatala, Borbasia, 3: 135, 1941.



C - Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si.

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mainly mediterranean-atlantic lichen of isolated trees. The taxonomic significance of yellow medullary pigments in Physconia still awaits a satisfactory evaluation, this taxon is rare in Italy, and restricted to warm-humid Tyrrhenian areas.


+Physconia subpulverulenta (Szatala) Poelt v. atlantica Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 12: 127, 1966.



C - Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 3/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ #/ Note: a very critical taxon, which needs further study.


+Physconia venusta (Ach.) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 12: 130, 1966 - Parmelia venusta Ach., Meth. Lich.: 211, 1803.

Syn.: Anaptychia subaquila (Nyl.) Kurok., Parmelia hybrida (Ach.) Röhl., Physcia amoena (Zahlbr.) Nádv., Physcia subaquila Nyl., Physcia pulverulenta v. venusta (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia venusta (Ach.) Nyl.

N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Chiappetta & al. 2005), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, Loppi 1995c, 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Del Guasta 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Fascetti & al. 2005), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vc, D: er, E: a, F: c, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: one of the few lichens whose distribution is centered on the mediterranean mountains, one of the most abundant and typical lichens of central and south Italian humid beech forests, which is extremely rare in the Alps. An earlier record from Piemonte (see Nimis 1993: 543) and the recent ones from Piemonte (Castino 2004) and Rome (Munzi & al. 2007), being dubious, are not accepted here.


+Pilophorus cereolus (Ach.) Th. Fr

Lichenogr. Scand. 1: 55, 1874 - Lichen cereolus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 89, 1799.

Syn.: Pilophorus robustus Th.Fr. v. cereolus (Ach.) Th.Fr., Stereocaulon cereolinum Ach. non auct. ital., Stereocaulon cereolum (Ach.) Ach.

N - TAA, Piem.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably incompletely circumpolar lichen, found on siliceous rocks in moist-wet situations, restricted to the Alps in Italy, and perhaps more widespread, but not common.


+Placidiopsis custnani (A.Massal.) Körb.

Parerga Lich.: 305, 1863 - Placidium custnani A.Massal., Lotus, 6: 78, 1856

Syn.: Catapyrenium custnani (A.Massal.) Jatta, Dermatocarpon crenulatum (Nyl.) Mig., Endocarpidium custnani (A.Massal.) Müll. Arg., Endocarpon cinereum v. cartilagineum Nyl., Paraplacidiopsis crenulata (Nyl.) Servít, Placidiopsis cartilaginea (Nyl.) Vain., Placidiopsis crenulata (Nyl.) Zsch., Verrucaria crenulata (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - Ven (Breuss 1996b), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). S - Si (Breuss 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: on calciferous soil and calcicolous mosses, an overlooked terricolous lichen, which, in Italy, seems to be most common in the submediterranean belt.


+Placidiopsis cinerascens (Nyl.) Breuss

Plant Syst. Evol., 148: 315, 1985 - Endocarpon cinerascens Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1853: 160, 1853.

Syn.: Catapyrenium circinatum (Bagl.) Jatta, Catapyrenium grappae (Beltr.) Jatta, Dermatocarpon baumgartneri (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr., Dermatocarpon cinerascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Endocarpon circinatum (Bagl.) Lojka, Endocarpon grappae (Beltr.) Garov., Endocarpon pervirescens Nyl., Placidiopsis baumgartneri Zahlbr, Placidiopsis circinata Bagl., Placidiopsis dalmatica Servít, Placidiopsis grappae Beltr., Placidiopsis pisana Bagl., Placidium cinerascens (Nyl.) Arnold, Placocarpus cinerascens (Nyl.) Trevis., Verrucaria cinerascens (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - Ven (Breuss 1996b). C - Tosc (Breuss 1996b), Sar (Breuss 1996b). S - Pugl (Breuss 1996b), Bas (Breuss 1996b), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Breuss 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: in Italy this species seems to behave as a vicariant of the submediterranean P. cartilaginea in the Mediterranean belt.


+Placidiopsis dermatocarpoides Anzi

Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 11: 173, 1868.

Syn.: Catapyrenium dermatocarpoides (Anzi) Jatta, Endocarpon anzianum Garov. nom. illegit. non Dermatocarpon anzianum Servít, Verrucaria dermatocarpoides (Anzi) Stizenb.

N - Lomb (Breuss 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ §/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: known only from the type collection, on soil in fissures of serpentine.


+Placidiopsis pseudocinerea Breuss

Plant Syst. Evol., 142: 248, 1983.

Syn.: Placidiopsis cervina auct. scand. non (Nyl.) Vain.

N - TAA (Breuss 1996b), Piem (TSB), VA (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on soil and on muribund bryophytes on siliceous, base-rich or slightly calciferous soil (e.g. on calcareous schist), the species can be easily confused with Catapyrenium cinereum and is certainly much more widespread through the Italian Alps.


+Placidiopsis tenella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 1: 240, 1921 - Endocarpon tenellum Nyl., Annl. Sc. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, 20: 316, 1853.

Syn.: Bohleria tenella (Nyl.) Trevis.

S - Cal (Breuss 1996b, Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean lichen, found on calciferous soil in clearings of garrigue vegetation, probably overlooked, and more widespread in the south.


+Placidiopsis tiroliensis Breuss

Linzer Biol. Beitr., 21: 595, 1989.



N - Frl (Breuss 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calciferous, mostly organic soil. The locality cited by Breuss (1996) is in Austria, but very close to the Italian border.


+Placidium adami-borosi Szatala

Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungar., ser. 7: 271, 1956.

Syn.: Catapyrenium adami-borosi (Szatala) Breuss

C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: a, A1: a, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranean (-montane) lichen, found on soils derived from metamorphic base-rich rocks in dry grasslands.


+Placidium boccanum (Servít) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 41, 1996 - Dermatocarpon boccanum Servít, Rozpr. Cesk. Akad. Ved, 65: 23, 1955.

Syn.: Catapyrenium boccanum (Servít) Breuss

N - VG, Ven. C - Tosc, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 4-5, 2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen, often found on walls, also of mortar, probably more common in the south.


+Placidium imbecillum (Breuss) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 41, 1996 - Catapyrenium imbecillum Breuss, Stapfia, 23: 80, 1990.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: a, A1: a, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: known from the Austrian Alps, and from several isolated stations in southern Europe, to be looked for in the Alps.


+Placidium lachneum (Ach.) de Lesd.

Ann. Cryptog. Exot., 5: 100, 1932 - Lichen lachneus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 140, 1799.

Syn.: Catapyrenium lachneum (Ach.) R.Sant., Dermatocarpon lachneum (Ach.) A.L.Sm., Endopyrenium lachneum (Ach.) Hav.

N - TAA (TSB), Lomb, Piem (Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & al. 2004). C - Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: rc, A1: rr. B: r, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on terricolous bryophytes and on more or less organic calciferous soil, certainly occurring throughout the Alps.


+Placidium lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 41, 1996 - Endocarpon hepaticum b lacinulatum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 299, 1810.

Syn.: Catapyrenium lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss, Dermatocarpon trapeziforme auct. non J. König, Placidium rufescens v. trapeziforme sensu A.Massal.

N - Ven, TAA. C - Sar. S - Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranen to mild-temperate species of loess and calciferous ground, most frequent in dry grasslands.


+Placidium michelii A.Massal.

Sched. Crit., 5: 100, n. 161, 1856.

Syn.: Catapyrenium michelii (A.Massal.) R.Sant., Dermatocarpon michelii (A.Massal.) Zwackh, Endopyrenium michelii (A.Massal.) Körb.

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 4-5, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate lichen, found on mineral, esp. sandy soil in open grasslands. The dubious records from S Italy, and that from Lazio (see Nimis 1993: 200) are not accepted here.


+Placidium pilosellum (Breuss) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 41, 1996 - Catapyrenium pilosellum Breuss, Stapfia, 23: 98, 1990.



N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc, Sar. S - Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: rr E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen, found on calciferous soil rich in humus, often growing amongst bryophytes. Several Italian records need reconfirmation.


+Placidium rufescens (Ach.) A.Massal.

Sched. Crit., 6: 114, 1856 - Endocarpon rufescens Ach., Lich. Univ.: 304, 1810.

Syn.: Catapyrenium lachneum ssp. rufescens (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Catapyrenium rufescens (Ach.) Breuss, Dermatocarpon rufescens (Ach.) Th.Fr., Dermatocarpon terrigenum Tomin, Endocarpon rufopallens Nyl., Endopyrenium rufescens (Ach.) Körb., Endopyrenium rufopallens (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.

N - VG (TSB), Frl (TSB), TAA, Ven, Lomb, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 20'04), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: rr, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mediterranean to (mainly) mild-temperate, holarctic lichen, found on vertical seepages of calcareous rocks, almost always with colonies of cyanobacteria, more rarely on plant debris, calciferous soil, terricolous or epilithic bryophytes.


+Placidium semaforonense Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 41, 1996 - Catapyrenium semaforonense Breuss, Stapfia, 23: 112, 1990.

Syn.: Dermatocarpella yunnana H. Harada & Li-Song Wang, Endopyrenium hepaticum f. nigratum Müll.Arg.

C - Sar. S - Pugl.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 5, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: a macaronesian-mediterranean to irano-turanic lichen, also known from on fine-sandy soils in open, dry mediterranean grasslands and garrigues.


+Placidium squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 41, 1996 - Endocarpon squamulosum Ach., Meth. Lich.: 126, 1803.

Syn.: Catapyrenium squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss, Dermatocarpella squamulosa (Ach.) H. Harada, Dermatocarpon desertorum Tomin, Dermatocarpon hepaticum auct. p.p. non Endocarpon hepaticum Ach., Dermatocarpon trapeziforme auct. p.p. non Lichen trapeziformis J. König, Endocarpon exiguum Nyl.

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven (Nascimbene 2002), TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: rr, C: r, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found on calciferous soil, often amongst bryophytes, in open dry grasslands, this is probably the most common species of the genus in Italy.


+Placidium tenellum (Breuss) Breuss

Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 98B: 41, 1996 - Catapyrenium tenellum Breuss, Stapfia, 23: 126, 1990.



S - Si.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 5, 4-5, 5, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread, but rare species of dry, very open grasslands on calcareous substrata, extending eastward to Mongolia.


+Placidium umbrinum (Breuss) Prieto & Breuss

* - Catapyrenium umbrinum Breuss, Linzer biol. Beitr., 22, 1: 69-80, 1990.

Syn.: Clavascidium umbrinum (Breuss) Breuss

N - Piem.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ §/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: only known from Dalmatia and Piemonte, this species is worthy of further study.


+Placocarpus schaereri (Fr.) Breuss

Plant Syst. Evol., 148: 314, 1985 - Parmelia schaereri Fr., Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 106, 1831.

Syn.: Catapyrenium schaereri (Fr.) R.Sant., Dermatocarpon monstrosum (Schaer.) Vain., Dermatocarpon saxorum Trevis., Endocarpon miniatum v. monstrosum Schaer., Endocarpon monstrosum (Schaer.) A.Massal., Endopyrenium monstrosum (Schaer.) Hazsl., Placidium monstrosum (Schaer.) A.Massal., Verrucaria schaereri (Fr.) Nyl., Verrucula monstrosa (Schaer.) J.Steiner

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: vr, C: rr, D: vc, E: er, F: vc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ paras Lecanora muralis/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen, found on exposed calcareous boulders, in the Apennines it can exceptionaly reach up to 1800 m, as in the Gran Sasso Massif, when young, it is a constant parasite on Lecanora muralis (mostly on f. versicolor).


+Placolecis opaca (Fr.) Hafellner

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 317, 1984 - Lecidea opaca [Dufour ex] Fr., Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 289, 1831.

Syn.: Astroplaca balanina (Fr.) Anzi, Astroplaca opaca (Fr.) Bagl., Astroplaca opaca v. crocea de Lesd., Biatora opaca (Fr.) Jatta, Lecidea endochrysoides Hue, Placolecis balanina (Fr.) Trevis., Psora opaca (Fr.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: a calcicolous lichen, found in the mediterranean and (more rarely) submediterranean belts, both on shaded and sunny calcareous rocks. The distribution extends widely into C Asia.


+Placopsis gelida (L.) Linds.

Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 25: 536, 1866 - Lichen gelidus L., Mantissa Pl., 1: 133, 1767.

Syn.: Lecanora gelida (L.) Ach., Lecanora gelida f. neglecta Degel., Placodium gelidum (L.) Gray, Squamaria gelida (L.) Nyl.

N - Piem.

Cr/ Ch-Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, incompletely circumpolar lichen, found on small siliceous pebbles, on basal parts of large boulders, mostly in moist situations, confined to the Alps in Italy.



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