+Absconditella annexa


Bull. Dept. Agr. Govt. Rest. Inst. Formosa 8: 45, 1895 - Lichen papillarius Ehrh., §



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Bull. Dept. Agr. Govt. Rest. Inst. Formosa 8: 45, 1895 - Lichen papillarius Ehrh., §


Syn.: Biatora epimarta (Nyl.) Walt.Watson, Cenomyce papillaria (Ehrh.) Ach., Cladonia papillaria (Ehrh.) Hoffm., Lecidea epimarta Nyl.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Ven (§), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007). S - Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: er, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to cool-temperate lichen, found on clay soil, often in Calluna-heaths, most frequent in the Alps, becoming much rarer southwards.


+Pyrenocollema caesium (Nyl.) R.C.Harris

[in Egan] The Bryologist, 90: 164, 1987 - Verrucaria caesia Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1853: 162, 1853.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia caesia (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia nylanderi (Hepp) Riedl, Arthopyrenia tychothecioides Arnold, Leiophloea caesia (Nyl.) Trevis., Leiophloea nylanderi (Hepp) Trevis., Pseudarthopyrenia caesia (Nyl.) Keissl., Sagedia nylanderi Hepp

N - TAA.

Cr.end/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ §/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calcareous rocks, perhaps not belonging to Pyrenocollema s.str.


+Pyrenocollema strontianense (Swinscow) R.C.Harris

[in Egan] The Bryologist, 90: 164, 1987 - Arthopyrenia strontianensis Swinscow, Lichenologist, 3: 415, 1967.



C - Sar.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Verrucaria spp./ l/ Note: on periodically inundated siliceous rocks.


+Pyrenopsis micrococca (Born. & Nyl.) Forssell

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 13: 45, 1885 - Synalissa micrococca Born. & Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 4: 231, 1856.



C - Sar.

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, in sun-exposed seepage tracks.


+Pyrenopsis sanguinea Anzi

Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat., 9: 241, 1866.

Syn.: Psorotichia sanguinea (Anzi) Jatta

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on sunny basic siliceous rocks along seepage tracks. This taxon was synonymised by Hafellner & Türk (2001) with Cryptothele rhodosticta. However, for several reasons (see Nimis 1993: 589), I prefer to leave it here under Pyrenopsis waiting for surther studies on this very difficult complex


+Pyrenopsis subareolata Nyl.

Lich. Scandin.: 27, 1861.

Syn.: Cryptothelele rhodosticta auct. non (Taylor) Henssen, Pyrenopsis fuscatula Nyl. ?, Pyrenopsis rhodosticta auct. non (Taylor) Müll.Arg.

N - TAA. C - Tosc.

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: see Nimis (1993: 589).


+Pyrenopsis triptococca Nyl.

Flora, 70: 129, 1881.



C - Tosc, Laz. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, esp. in sunny seepage tracks.


+Pyrenula chlorospila Arnold

Flora, 70: 155, 1887.

Syn.: Pyrenula nitidella v. chlorospila (Arnold) Degel.

C - Tosc, Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Sérusiaux 1998, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean-atlantic species, found on smooth bark (esp. of Fraxinus and Salix) in deciduous open forests along rivers, mainly Tyrrhenian.


+Pyrenula coryli A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 164, n. 305, fig. 325, 1852.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia coryli (A.Massal.) Müll.Arg., Mycopyrenula coryli (A.Massal.) Vain., Verrucaria coryli (A.Massal.) Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Laz, Abr (Ravera 2002b). S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate species of smooth bark, esp. of Corylus.


+Pyrenula laevigata (Pers.) Arnold

Flora, 68: 158, 1885 - Verrucaria laevigata Pers., Ann. Wetterauisch. Ges., 2: 11, 1810.

Syn.: Pyrenula alba v. laevigata (Pers.) Trevis., Pyrenula glabrata (Ach.) A.Massal., Verrucaria glabrata Ach.

N - Ven, Lomb, Lig. C - Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly temperate species of smooth bark, esp. of Carpinus and Fagus in open, humid woodlands.


+Pyrenula macrospora (Degel.) Coppins & P.James

[in D.Hawksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 107, 1980 - Pyrenula nitida v. macrospora Degel., Göteb. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., ser. 6 B, 1, 7: 8, 1941.



S - Pugl, Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species found on bark of deciduous trees (esp. Fraxinus) in humid situations, but never in deep shade.


+Pyrenula nitida (Weigel) Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 125, 1814 - Sphaeria nitida Weigel, Observ. Bot., 45, tab. 2, fig. 4, 1772.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia nitida (Weigel) Ach., Bunodea nitida (Weigel) Beltr., Verrucaria nitida (Weigel) Schrad.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani 2006). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rc, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate species, with optimum on basal parts of old trunks of Fagus in slightly open forests, but also on Carpinus and other deciduous trees (e.g. Quercus).


+Pyrenula nitidella (Schaer.) Müll.Arg.

[in Engler] Bot. Jahrb., 6: 414, 1885 - Verrucaria nitida v. nitidella [Flörke ex] Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 2: 58, 1826.

Syn.: Bunodea nitida v. nitidella (Schaer.) Beltr., Pyrenula nitida v. dermatodes Trevis., Pyrenula nitida v. nitidella (Schaer.) Schaer.

N - Ven, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Senese & Critelli 2000), Laz, Sar (Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean-atlantic species, found on bark of deciduous trees in open, humid woodlands, very rare in the north, more frequent in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Pyrenula occidentalis (R.C.Harris) R.C.Harris

[in Ahti, Brodo & Noble] Mycotaxon, 28: 96, 1987 - Pyrenula neglecta ssp. occidentalis R.C.Harris, Michigan Botanist, 12: 51, 1973.

Syn.: Pyrenula harrisii Hafellner & Kalb

C - Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a humid-suptropical to mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found on smooth bark of deciduous trees, the Italian records are from very humid forests.


+Pyrgidium montellicum (Beltr.) Tibell

Lichenologist, 14: 239, 1982 - Acolium montellicum Beltr., Lich. Bassan.: 285, 1858.



N - Ven.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 1, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a mainly tropical species, described from the Insubrian region of Italy (the only European record), where it is probably extinct.


+Pyrrhospora cinnabarina (Sommerf.) M.Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Lyon, 19: 20, 1950 - Lecidea cinnabarina Sommerf. K. Sv. Vetensk.- Akad. Handl.: 114, 1823.

Syn.: Biatora cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Fr., Blastenia cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Mig., Protoblastenia cinnabarina (Sommerf.) Räsänen

N - Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar species, found on the smooth bark of small shrubs in the subalpine belt, usually near the ground. Overlooked, being often sterile. A dubious earlier record from Marche (see Nimis 1993: 592), and a recent one from Sardegna by Zedda (2002, on twigs of Quercus ilex) are not accepted here.


+Pyrrhospora lusitanica (Räsänen) Hafellner

[in Kalb & Hafellner] Herzogia, 9: 86, 1992 - Protoblastenia lusitanica Räsänen, Arch. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo, 3: 81, 1949.



C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ oc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species, found on Pinus, Cistus and Erica in humid, mostly coastal maquis vegetation, restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Pyrrhospora quernea (Dicks.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 209, tab. 1, fig. 7, 1855 - Lichen querneus Dicks., Fasc. Crypt. Brit., 1: 9, 1875.

Syn.: Biatora quernea (Dicks.) Fr., Lecidea quernea (Dicks.) Ach., Protoblastenia quernea (Dicks.) Clauzade

N - Frl, Lomb. C - Tosc (Putortì & Loppi 1999), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Hafellner 1993, Zedda 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp, Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rc, G: c, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mainly mediterranean-atlantic species, found on bark, sometimes on lignum, abundant in humid coastal-Mediterranean, mostly Tyrrhenian sites, where it is often fertile, much rarer elsewhere, also occurring, albeit rarely - and then mostly sterile - in the Insubrian District of Lombardia, probably extinct in Friuli.


+Pyxine sorediata (Ach.) Mont.

[in Sagra] Hist. Physc. Cuba, Bot. Pl. Cell. 9: 188, 1842 - Lecidea sorediata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 54, 1814.

Syn.: Physcia endochrysoides Nyl., Pyxine endochrysoides (Nyl.) Degel.

C - Laz.

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ oc/ Note: a subtropical species, certainly very rare in Italy.


+Pyxine subcinerea Stirt.

Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst., 30: 397, 1898.

Syn.: Pyxine chrysantha Vain., Pyxine chrysanthoides Vain.

N - Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & Giordani 2000, 2003, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, 2003b, Benco & al. 2004, Ravera & Giordani 2007, Giordani & Ravera 2007). C - Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003, Ravera & Giordani 2007, Giordani & Ravera 2007).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ oc/ Note: the Italian records are from Olea and Cupressus.


+Racodium rupestre Pers.

Tent. Disp. Meth. Fung.: 76, 1797.

Syn.: Cystocoleus rupestris (Pers.) Rabenh., Rhacodiopsis rupestris (Pers.) Donk

N - TAA, Lomb, VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Cr/ Tr/ A.f/ Sax/ 2, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a widespread, temperate to S boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on vertical or underhanging siliceous rocks protected from rain, undercollected, and certainly more widespread in the Alps.


+Ramalina bourgeana Nyl.

[Mont. ex] Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 4: 152, 1870.



C - Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mediterranean-macaronesian species, found on coastal siliceous rocks Related to R. rosacea, but chemically different.


+Ramalina breviuscula Nyl.

Flora, 55: 426, 1872.

Syn.: Ramalina mediterranea H.Magn., Ramalina pollinaria v. pulvinata Anzi sec. descr.

C - Tosc, Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species found on coastal siliceous rocks, sometimes on calcareous substrata, one of the most common epilithic Ramalinas in Mediterranean area. It belongs to a complex in need of revision.


+Ramalina calicaris (L.) Fr.

Sched. Crit.: 17, 1824 - Lichen calicaris L., Sp. Pl.: 1146, 1753.

Syn.: Ramalina calicaris v. canaliculata Fr., Ramalina calicaris v. evernioides (Anzi ex Jatta) Motyka, Ramalina fraxinea v. evernioides Anzi ex Jatta, Ramalina polymorpha v. crispa A.Massal. ex Beltr.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Laz, Abr, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal, Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C:r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly temperate species found on deciduous, more rarely coniferous trees, esp. on branches in humid beech forests. Several earlier Italian records require confirmation, that from Venezia Giulia (Nimis 1993: 596) was due to a misidentification.


+Ramalina canariensis J.Steiner

Österr. bot. Z., 9: 8, 1904.

Syn.: Ramalina maciformis f. laciniata Werner, Ramalina maciformis f. monophylla Werner, Ramalina maciformis v. taeniaeformis Werner

N - Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Pišút 1997, Putortì & Loppi 1999), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Fascetti & al. 2006, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & al. 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-3, 4-5, 2, 2-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species, found on the branches of littoral shrubs and small trees in maquis vegetation subject to humid maritime winds.


+Ramalina capitata (Ach.) Nyl. v. capitata

[in Cromb.] Grevillea, 7: 141, 1879 - Ramalina polymorpha v. capitata Ach., Lich. Univ.: 601, 1810.

Syn.: Ramalina polymorpha v. capitata (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Ramalina strepsilis (Ach.) Zahlbr., Ramalina tinctoria auct. ital. p.p.

N - TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil, Lig. C - Laz, Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rc, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on the top of exposed siliceous boulders frequently visited by birds.


+Ramalina capitata v. digitellata (Nyl.) Nimis

The Lichens of Italy: 597, 1993 - Ramalina digitellata Nyl., Flora, 63: 10, 1880.

Syn.: Ramalina capitata v. sardoa Colosi

C - Sar. S - Si.

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on the top of exposed siliceous boulders frequently visited by birds in Mediterranean Italy.


+Ramalina capitata v. protecta (H.Magn.) Nimis

The Lichens of Italy: 597, 1993 - Ramalina protecta H.Magn., Bot. Notiser, 109: 150, 1956.

Syn.: Ramalina capitata v. sardoa Colosi p.p., Ramalina polymorpha v. protecta Clauzade & Cl.Roux

C - Sar (Lo Forti & al. 2004).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 4-5/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: often found together with the other varieties, esp. v. digitellata, but perhaps more frequent under overhangs, not uncommon in parts of Sardegna.


+Ramalina clementeana Llimona & Werner

Acta Phytotaxon. Barcinon., 16: 9, 1975.

Syn.: Ramalina cribrosa v. fastigiata De Not.

C - Tosc, Sar.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 1-2, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mediterranean-macaronesian lichen, found on coastal siliceous rocks, only in areas with frequent humid, maritime winds. Related to R. pusilla, differing only in the ecology and in some minor morphological characters, but also in the absence of salazinic acid.


+Ramalina dilacerata (Hoffm.) Hoffm.

Herb. Viv., Coll. Plant. Sicc. Ces. Univ. Mosquensis: 451, 1825 - Lobaria calycaris v. dilacerata Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 140, 1796.

Syn.: Fistulariella minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel, Ramalina calicaris f. minuscula Nyl., Ramalina minuscula (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - TAA, Ven. C - Abr. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003).

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar lichen, found on twigs and branches of acid-barked trees (esp. conifers) and, more rarely, on lignum in very humid situations.


+Ramalina elegans (Bagl. & Carestia) Jatta

Flora Italica Crypt., 3: 166, 1909 - Ramalina calicaris ssp. elegans Bagl. & Carestia, Atti Soc. Critt. Ital., 2: 159, 1880.



N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Abr.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on bark of old deciduous trees, more rarely on conifers, in very humid open montane forests, a lichen which deserves further study.


+Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 606, 1810 - Lichen farinaceus L., Sp. Pl., 1146, 1753.

Syn.: Ramalina calicaris v. farinacea (L.) Rabenh., Ramalina fallax Motyka, Ramalina farinacea v. digitoradiata Sambo, Ramalina farinacea v. hypoprotocetrarica (W. L. Culb.) D.Hawksw., Ramalina farinacea v. multifida Ach., Ramalina farinacea v. pendulina (Ach.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea v. phalerata (Ach.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea v. reagens de Lesd., Ramalina farinacea v. sorediosa Sambo, Ramalina farinacea v. subphalerata Motyka, Ramalina hypoprotocetrarica W. L. Culb., Ramalina reagens (de Lesd.) W. L. Culb., Ramalina subfarinacea v. salazinica D.Hawksw.

N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Tretiach 1996), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Buzio 2003, Isocrono & al. 2003, Castino 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, 2001, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997b, 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz (Ravera 2002, Ravera & al. 2003, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2006d, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-5, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vc, D: r, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread, mediterranean-atlantic to S boreal lichen, found on bark in humid situations, from the mountains to the Mediterranean belt, extinct over much of the northern plains but still common in upland areas, a chemically and morphologically very polymorphic species. In my opinion, the various chemical strains, and even the saxicolous forms usually called R. subfarinacea (see note on that taxon), hardly deserve a segregation above the varietal level.


+Ramalina fastigiata (Pers.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 603, 1810 - Lichen fastigiatus Pers., N. Ann. Bot., 1: 156, 1794.

Syn.: Ramalina calicaris v. fastigiata (Pers.) Fr., Ramalina fastigiata v. exasperata Delise ex Duby, Ramalina fastigiata v. multipartita Erichsen, Ramalina fastigiata v. torulosa A.Massal. ex Jatta, Ramalina fenestrata Motyka, Ramalina fraxinea v. fastigiata (Pers.) Fr., Ramalina populina (Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) Vain.


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