+Absconditella annexa



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§+§Placopyrenium beltraminianum (A.Massal.) *

- Lithoicea beltraminiana A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 93, 1855.

Syn.: Verrucaria beltraminiana (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - VG (TSB), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), Piem. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: rr, E: er, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: mostly on walls in small settlements. A critical species, closely related to (but perhaps distinct from) P. lecideoides.


+Placopyrenium bucekii (Nádv. & Servít) Breuss

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 182, 1987 - Dermatocarpon bucekii Nádv. & Servít, Beih. Bot. Centralbl., 55 b: 267, 1936.



C - Tosc, Laz (Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-5, 4-5, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: rr, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ w/ Note: a mainly mediterranen lichen with outposts in dry-warm temperate areas, found on base-rich siliceous rocks, exceptionally on limestone, and sometimes even on soil, often occurring together with Peltula euploca, but with a different ecology, being most common on dust-impregnated faces. It should be looked for in suitable habitats of the Alps, esp. in dry-warm situations.


§+§Placopyrenium canellum (Nyl.) Gueidan Cl.Roux

[in Navarro-Rosines & al.] Bull. Soc. Linn. Prov., 58: 174, 2007 - Verrucaria canella Nyl., Flora, 66: 102, 1883.

Syn.: Verrucaria aspiciliae Zehetl. non (J.Lahm) Stizenb. nec Vain., Verrucaria aspiciliicola R.Sant., Verrucaria glaucina ssp. canella (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - VG (TSB), Frl (TSB), Ven, Piem (TSB), Emil (TSB), Lig. C - Tosc (vidi!), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: a, A1: rr, B: r, C: rc, D: vc, E: er, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1/ paras Aspicilia calcarea s.lat./ Note: a very common, formerly misunderstood species, certainly widespread throughout Italy.


§+§Placopyrenium fuscellum (Turner) Gueidan & Cl.Roux

[in Navarro-Rosines & al.] Bull. Soc. Linn. Prov., 58: 174, 2007 - Lichen fuscellus Turner, Transact. Linn. Soc. London, 7: 90, tab. VIII, fig. 2, 1804.

Syn.: Lithoicea fuscella (Turner) Arnold, Verrucaria alutacea (Schaer.) Wallr., Verrucaria fuscella (Turner) Winch, Verrucaria fuscella v. cinereoatra Garov., Verrucaria fuscella v. crassa Garov., Verrucaria fuscella v. subviridula Garov., Verrucaria glaucelloides Hepp, Verrucaria glaucina sensu Zetterst. et auct. p.p non Ach., Verrucaria glaucina v. caeruleoalba de Lesd., Verrucaria glebulosa Nyl., Verrucaria griseoatra (Kremp.) Servít, Verrucaria nigricans (Nyl.) Zschacke, Verrucula fuscella (Turner) J.Steiner

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2004, 2006b), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal, Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rc, B: rr, C: c, D: vc, E: vr, F: vc, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on steeply inclined calciferous rocks (mainly limestones and dolomite), often on Verrucaria nigrescens, a polymorphic taxon in need of revision. For futher details see Nimis (1993: 739). §check subfuscella Nyl in Wirth (= V. glaucina auct. p.p.)


+Placopyrenium trachyticum (Hazsl.) Breuss

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 183, 1987 - Endopyrenium trachyticum Hazsl., Verh. Ver. f. Naturk., Pressburg, 5: 7, 1861.

Syn.: Catapyrenium trachyticum (Hazsl.) R.Sant., Dermatocarpon trachyticum (Hazsl.) Vain., Placidiopsis trachytica (Hazsl.) Servít, Verrucula subcrustosa (Nyl.) J.Steiner

N - Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich siliceous rocks, this species extends more widely in the submediterranean belt than P. bucekii.


+Placynthiella dasaea (Stirt.) Tønsberg

Sommerfeltia 14: 271 (1992) - Lecidea dasaea Stirt., Scottish Naturalist, 5: 219, 1880.



N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/Note: probably more widespred in the Alps, but overlooked.


+Placynthiella icmalea (Ach.) Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 244, 1984 - Lecidea icmalea Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 267, 1808.

Syn.: Biatora fuliginea (Ach.) Fr., Biatora uliginosa v. fuliginea (Ach.) Fr., Lecanora terricola Ach., Lecidea fuliginea Ach., Lecidea trachylina Nyl., Lecidea uliginosa v. fuliginea (Ach.) Link, Lemmopsis suomiensis Räsänen, Parmeliella perfurfuracea (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Saccomorpha icmalea (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), _TAA (Nascimbene 2004, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.i/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: rr, D: vr, E: er, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a widespread, mainly northern holarctic lichen found on disturbed soil, turf, decomposed lignum (common on stumps), much more rarely on acid bark, and then mostly on basal parts of trunks, most frequent in the Alps, but extending south to Calabria through the Apennines in Castanea-stands.


+Placynthiella oligotropha (J.R.Laundon) Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 245, 1984 - Lecidea oligotropha J.R.Laundon, Lichenologist, 1: 164, 1960.

Syn.: Biatora uliginosa v. humosa auct. p.p., Lecidea uliginosa sensu Vain. et auct. non (Schrad.) Ach., Lecidea uliginosa v. verruculosa Hedl., Saccomorpha oligotropha (J.R.Laundon) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2004), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (TSB). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably cicumpolar lichen, found on soil and turf, mostly in clearings of woodlands, to be looked for throughout the Alps.


+Placynthiella uliginosa (Schrad.) Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 245, 1984 - Lichen uliginosus Schrad., Spicil. Fl. Germ., 1: 88, 1794.

Syn.: Biatora humosa (Hoffm.) Arnold, Biatora uliginosa (Schrad.) Fr., Biatora uliginosa v. humosa auct. p.p., Biatora fuliginosa v. argillacea Kremp., Biatora uliginosa v. humosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea humosa (Hoffm.) Leight., Lecidea uliginosa (Schrad.) Ach. non sensu Vain., Lecidea uliginosa v. argillacea (Kremp.) Hedl., Lecidea uliginosa v. humosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea uliginosa v. proletaria Th.Fr., Saccomorpha arenicola Elenkin, Saccomorpha uliginosa (Schrad.) Hafellner, Stereonema chtonoblastes A.Braun ex Kütz.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2006b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Si (Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar lichen, mostly found on acid soil, more rarely on strongly decomposed lignum, most frequent in the Alps, rarer in the Apennines, where it is most common in old Castanea stands.


+Placynthium asperellum (Ach.) Trevis.

Sched. ad Lichen. Ven.: 98, 1869 - Collema asperellum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 629, 1810.

Syn.: Catillaria subalpina Th.Fr., Placynthium aspratile (Ach.) Henssen, Placynthium vrangianum Gyeln., Toninia asperella (Ach.) A.Massal.

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on moist calciferous rocks in upland areas, the single record from the Italian Alps requires confirmation.


+Placynthium dolichoterum (Nyl.) Trevis.

Sched. ad Lichen. Ven.: 98, 1869 - Pannaria dolichotera Nyl., Lichenes Scand.: 127, 1861.

Syn.: Placynthium pluriseptatum (Arnold) Arnold ?

N - Frl, TAA, Lig.

Cr/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-3, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks in humid-sheltered situations. A poorly-known species of the P. nigrum complex, which badly needs revision.


+Placynthium filiforme (Garov.) M.Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 20: 86, 1951 - Parmelia filiformis Garov. [in Nyl.] Bot. Notiser, 1853: 164, 1853.

Syn.: Leptogium cornicularioides A.Massal., Polychidium centrifugum (Nyl.) Jatta, Pterygium centrifugum Nyl., Pterygium filiforme (Garov.) A.L.Sm.

N - VG (TSB), Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Emil. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Si.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mediterranean (-montane) to mild-temperate lichen, found on steeply inclined seepage tracks of calcareous rocks.


+Placynthium flabellosum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 3: 227, 1925 - Pannaria flabellosa Tuck., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sc., 5: 401, 1862.

Syn.: Anziella adglutinata (Anzi) Gyeln., Lecothecium adglutinatum Anzi, Placynthium adglutinatum (Anzi) Trevis.

N - TAA, Lomb. C - Tosc.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ l/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen, found on moist siliceous rocks (inudation zones, seepages), often near mountain streams.


+Placynthium garovaglioi (A.Massal.) Malme

(1918) - Racoblenna garovaglii A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 134, n. 314, 1853.



N - VG (TSB), Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined, sunny calcareous rocks with some water seepage, it is certainly more widespread in S Italy, but it was largely overlooked by earlier authors.


+Placynthium hungaricum Gyeln.

Borbasia, 1: 52, 1939.



N - VG, Frl. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: er/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate species, found on steeply inclined, sun-exposed seepage tracks of calcareous rocks, certainly much overlooked, and more widespread, at least in the submediterranean belt.


+Placynthium lismorense (Cromb.) Vain.

Ark. Bot., 8, 4: 98, 1909 - Pterygium lismorense Nyl. [in Cromb.] Grevillea, 5: 108, 1877.



C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: on calcareous rocks along seepage tracks.


+Placynthium nigrum (Huds.) Gray

Nat. Arrang. Brit. Plants, 1: 395, 1821 - Lichen niger Huds., Fl. Angl., 2 ed., 2: 524, 1778.

Syn.: Collema nigrum (Huds.) Hoffm., Collema tremniacense A.Massal. nom. nud., Lecothecium corallinoides (Hoffm.) Körb., Lecothecium nigrum (Huds.) A.Massal., Placynthium corallinoides (Hoffm.) Jatta, Placynthium corallinoides v. fuscum (Hepp) Jatta, Placynthium nigrum v. psotinum (Nyl.) Trevis., Placynthium siliceum Gyeln., Placynthium tremniacum (A.Massal.) Jatta ?, Pyrenopsis lecanopsoides Nyl. v. marginata Maheu & Werner, Racoblenna fusca (Hepp) A.Massal., Racoblenna tremniaca A.Massal. ?

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi 2000a, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: rc, D: c, E: rr, F: vc, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a probably holarctic, subtropical to subarctic species, found on calciferous rocks, often near the ground, from the Mediterranean belt (only in shaded-humid situations) to the mountains, also common in small urban settlements (e.g. on north-facing walls).


+Placynthium rosulans (Th.Fr.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 3: 235, 1925 - Lecothecium rosulans Th.Fr., Bot. Notiser, 1863: 12, 1863.

Syn.: Placynthium pannariellum (Nyl.) H.Magn. v. rosulans (Th.Fr.) Degel.

N - Piem.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ #/ Note: a northern species, found on moist siliceous rocks, e.g. in inundation zones along brooks, known from two localities in the W Alps, but perhaps more widespread. The relationship with P. pannariellum (Nyl.) H.Magn. still needs further study, in my opinon, the two taxa may prove to be not distinct.


+Placynthium subradiatum (Nyl.) Arnold

Flora, 67: 240, 1884 - Pannaria subradiata Nyl., Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 314, 1856.

Syn.: Lecothecium controversum Anzi, Lecothecium radiosum Anzi, Lecothecium subradiatum (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Placynthium radiosum (Anzi) Körb., Pterygium petersii Nyl., Pterygium subradiatum (Nyl.) Nyl., Wilmsia radiosa (Anzi) Körb.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Cy.h/ A.f/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: r, D: rc, E: a, F: rc, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on vertical, sun-exposed seepage tracks of calcareous rocks, in the Mediterranean belt mostly on north-exposed faces, also occurring in the mountains.


+Placynthium tantaleum (Hepp) Hue

Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér.5, 9: 153, 1906 - Biatora corallinoides v. tantalea Hepp,

Syn.: Placynthium diblastum Gyeln., Placynthium nigrum v. tantaleum (Hepp) Arnold, Racoblenna tantalea (Hepp) Trevis.

N - Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E:a, F: a, G: a, H:a/ PF: 1/ l/ #/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks along mountain streams. The epithet has been used for various forms of P. nigrum, and I am not sure that it really refers to this lichen, as I did not see the type. Our samples however comply with the description, and represent a well-distinct species with broader, 2-celled spores. Older records, being dubious, are not accepted here, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Platismatia glauca (L.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.

Contr. U.S. Natn. Herb., 34: 530, 1968 - Lichen glaucus L., Sp. Pl.: 1148, 1753.

Syn.: Cetraria fallax (Weber) Anders, Cetraria glauca (L.) Ach., Cetraria glauca f. coralloidea Körb., Cetraria glauca v. fallax Weber, Cetraria glauca v. fusca (Flot.) Körb., Parmelia glauca (L.) Hepp, Platysma fallax (Weber) Hoffm., Platysma glaucum (L.) Frege

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Laz (Ravera 2001, 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Grillo 1996, Ottonello 2005, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 1-2, 3-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: c, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal species, abundant in the Alps, both on bark of beech and of conifers, sometimes even on lignum, becoming progressively rarer along the Apennines.


+Pleopsidium chlorophanum (Wahlenb.) Zopf

Ann. Chem., 284: 117, 1895 - Parmelia chlorophana Wahlenb. [in Ach.] Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 44, 1803.

Syn.: Acarospora chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A.Massal., Acarospora flava v. chlorophana (Wahlenb.) Stein, Gussonea chlorophana (Wahlenb.) Tornab., Pleopsidium flavum v. chlorophanum (Wahlenb.) Körb.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Hafellner 1993), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Tosc, Sar (Hafellner 1993). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: an arctic-alpine, bipolar lichen, found on vertical or underhanging siliceous rocks, in exposed situations, widespread throughout the siliceous Alps, and extending southwards down to the mountains of Sicilia.


+Pleopsidium flavum (Bellardi) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 114, 1855 - Lichen flavus Bellardi, App. Fl. Pedem.: 53, 1792.

Syn.: Acarospora chlorophana f. dissoluta H.Magn., Acarospora chlorophana f. rugosa de Lesd. ?, Acarospora chlorophana v. oxytona (Ach.) Jatta, Acarospora flava (Bellardi) J.Steiner, Acarospora oxytona (Ach.) A.Massal., Gussonea flava (Bellardi) Anzi, Gussonea oxytona (Ach.) A.Massal., Lecanora oxytona Ach., Pleopsidium oxytonum (Ach.) Rabenh.

N - TAA (Hafellner 1993), Lomb, Piem (Allisiardi 2001, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Sar (Hafellner 1993). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: somehow more common than P. chlorophanum in the mountains of the south, and in areas with a continental climate, as in the W and C Italian Alps.


+Pleurosticta acetabulum (Neck.) Elix & Lumbsch

Mycotaxon, 33: 453, 1988 - Lichen acetabulum Neck., Delic. Gallo-Belg. Silv., 2: 506, 1768.

Syn.: Imbricaria acetabulum (Neck.) DC., Melanelia acetabulum (Neck.) Essl., Parmelia acetabulum (Neck.) Duby, Parmelia corrugata Ach., Pleurosticta lichenicola Petr.

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Valcuvia & al. 2000), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003), Piem, Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Brunialti & Giordani 2000, 2003, Giordani & al. 2002, 2003b). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & al. 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1999a, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Del Guasta 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera & al. 2003, Massari & Ravera 2003, nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: er, C: vc, D: rc, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: very abundant in central- to south Italian beech and oak forests, rarer in Mediterranean and Tyrrhenian Italy and in the north, and almost extinct in the Po-Plain, also occurring, with strongly pruinose forms, on calciferous rocks in the high Mediterranean mountains (e.g. in the Madonie Mnts. of Sicilia), exceptionally reaching the subalpine belt in the Alps.


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