+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on inclined faces of schist and weakly calciferous rocks in cold-humid situations.


+Porpidia superba (Körb.) Hertel & Knoph

[in Hertel] Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 438, 1984 - Lecidea superba Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 248, 1855.

Syn.: Huilia superba (Körb.) Hertel, Lecidea incrassata H.Magn., Lecidea macrocarpa v. superba (Körb.) Th.Fr.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine lichen, found on weakly calciferous or basic siliceous rocks. An earlier record from Emilia (see Nimis 1993: 570), being dubious, is not accepted here.


+Porpidia trullisata (Kremp.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 221, 1855 - Diplotomma trullisatum Kremp., Flora, 36: 442-444, 1853.

Syn.: Lecidea contigua v. trullisata (Kremp.) Arnold, Lecidea euspeirea Nyl., Lecidea speirea f. trullisata (Kremp.) Stein in Cohn, Lecidea speirea v. trullisata (Kremp.) Arnold, Lecidea trullisata (Kremp.) Anzi

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004),VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on north-facing, steeply inclined, weakly calciferous rocks, more widespread in the Alps.


+Porpidia tuberculosa (Sm.) Hertel & Knoph

[in Hertel] Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 438, 1984 - Spiloma tuberculosum Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 36, tab. 2556, 1814.

Syn.: Huilia tuberculosa (Sm.) P.James, Lecidea confluens v. tumida (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Lecidea contigua f. tumida (A.Massal.) Arnold, Lecidea macrocarpa v. tumida (A.Massal.) Stein, Lecidea platycarpa v. tumida (A.Massal.) Stein, Lecidea sorediza Nyl., Lecidea tumida A.Massal.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined siliceous rocks, or in woodlands, mostly near the ground. Earlier records from Marche, Campania and Sicilia (see Nimis 1993: 571), being dubious, are not accepted here.


+Porpidia zeoroides (Anzi) Knoph & Hertel

[in Hertel & Knoph] Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 20: 477, 1984 - Lecidea zeoroides Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 2, 1: 17, 1864.

Syn.: Huilia macrocarpa v. trullisata (Arnold) Hertel non Porpidia trullisata (Kremp.) Körb., Lecidea cyclosora Lettau, Lecidea macrocarpa v. trullisata (Arnold) Mig., Lecidea platycarpa f. trullisata Arnold, Lecidea platycarpa v. trullisata (Arnold) Arnold

N - Frl (TSB), TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, often north-exposed faces of weakly calciferous rocks.


+Protoblastenia aurata Poelt & Vězda

[in Poelt] Bestimmungsschl. Eur. Flechten: 540, 1969.

Syn.: Protoblastenia coniasis (A.Massal.) Poelt planta sed non nomen

N - Emil.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calciferous siliceous rocks, to be looked for in the Alps, where it is certainly present.


+Protoblastenia calva (Dicks.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 7: 1, 1930 - Lichen calvus Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit., 2: 18, 1790.

Syn.: Biatora rupestris v. calva (Dicks.) Arnold, Blastenia rupestris v. calva (Dicks.) Lettau, Lecanora leucoderma (Anzi) Stizenb. ?, Placodium rupestre v. calvum (Dicks.) A.L.Sm., Protoblastenia rupestris v. calva (Dicks.) J.Steiner, Zeora leucoderma Anzi ?

N - VG (Crisafulli & al. 2006, Piervittori & al. 2006), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Kainz & Rambold 2004), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Tosc (Benesperi 2007b, Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: c, C: rc, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined faces of hard limestones and dolomite, esp. common in the mountains, from the Alps to Sicilia, descending to lower altitudes in humid areas.


+Protoblastenia cyclospora (Körb.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 12: 5, 1975 - Biatora cyclospora [Hepp ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 152, 1860.

Syn.: Biatora rubidula (Nyl.) Walt.Watson, Lecidea cyclospora (Körb.) Müll.Arg., Lecidea rubidula Nyl., Protoblastenia globulificans (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl (Henssen & Tretiach 1995, Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 326, Kainz & Rambold 2004, Peršoh & al. 2004), TAA (TSB). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, 2007b), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on steeply inclined calcareous rocks in humid-rainy areas, to be looked for in other parts of Italy with very high precipitation and calcareous-dolomitic substrata (e.g. the Apuan Alps).


+Protoblastenia incrustans (DC.) J.Steiner v. incrustans

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 47, 1911 - Patellaria incrustans DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 361, 1805.

Syn.: Biatora rupestris v. incrustans (DC.) A.Massal., Blastenia incrustans (DC.) A.Massal., Blastenia rupestris v. incrustans (DC.) Lettau, Caloplaca incrustans (DC.) Flagey, Placodium incrustans (DC.) A.L.Sm., Placodium rupestre f. incrustans (DC.) A.L.Sm., Protoblastenia rupestris v. incrustans (DC.) Zahlbr.

N - VG, Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Pinna & al. 1998, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, 2007b, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1996b).

Vězda a widepread temperate to circumarctic lichen, one of the most common species of calcareous rocks in natural habitats.


+Protoblastenia incrustans v. coniasis (A.Massal.) Nimis

The Lichens of Italy: 573, 1993 - Biatora coniasis A.Massal., Atti I. R. Ist. Ven. Sc. Lett. Arti, 6, 2, ser. 3: 365, tav. 1, fig. 11-14, 1856.

Syn.: Biatora rupestris v. ochracea Anzi, Lecidea coniasis (A.Massal.) Lettau, Protoblastenia incrustans f. coniasis (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

N - TAA, Lomb, Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: er, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: certainly more widespread through the Alps, albeit not common, this taxon is well worthy of further study.


+Protoblastenia lilacina Poelt & Vězda

[in Vězda] Acta Musei Silesiae, ser. A: 26. 1970.



N - Ven (Kainz & Rambold 2004). S - Pugl (Kainz & Rambold 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a rather poorly-known species of sunny calcareous rocks, known grom Germany, Austria, Italy and Croatia. It is characterized by the weak reaction of the apothecia to K.


+Protoblastenia rupestris (Scop.) J.Steiner

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 47, 1911 - Lichen rupestris Scop., Fl. Carniol., 2 ed., 1: 363, 1772.

Syn.: Biatora rupestris (Scop.) Fr., Biatora similis A.Massal. ?, Blastenia rupestris (Scop.) Zahlbr., Lecanora irrubata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecidea rupestris (Scop.) Ach., Placodium rupestre (Scop.) Branth. & Rostr., Protoblastenia rupestris v. irrubata (Ach.) Szatala, Verrucaria rupestris (Scop.) F.H.Wigg. non Schrad.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Kainz & Rambold 2004). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: er, C: rr, D: vc, E: er, F: vc, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: a common and ecologically wide-ranging species, most frequent on faces of calciferous rocks wetted by rain, and near the ground, an early colonizer of several substrata, from mortar-cement to basic siliceous pebbles, often found in urban areas.


+Protoblastenia siebenhaariana (Körb.) J.Steiner

Verh. K.K. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 48, 1911 - Biatora siebenhaariana Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 207, 1855

Syn.: Blastenia siebenhaariana (Körb.) Lettau, Protoblastenia siebenhaariana v. alpina (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?, Protoblastenia rupestris ssp. albida Asta & Cl.Roux, Protoblastenia rupestris ssp. siebenhaariana (Körb.) A.L.Sm., Protoblastenia siebenhaariana ssp. albida (Asta & Cl.Roux) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on base-rich or calciferous siliceous rocks and on dolomite, not frequent in Italy, but locally common. The var. alpina (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.Roux (Biatora rupestris v. alpina Arnold) perhaps does not belong to this taxon.


+Protoblastenia terricola (Anzi) Lynge

Lich. Novaya Zemlya: 216, 1928 - Biatora rupestris v. terricola Anzi, Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 78, 1860.

Syn.: Biatora terricola (Anzi) Th.Fr., Blastenia terricola (Anzi) Lindau, Lecidea terricola (Anzi) Th.Fr., Protoblastenia siebenhaariana v. terricola (Anzi) Hafellner & Türk

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2006), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on soil over weakly calcareous or dolomitic substrata, perhaps this is only a terricolus morph of P. siebenhaariana, most frequent in the southern part of its distributional range.


+Protomicarea limosa (Ach.) Hafellner

[in Hafellner & Türk], Preslia, 76: 156, 2001- Lecidea limosa Ach., Lich. Univ.: 182, 1810.

Syn.: Lecidea borealis (Körb.) Anzi, Lecidella borealis Körb.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on naked soil in sites with a long snow-lie, in clearings of Alpine grasslands, more rarely on muribund bryophytes and plant debris.


+Protopannaria pezizoides (Weber) M.Jørg. & S.Ekman

[in M.Jørg.] The Bryologist, 103, 4: 699, 2001 - Lichen pezizoides Weber, Spicil. Fl. Goett.: 200, 1778.

Syn.: Lecanora brunnea (Sw.) Ach., Lecanora pezizoides (Weber) Borrer, Lichen badius J.F. Gmel., Lichen brunneus Sw., Pannaria brunnea (Sw.) A.Massal., Pannaria brunnea v. demissa Th.Fr., Pannaria pezizoides (Weber) Trevis., Pannaria pezizoides f. pseudonebulosa Gyeln.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc, Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane lichen, circumpolar lichen, found on mosses, plant debris, organic soil in open habitats, most common in the Alps, but occurring, albeit more rarely, throughout the Apennines.


+Protoparmelia atriseda (Fr.) R.Sant. & V.Wirth

[in V.Wirth] Flechten Baden-Württembergs: 211, 1987 - Parmelia badia v. atriseda Fr., Nov. Sched. Crit.: 7, 1827.

Syn.: Lecanora atriseda (Fr.) Nyl., Lecanora nephaea auct. non Sommerf.

N - TAA. S - Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras yellow Rhizocarpon species/ Note: on hard siliceous rocks, certainly more widespread in the Alps. A heterogeneous taxon (see Nimis 1993: 574).


+Protoparmelia badia (Hoffm.) Hafellner

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 292, 1984 - Verrucaria badia Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 182, 1796.

Syn.: Lecanora badia (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecanora badia v. milvina Rabenh., Lecanora grandis H.Magn., Lecanora picea (Dicks.) Nyl. non auct., Lichen piceus Dicks. non auct., Protoparmelia badia v. cinereobadia (Harm.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?, Protoparmelia picea (Dicks.) Hafellner non auct.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 2-6/ A: c, A1: vc, B: rr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: most common in the Alps, but extending to lower altitudes, incl. albeit rarely the Mediterranean belt (e.g. in Sardegna).


+Protoparmelia cupreobadia (Nyl.) Poelt

[in Poelt & Leuckert] Nova Hedwigia, 52: 52, 1991 - Lecanora cupreobadia Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1853: 165, 1853.



N - TAA. C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras yellow Rhizocarpon spp./ Note: on gneiss and porphyric rocks, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Protoparmelia leproloma (R.Sant.) Rambold & Poelt

[in Poelt & Leuckert] Nova Hedwigia, 52, 1-2: 54, 1991 - Lecidea leproloma R.Sant., Sched. ad Lich. Sel. Upsal., 14, §.



N - Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ A.f/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 5/ A: vr/ A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecidea praenubila, Sporastatia, and other crustose lichens/ Note: an arctic-alpine species, more widespread in Scandinavia than in the Alps.


+Protoparmelia memnonia Hafellner & Türk

Preslia, 76: 157, 2001

Syn.: Lecanora picea auct. non (Dicks.) Nyl., Protoparmelia picea auct. non (Dicks.) Hafellner

N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on hard siliceous rocks in exposed situations, probably ranging throughout the siliceous Alps, in rainy-humid areas.


+Protoparmelia montagnei (Fr.) Poelt & Nimis

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 188, 1987 - Parmelia montagnei Fr., Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 107, 1831.

Syn.: Lecanora badia v. microcarpa Anzi ?, Lecanora bagliettoana Jatta ?, Lecanora verruculosa Bagl. ?, Lecanora montagnei (Fr.) Schaer., Lecanora psarophana Nyl., Lecanora psarophana v. aquilina Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Lecanora stenospora Hue in Maheu & A. Gillet, Protoparmelia psarophana (Nyl.) Sancho & A. Crespo

C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Puntillo 1995, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: rc, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a Mediterranean-Macaronesia, chemically variable species of siliceous rocks. For further details see Barbero & al. (2006).


+Protoparmelia ochrococca (Nyl.) M.Jørg., Rambold & Hertel

[in Hertel] Lecideaceae Exsiccatae, X, 7, 196, 1988 - Lecidea ochrococca Nyl., Oefv. Kgl. Vetensk.-Akad. Förh., 17: 297, 1860.



C - Sar (Zedda 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: er, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a western species, with a single known station in Italy.


+Protoparmelia oleaginea (Harm.) Coppins

[in Coppins et al.] Lichenologist, 24, 4: 368, 1992 - Lecanora oleaginea Harm., Lich. France: 1023, 1913.

Syn.: Lecanora furva H.Magn. ?

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: in damp deciduous forests. This is a "virtual" record. Sphinctrina anglica, an obligate parasite of this species, was reported from Lombardia (see Nimis 1993: 659), based on Anzi, Lich. Lang. 212, this "western" species should be looked fore more intensively in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Protoparmelia phaeonesos Poelt

[in Poelt & Leuckert] Nova Hedwigia, 52: 56, 1991.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Aspilidea myrinii/ Note: on siliceous rocks, probably much more widespread in the Alps.


+Protoparmelia placentiformis (J.Steiner) Poelt

[in Poelt & Leuckert] Nova Hedwigia, 52, 1-2: 59, 1991 - Lecanora placentiformis J.Steiner, Ann. Mycol., 8: 233, 1910.



N - Lig (TSB).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C:er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ paras Bellemerea cupreoatra/ Note: on sunny siliceous rock in dry areas. Described from arid pars of Asia, after the record in Macedonia, this is the second finding from Europe, the Italian specimens are much larger than the 1-2 cm diam. reported by Poelt, for the rest, they fully comply with the description, I wonder whether this characteristic lichen really belongs in Protoparmelia.


+Protoparmeliopsis achariana (A.L.Sm.) Moberg & R.Sant.

[in Santesson & al.] Lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Fennoscandia: §, 2004 - Lecanora achariana A.L.Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich., 1: 261, 1918.

Syn.: Lecanora cartilaginea (Lilj.) Ach.

C - Sar.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 5/ A: a, A1: a, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on siliceous rocks, sometimes overgrowing bryophytes, the only Italian station is from the top of the Gennargentu Massif, where this species is fairly abundant.


+Protoparmeliopsis bolcana (Pollini) §

§ - Lecidea bolcana Pollini, Giorn. Fis. Chim. St. Nat. Pavia, 9: 178, 1816.

Syn.: Lecanora diffracta auct. ital. p.p., Lecanora muralis spp. bolcana (Pollini) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Lecanora bolcana (Pollini) Poelt

N - Ven, Lomb (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004, Delucchi & Valcuvia 2004), Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001), Lig. C - Tosc (Pišút 1997, Tretiach & al. 2008), Laz, Sar, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, B: vr, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rc, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: ecologically similar to L. muralis, but more restricted to natural habitats, on less basic substrata, and with optimum in the Mediterranean belt.


+Protoparmeliopsis laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Moberg & R.Sant.

[in Santesson & al.] Lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Fennoscandia: §, 2004 - Parmularia laatokkaensis Räsänen, Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo, 12, 1: 63, 1939.

Syn: Lecanora laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Poelt

N - TAA (Ryan & Nash 1993), Lig (Ryan & Nash 1993). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: r, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on schist, serpentine, amphibolite, mostly on horizontal faces near the ground, at least when young, parasitic on other crustose lichens. (Eur, N Amer). The record from Lombardy by Valcuvia & Delucchi (2001) is dubious.


+Protoparmeliopsis macrocyclos (H.Magn.) Moberg & R.Sant.

[in Santesson & al.] Lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Fennoscandia: §, 2004 - Lecanora muralis v. macrocyclos H.Magn., Bot. Notiser: 115, 1929.

Syn.: Lecanora macrocyclos (H.Magn.) Degel., Lecanora muralis ssp. macrocyclos (H.Magn.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - Ven.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: an arctic-alpine member of the difficult L. muralis-complex, which needs further study. See Timdal (1987).


+ Protoparmeliopsis muralis (Schreb.) M.Choisy

Contrib. Lichénogr., dec. I, tab. 7, 1929 - Lichen muralis Schreb., Spicil. Fl. Lips.: 130, 1771.

Syn.: Lecanora alboeffigurata (Anzi) Jatta (strain with psoromic acid), Lecanora albomarginata (Nyl.) Cromb., Lecanora diffracta (Ach.) Ach. non auct. ital., Lecanora muralis (Schreb.) Rabenh., Lecanora muralis v. albopulverulenta (Schaer.) Rabenh., Lecanora muralis v. versicolor (Pers.) Tuck., Lecanora saxicola (Pollich) Ach., Patellaria muralis (Schreb.) Trevis., Placodium albopulverulentum (Schaer.) A.Massal., Placodium saxicolum (Pollich) Körb., Placodium versicolor (Pers.) Frege, Placolecanora muralis (Schreb.) Räsänen, , Squamaria alboeffigurata Anzi, Squamaria saxicola v. diffracta f. dealbata Anzi, Squamarina provincialis Clauzade & Poelt

N - VG (Crisafulli & al. 2004, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b), Lomb (Realini & al. 1994, Roux & Triebel 1994, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1996b, Benesperi 2000a, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Scarciglia & al. 2007), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, Grillo 1998, Di Benedetto & al. 2002, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-5, 3-5, 3-4, 3-5/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: vc, B: rc, C: ec, D: ec, E: c, F: ec, G: vc, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a widespread, polymorphic, holarctic lichen, found on siliceous and calcareous rocks, roofing tiles, brick, also occurring in urban areas (e.g. in the center of Rome).


+ Protoparmeliopsis muralis v. dubyi (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner & Türk

Preslia, 76: §, 2001 - Lecanora dubyi Müll.Arg., Bull. Soc. Hallerienne: 36, 1853.

Syn.: Lecanora riparia J.Steiner nom. illeg., Lecanora muralis ssp. dubyi (Müll.Arg.) Poelt

N - Frl, TAA (TSB), Lomb (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Delucchi & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001). C - Sar. S - Camp, Si (Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on weakly calciferous or basic siliceous rocks. The var. schneebergensis (Zahlbr.) Hafellner & Türk is known from the Austrian Alps.


+Protoparmeliopsis muralis v. subcartilaginea (Poelt)

§ - Lecanora muralis v. subcartilaginea [A.Massal. ex] Poelt, Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 19-20: 500, 1958.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, Piem (TSB). S - Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: er, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a poorly-known taxon, well worthy of further study.


+Protothelenella corrosa (Körb.) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Herzogia, 7: 42, 1985 - Limboria corrosa Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 376, 1855.

Syn.: Acrorixis corrosa (Körb.) Trevis., Microglaena corrosa (Körb.) Arnold, Microglaena gibbosula (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell, Microglaena nericiensis Hellb., Polyblastia arenaria (Hampe) Jatta, Thelenella corrosa (Körb.) Vain.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar lichen, found on slightly calciferous rocks, esp. by creeks and lakes, on boulders and pebbles near the ground, much overlooked and certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Protothelenella croceae (Bagl. & Carestia) Hafellner & H.Mayrhofer

[in H.Mayrhofer] Herzogia, 7: 320, 1987 - Xenosphaeria croceae Bagl. & Carestia, Atti Soc. Critt. Ital., 2, 3: 352, 1880.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

LF/ §/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Peltigera spp. and Solorina crocea/ Note: an arctic-alpine lichenicolus fungus found on old, dying thalli of Solorina crocea and Peltigera, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Protothelenella leucothelia (Nyl.) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Herzogia, 7: 45, 1985 - Verrucaria leucothelia Nyl., Flora, 47: 356, 1864.

Syn.: Dactyloblastus leucothelius (Nyl.) Anzi, Microglaena leucothelia (Nyl.) Arnold

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on soil, muribund bryophytes, plant debris and lichens (Cladonia), sometimes on rotting wood, probably ranging throughout the Alps, but overlooked.


+Protothelenella sphinctrinoidella (Nyl.) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Herzogia, 7: 47, 1985 - Verrucaria sphinctrinoidella Nyl., Flora, 47: 355, 1864.

Syn.: Gloeopyrenia reducta (Th.Fr.) Zschacke, Microglaena coenosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Microglaena geoctona Hellb., Microglaena reducta (Th.Fr.) Hellb., Microglaena sphinctrinoidella (Nyl.) Körb., Microglaena sphinctrinoides ssp. reducta Th.Fr., Thelenella coenosa Vain., Thelenella reducta (Th.Fr.) Vain.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on soil, muribund bryophytes and lichens, more rarely on decaying plants, often in rather disturbed habitats, e.g. on mountain track sides, certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Protothelenella sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Herzogia, 7: 53, 1985 - Verrucaria sphinctrinoides Nyl., Not. Sällsk. F. Fl. Fenn. Förh., 4: 6, 1858.

Syn.: Chromatochlamys sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Trevis., Gloeopyrenia gelatinosa (Zahlbr.) Zschacke, Microglaena gelatinosa Zahlbr., Microglaena sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Lönnr., Polyblastia sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Jatta, Thelenella sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) Vain., Verrucaria gelatinosa sensu Sommerf. non Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on muribund bryophytes on soil and rock, more rarely on soil, in rather disturbed sites (e.g. on mountain track sides) with a long snow-lie, often in crevices or small depressions of the ground, much undercollected, probably ranging throughout the Alps.


+Pseudephebe minuscula (Arnold) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 140, 1977 - Imbricaria lanata v. minuscula [Nyl. ex] Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 28: 293, 1878.

Syn.: Alectoria minuscula (Arnold) Degel., Parmelia minuscula (Arnold) Nyl.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-6/ A: c, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on hard siliceous rocks (incl. pure quartz) in wind-exposed situations, often confused with P. pubescens in the older literature, rare outside the Alps.


+Pseudephebe pubescens (L.) M.Choisy

Icon. Lich. Univ., sér. 2, 1, 1930 - Lichen pubescens L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1155, 1753.

Syn.: Alectoria intricans (Vain.) Motyka, Alectoria lanata (Neck.) Nyl., Alectoria lanata v. alpicola Wahlenb., Alectoria lanea (Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) Vain., Alectoria pubescens (L.) R.Howe, Alectoria pubescens v. reticulata (Wulfen) A. E. Wade, Bryopogon pubescens (L.) M.Choisy, Cornicularia lanata (Neck.) Ach., Cornicularia pubescens (L.) Ach., Parmelia lanata (Neck.) Wallr., Parmelia pubescens (L.) Vain., Pseudephebe pubescens v. subciliata (Nyl.) D.Hawksw.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut/ Ch/ A.f/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vc, A1: c, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to (more rarely) boreal-montane lichen, ecologically similar to P. minuscula, but with a broader altitudinal range, more frequent than P. minuscula in the mountains of the south.


+Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf v. furfuracea

Beih. Bot. Centralbl., 14: 124, 1903 - Lichen furfuraceus L., Sp. Pl.: 1146, 1753.

Syn.: Borrera furfuracea (L.) Ach., Evernia furfuracea (L.) W.Mann, Parmelia furfuracea (L.) Ach., Parmelia furfuracea f. elongata Sambo, Parmelia furfuracea v. cincinnata Sambo, Parmelia soralifera (Bitter) Lynge, Pseudevernia soralifera (Bitter) Zopf

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos 2003, Agnorelli & al. 2004, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Martellos 2003, Crisafulli & al. 2005, Tretiach & al. 2005, Rinino 2006), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Martellos 2003, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007), TAA (Follmann & Schulz 1993, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Martellos 2003, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Arosio & al. 2003, Martellos 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Rizzio & al. 2001, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007, Martellos 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001, Ghiraldi 2003, Martellos 2003, Isocrono & al. 2005), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Martellos 2003), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Martellos 2003). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1997, 1998, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Martellos 2003, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Martellos 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Martellos 2003), Laz (Ravera 2002, Martellos 2003, Massari & Ravera 2003, Guidotti & al. 2005), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Martellos 2003), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Martellos 2003). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Martellos 2003), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Martellos 2003, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Boom & Giralt 2002, Martellos 2003), Si (Czeczuga & al. 1999, Martellos 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Ottonello 2005, Falco Scampatelli 2005, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 1-2, 3-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: ec, B: er, C: ec, D: vr, E: er, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, abundant only in the Alps, rarer in the Apennines, exceptionally reaching the plains of the north on very acid substrata.


+Pseudevernia furfuracea v. ceratea (Ach.) D.Hawksw.

Lichenologist, 4: 162, 1969 - Parmelia furfuracea v. ceratea Ach., Meth. Lich.: 255, 1803.

Syn.: Evernia furfuracea v. ceratea (Ach.) Opiz, Evernia olivetorina Zopf, Parmelia ceratea (Ach.) Sandst., Parmelia furfuracea v. olivetorina (Zopf) Zahlbr., Parmelia olivetorina Zopf, Pseudevernia furfuracea v. olivetorina (Zopf) Zopf, Pseudevernia olivetorina (Zopf) Zopf

N - Frl (Martellos 2003), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2002c, 2003c, Martellos 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Martellos 2003, Nascimbene 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Martellos 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Martellos 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Martellos 2003), Lig (Martellos 2003). C - Tosc (Martellos 2003), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Martellos 2003), Abr, Sar (Martellos 2003). S - Bas (Martellos 2003), Cal (Martellos 2003).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Epiph-Sax/ 1-2, 3-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: more frequent than the typical variety in dry-continental areas.


+Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain.

Etude Lich. Brésil, 1: 183, 1890 - Sticta aurata Ach., Meth. Lich.: 277, 1803.



S - Pugl, Si.

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E:, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: an oceanic-subtropical species of moist, warm, open forests, most probably extinct in Italy. The most recent record dates back to 1923 (Marche), with a record by Jatta from Abruzzi (Nimis 1993: 579): both records - from the E side of the peninsula – being dubious are not accepted here. However, the species was also reported from warm-humid areas of S Italy (Gargano-Puglia and Sicilia) by Flotow and Rabenhorst (Nimis 1993: 579). In S Italy there are warm-humid sites which could have hosted this species.


+Psilolechia clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins

Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist., Bot. 11, 2: 201, 1983 - Lecidea clavulifera Nyl., 1869



C - Tosc (Benesperi et al. 2006, 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr-Epiph/ 1-2, 1-2, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: o/ u/ Note: on roots, stones and consolidated soil of dry underhangs on banks or the roots of fallen trees. Perhaps overlooked and more widespread, but certainly rare in Italy.


+Psilolechia leprosa Coppins & Purvis

Lichenologist, 19: 35, 1987.



S - Si.

Lepr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ m/ Note: on shaded, mineral-rich siliceous rocks in underhangs, probably overlooked and more widespread, but certainly not common in Italy.


+Psilolechia lucida (Ach.) M.Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 18: 142, 1949 - Lichen lucidus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 39, 1799.

Syn.: Biatora lucida (Ach.) Fr., Lecidea lucida (Ach.) Ach., Lepra chlorina sensu A.Massal.,

N - Frl (Tretiach 2004), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar.

Lepr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: er, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ Note: in underhangs of siliceous rocks protected from rain in humid areas, but also on a wide range of substrata (soil, exposed roots, bases of ancient trees), in Italy restricted to natural habitats. More frequent in the Alps and the in the most humid parts of the Mediterranean belt.


+Psora decipiens (Hedw.) Hoffm.

Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 2: 68, 1794 - Lichen decipiens Hedw., Descr. Adumbr. Musc. Frond., 2: 7, 1789.

Syn.: Biatora decipiens (Hedw.) Fr., Lecanora decipiens (Hedw.) Ach., Lecidea decipiens (Hedw.) Ach., Lecidea decipiens f. dealbata (Rabenh.) Jatta, Lecidea flavorubens Werner, Psora decipiens v. dealbata A.Massal. ex Rabenh.

N - VG (Tretiach 1996), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2005).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: vc, B: rc, C: rc, D: rr, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic species with a broad altitudinal and latitudinal range, found on bare calciferous soil, esp. in dry grasslands, rare only in areas with intensive grazing, high trampling, and intense anthropization.


+Psora globifera (Ach.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 91, 1852 - Lecidea globifera Ach., Meth. Lich.: 213, 1803.



N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on slightly calciferous or base-rich soil and weathered siliceous rocks. Earlier records from central Italy (Nimis 1993: 581), being dubious, are not accepted here.


+Psora gresinonis de Lesd.

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 77: 614, 1930.

Syn.: Lecidea gresinonis (de Lesd.) Zahlbr.

N - Lig. C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on soil, in fissures of base-rich or slightly calciferous siliceous rocks, with optimum in dry grasslands, chemically heterogeneous (with and without norstictic acid), with a Tyrrhenian range in Italy.


+Psora rubiformis (Ach.) Hook.

Engl. Fl., 5: 197, 1844 - Baeomyces rubiformis Ach., Meth. Lich.: 324, tab. 7 fig. 5, 1814.

Syn.: Lecidea rubiformis (Ach.) Wahlenb.

N - Lomb, Piem.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on loess and calciferous soil, in fissures of calciferous siliceous rocks (e.g. calciferous schists), chemically heterogeneous (with and without gyrophoric acid). The record from Campania (Nimis 1993: 582), being dubious, is not accepted here.


+Psora saviczii (Tomin) Follmann & A. Crespo

Philippia, 2, 5: 283, 1975 - Lecidea saviczii Tomin, Nat. Agric. arid Reg. USSR: 47, 1927.



N - Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Vězda Lich.Rar.Exs. 259).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a mainly gypsicolous, southern species in Europe, to be looked for in other areas with gypsum outcrops (e.g. in Sicilia).


+Psora testacea Hoffm.

Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 1: 99, tab. 22, figs. 5-6, 1794.

Syn.: Biatora testacea (Hoffm.) W.Mann, Chrysospora testacea (Hoffm.) M.Choisy, Lecanora testacea (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea testacea (Hoffm.) Ach., Protoblastenia testacea (Hoffm.) Clauzade & Rondon

N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr-Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: rr, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: optimum in fissures of base-rich or lime-containing metamorphic rocks, most frequent in dry alpine valleys and in upland areas along the E side of the Peninsula.


+Psora vallesiaca (Schaer.) Timdal

Nord. J. Bot., 4, 4: 538, 1984 - Lecidea vallesiaca Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 12: 631, 1842.

Syn.: Lecidea albilabra auct., Lecidea deceptoria Nyl., Psora albilabra auct. non (Dufour) Körb., Psora albilabra ssp. deceptoria (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Psora deceptoria (Nyl.) Flagey, Psora subdecipiens (Nyl.) Flagey, Squamaria deceptoria (Nyl.) Werner & M.Choisy

N - Ven, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Alonso & Egea 1994). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Alonso & Egea 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 3-4, 4, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on bare soil and in fissures of rock, not rare where suitable habitats are present (subcontinental conditions and base-rich, slightly calciferous siliceous substrata). The record from Venezia Giulia by Nimis (1993: 582) was a misidentification.


+Psorinia conglomerata (Ach.) Gotth.Schneid.

Bibl. Lichenol., 13: 130, 1980 ("1979") - Lecidea conglomerata Ach., Lich. Univ.: 201, 1810.

Syn.: Lecidea artyta Ach., Lecidea conglomerascens Nyl., Lecidea glomerans Nyl., Lecidea rugifera Vain., Lecidea silénii Vain., Lecidea squalens Nyl., Thalloidima conglomeratum (Ach.) A.Massal., Tonina loitlesbergeri Zahlbr., Toninia conglomerascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Toninia conglomerata (Ach.) Boistel, Toninia glomerans (Nyl.) Boistel, Toninia squalens (Nyl.) H.Olivier

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Abr.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on steeply inclined to underhanging, acidic to slightly basic siliceous rocks, often in fissures and cracks, more frequent in the Alps.


+Psoroglaena stigonemoides (Orange) Henssen

Bibl. Lichenol., 57: 203, 1995 - Macentina stigonemoides Orange, Lichenologist, 21, 3: 229, 1989.

Syn.: Leucocarpia stigonemoides (Orange) Hafellner & Kalb

N - Frl (Tretiach 1997). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Foliic/ 3-4, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a humid subtropical to mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found esp. on Sambucus nigra in humid-shaded situations, and on the leaves of Buxus in the undergrowth of moist-warm forests, certainly not common, but also overlooked.


+Psoroma hypnorum (Vahl) Gray

Nat. Arrang. Brit. Plants, 1: 445, 1821 - Lichen hypnorum Vahl, Fl. Dan., 6, 16: 8, 1787.

Syn.: Lecanora femsjonensis Fr., Lecanora hypnorum (Vahl) Ach., Pannaria femsjonensis v. microphylla Anzi nom. nud., Pannaria hypnorum (Vahl) Körb., Pannaria porriginosa Vain., Pannaria muscorum Ach., Parmelia lepidora Ach., Psora deaurata Hoffm., Psoroma femsjonense (Fr.) Trevis.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on soil, often in and amongst bryophytes, in moist habitats, most frequent in the Alps.


Psoroma tenue Henssen v. boreale Henssen

[in Henssen & Renner] Mycotaxon, 13: 441, 1981.



N - TAA (Jørgensen 2004: Austria, near the border, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Anzi Lich. Lang. Exs. 64: Jørgensen 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 5-6/ A: rc, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen weak in competition, found on wet, naked soil, near glaciers or late snow-beds, perhaps more widespread in the Alps but easily confused with P. hypnorum (see Jørgensen 2004).


+Psorotichia allobrogensis Hue

Journ de Botanique, 10: 8, 1896.



S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ #/ Note: a poorly known species of steeply inclined calcareous rocks.


+Psorotichia diffracta (Nyl.) Forssell

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., 3, 13: 76, 1885 - Collemopsis diffracta Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 3: 198, 1855.



N - VG.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on sun-exposed seepages of calcareous rocks, overlooked, and perhaps more widespread.


+Psorotichia frustulosa Anzi

Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 2: 4, 1864.

Syn.: Collemopsis frustulosa (Anzi) Nyl., Pyrenopsis subolivacea Werner

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ #/ Note: on steeply inclined, sunny calcareous or basic siliceous rocks.


+Psorotichia murorum A.Massal.

Framm. Lichenogr.: 15, n. 27, 1855.

Syn: Collemopsis murorum (A.Massal.) Stizenb., Psorotichia lugubris (A.Massal.) Arnold ?, Stenhammara lugubris A.Massal. ?

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Abr, Sar. S - Pugl, Si.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ w/ #/ Note: on sunny calcareous rocks.


+Psorotichia obtenebrans (Nyl.) Forssell

Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal., 3, 13: 77, 1885 - Collemopsis obtenebrans Nyl., Flora, 68: 39, 1885.



C - Tosc (TSB).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ #/ Note: a southern species of sunny calcareous rocks, perhaps related to Pterygiopsis affinis.


+Psorotichia schaereri (A.Massal.) Arnold

Flora, 52: 265, 1869 - Pannaria schaereri A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 114, n. 204, fig. 225, 1852.

Syn.: Collemopsis caesia Nyl., Collemopsis schaereri (A.Massal.) Cromb., Psorotichia caesia (Nyl.) Forssell, Pyrenopsis schaereri (A.Massal.) Nyl., Racoblenna caesia (Nyl.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: er, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ w/ Note: on limestone, dolomite, calcareous sandstone and schists, on sunny seepage tracks, rarely on walls.


+Psorula rufonigra (Tuck.) Gotth.Schneid.

Bibl. Lichenol., 13: 136, 1980 ("1979") - Biatora rufonigra Tuck., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts, 1: 250, 1848.

Syn.: Lecidea rufonigra (Tuck.) Nyl., Psora rufonigra (Tuck.) Gotth.Schneid.

N - TAA. C - Sar.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ paras Spilonema spp./ subc/ Note: a widespread, mainly southern species of dry areas, found on sun-exposed, inclined to vertical seepage tracks of base-rich siliceous rocks, probably more widespread in the Alps, esp. in dry-continental valleys.


+Pterygiopsis affinis (A.Massal.) Henssen

Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges., 92, 2-3: 486, 1979 - Enchylium affine A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 94, n.199, fig. 113, t. 18, 1853.

Syn.: Enchylium affine v. melanophaeum A.Massal., Enchylium affine v. pulvinatum A.Massal., Enchylium rubbianum A.Massal., Forssellia affinis (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Heppia purpurascens Nyl.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (TSB), Sar (Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 355). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ w/ Note: on periodically wetted calcareous rocks, esp. along sun-exposed seepage tracks.


+Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog

Nordic J. of Botany, 2: 291, 1982 - Lichen borreri Sm., Engl. Bot., 25: 1780.

Syn.: Imbricaria borreri (Sm.) Körb., Parmelia borreri (Sm.) Turner, Parmelia borreri v. pseudoborreri Lambinon & Targé

N - VG (Leandrin 2006), Frl (Tretiach & Baruffo 2001, 2001b, Giordani & al. 2003b), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Tretiach & al. 2003), Lomb (Tretiach & al. 2003), Piem (Valcuvia 2002, 2002b), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2003), Lig (Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & al. 1996, 1999a, Senese & Critelli 2000), Marc (Tretiach & al. 2003, Frati & al. 2004), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 2003, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Thell & al. 2002), Mol (Frati & al. 2004), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Tretiach & al. 2003), Bas (Tretiach & al. 2003), Cal (Tretiach & al. 2003), Si (Tretiach & al. 2003).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 3, 3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: r, E: er, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen, found on more or les isolated, mostly deciduous trees.


+Punctelia jeckeri (Roum.) Kalb

Bibl. Lichenol., 95, 2007 - §

Syn.: Parmelia borreri v. ulophylla (Ach.) Nyl., Parmelia dubia v. ulophylla (Ach.) Harm., Parmelia ulophylla (Ach.) F.Wilson, Punctelia ulophylla (Ach.) van Herk & Aptroot, Parmelia caperata v. ulophylla Ach.

N - VG (Leandrin 2006), Frl (Giordani & al. 2003b), TAA (Giordani & al. 2003b). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-4, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: rr, E: vr, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1-3/ Note: on bark of isolated deciduous trees, ecologically intermediate between Xanthorion and Parmelion, a recently-resurrected species, to be looked for throughout Italy.
+Punctelia perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh.& Ladd

Mycotaxon, 28: 249, 1987 - Parmelia duboscquii Abbayes v. perreticulata Räsänen [in Sbarbaro] Ann. Mus. Civ. Storia Nat. Genova 41: 40, 1941.

Syn.: Parmelia perreticulata (Räsänen) Hale

N - Lig (Gyelnik Lichenoth. Parva 72: Adler & Ahti 1996, Longàn & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2002).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly mediterranean-atlantic lichen, restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Punctelia stictica (Duby) Krog

Nordic J. of Botany, 2: 291, 1982 - Parmelia borreri v. stictica Duby, Bot. Gall., 2: 601, 1830.

Syn.: Parmelia dubia v. stictica (Duby) Schaer., Parmelia stictica (Duby) Nyl.

N - TAA, Lomb.

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on siliceous rocks in open situations, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog

Nordic J. of Botany, 2: 291, 1982 - Parmelia subrudecta Nyl., Flora, 69: 320, 1886.

Syn.: Imbricaria borreri auct. ital. p.p., Parmelia borreri auct.ital. p.p., Parmelia helenae de Lesd., Parmelia dubia (Wulfen) Schaer., Parmelia maculato-sorediosa (Gyeln.) Gyeln., Punctelia helenae (de Lesd.) De Priest & Hale

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004, Leandrin 2006), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2007), TAA (Philippi 1983), Lomb (Philippi 1983 Rivellini 1994,, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, Castino 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Adler & Ahti 1996, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Adamo & al. 1993, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Benesperi 2000a, Bettini 2001, Del Guasta 2001, Baruffo & Tretiach 2005, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Lich. Graec. 95: Obermayer 1997, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-4, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vc, E: rr, F: vc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly temperate species, found on bark of isolated deciduous trees, ecologically intermediate between Xanthorion and Parmelion, quite rare along the E side of the Peninsula, and in the eu-Mediterranean belt.


+Pycnora praestabilis (Nyl.) Hafellner

[in Hafellner & Türk] Preslia, 76: 156, 2001 - Lecidea praestabilis Nyl., Flora, 57: 13, 1874.



Syn.: Hypocenomyce praestabilis (Nyl.) Timdal, Hypocenomyce xanthococca auct. non (Sommerf.) P.James & Gotth.Schneid. ?, Lecidea xanthococca auct. non Sommerf.

N - Ven, TAA. S - Cal.

Sq/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1, 3-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on wood in the mountains. The record from Calabria (Nimis 1993: 321) is probably wrong, but also those from the Alps require confirmation.


+Pycnora sorophora (Vain.) Hafellner

[in Poelt & Vězda] Bibl. Lichenol., 16: 364, 1981 - Lecidea xanthococca ssp. sorophora Vain., Acta Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 57, 2: 237, 1834.

Syn.: Lecidea giselae Zahlbr., Hypocenomyce sorophora (Vain.) P.James & Poelt

N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e).

Sq/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1, 3-5, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: §.


+Pycnothelia papillaria (Ehrh.) L.M.Dofour

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