+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ m/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate species, with a wide but scattered distribution, found on metal-rich siliceous rocks, mostly at low elevations.


+Rhizocarpon oportense (Vain.) Räsänen

Revista Sudamer. Bot., 7: 85, 1942 - Rhizocarpon viridiatrum v. oportense Vain., Lichenogr. Fenn., 2: 285, 1922.



C - Sar. S - Si (Ottonello & Puntillo 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on exposed siliceous rocks, a species of the S European mountains.


+Rhizocarpon petraeum (Wulfen) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 102, 1852 - Lichen petraeus Wulfen, Schr. Ges. naturf. Fr. Berlin, 8: 89, 1787.

Syn.: Buellia concentrica auct., Lecidea petraea (Wulfen) Ach., Rhizocarpon concentricum auct., Rhizocarpon excentricum (Ach.) Arnold, Rhizocarpon perlutum auct. non (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Rhizocarpon petraeum v. albicans Jatta, Rhizocarpon petraeum v. dealbatum A.Massal., Rhizocarpon petraeum v. fuscum Flot., Rhizocarpon petraeum v. lapicida A.Massal., Rhizocarpon petraeum v. orbiculare A.Massal., Rhizocarpon petraeum v. subconcentricum Körb., Rhizocarpon subconcentricum (Körb.) Körb., Rhizocarpon variegatum J.Steiner

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Favero-Longo & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: r, E: er, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a widespread, holarctic pioneer species of base-rich siliceous rocks, often found on roofing tiles and on slightly calciferous sandstone.


+Rhizocarpon polycarpum (Hepp) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 617, 1874 - Lecidea confervoides v. polycarpa Hepp, Flecht. Eur.: n. 35, 1853.

Syn.: Buellia umensis H.Magn., Catocarpus dendriticus (Hoffm.) M.Choisy, Catocarpus polycarpus ("Hepp") Arnold, Lecidea atroalbicans Nyl., Rhizocarpon confervoides sensu Rabenh., Rhizocarpon cyanescens (Hellb.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004). C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rr, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a probably holarctic pioneer species, found on siliceous pebbles over moist ground, or on steeply inclined faces near the ground, present at low altitudes only in humid areas.


+Rhizocarpon pusillum Runemark

Opera Bot., 2, 1: 63-64, 1956.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ paras Sporastatia spp./ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on exposed hard siliceous rocks, related to Rh. effiguratum.


+Rhizocarpon rapax V.Wirth & Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 8: 196, 1970.



N - TAA, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Acarospora, Rimularia and Aspicilia spp./ Note: on siliceous rocks, related to Rh. tinei, but differing in the parasitic growth, probably overlooked, and more frequent in the Alps, esp. in rainy areas.


+Rhizocarpon reductum Th.Fr.

Lich. Scand., 2: 633, 1874.

Syn.: Lecidea detinens Nyl., Lecidea ochrotropa Nyl., Lecidea obscurata (Ach.) Schaer., Lecidea postuma Nyl., Lecidea postumans Nyl. ?, Lecidea subpostuma Nyl., Lecidea rhedonensis Nyl., Lecidea submodesta Vain., Rhizocarpon beckhausii Beck. nom. nud., Rhizocarpon danicum Galløe, Rhizocarpon excedens Kremp., Rhizocarpon lapillorum (Vain.) Vain., Rhizocarpon lotum Bausch, Rhizocarpon massalongii (Körb.) Malme non sensu Malme, Rhizocarpon obscuratum auct., Rhizocarpon ochrotrophum (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Rhizocarpon orphninum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Rhizocarpon permodestum Arnold, Rhizocarpon postumans (Nyl.) Sandst. ?, Rhizocarpon postumum (Nyl.) Arnold, Rhizocarpon pycnocarpoides Eitner, Rhizocarpon reductum Th.Fr., ? Rhizocarpon rhedonense (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Rhizocarpon submodestum (Vain.) Vain., Rhizocarpon subpostumum (Nyl.) Arnold ?, Rhizocarpon subreductum (Vain.) Vain., Rhizocarpon tetramerum (Vain.) Vain., Rhizocarpon triseptatum H.Magn., Rhizocarpon vierhapperi Zahlbr.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: c, B: rc, C: vc, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a morphologically and chemically variable species of siliceous rocks, often found on pebbles, or on faces near the ground, in the south the optimum is in upland areas, but this species also occurs within eu-Mediterranean vegetation, in shaded-humid situations. See note on Rh. lavatum.


+Rhizocarpon renneri Poelt

Planta, 51: 306, 1958.



N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Dimelaena oreina/ subc/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging siliceous rocks, probably more widespread, but never common, in the dry valleys of the Alps.


+Rhizocarpon richardii (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 4: 341, 1926 - Lecidea richardii [Lamy ex] Nyl., Flora, 58: 446, 1875.

Syn.: Rhizocarpon atlanticum I.M.Lamb, Rhizocarpon constrictum Malme, Rhizocarpon constrictum ssp. richardii (Lamy) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: in Atlantic Europe this species is restricted to the supralittoral belt of siliceous rock shores, where it occupies the driest, most rapidly draining places, occasionally, it also occurs in inland rock outcrops exposed to westerly winds, and this is the case of the only Italian record.


+Rhizocarpon ridescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

[in Engler & Prantl] Natürl. Pflanzenfam., 1 ed.: 138, 1905 - Lecidea ridescens Nyl., Flora, 64: 533, 1881.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Lecid. Exs. 278: Hertel 1992b), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ m/ Note: on iron-rich siliceous rocks, mostly in underhangs, easily overlooked, being always sterile.


+Rhizocarpon saanaense Räsänen

Ann. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo, 16: 61, 1942.

Syn.: Rhizocarpon fruticosum Räsänen, Rhizocarpon sublucidum Räsänen

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on slightly calciferous siliceous rocks with a late snow lie, probably restricted to the Alps.


+Rhizocarpon simillimum (Anzi) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 156, 1912 - Buellia simillima Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 2, 1: 19, 1864.

Syn.: Catocarpus simillimus (Anzi) Arnold, Rhizocarpon atroalbum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ?, Rhizocarpon atroalbum v. africanum Flagey, Rhizocarpon sublestum (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

N - Frl (TSB), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rc, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, siliceous, base-rich or slightly calciferous rocks.


+Rhizocarpon sorediosum Runemark

Opera Bot., 2, 1: 135, 1956.



N - Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ m/ Note: on heavy metals-bearing siliceous rocks, probably overlooked, being almost always sterile.


+Rhizocarpon superficiale (Schaer.) Vain.

§ - Lecidea superficialis Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil.: 125, 1828.

Syn.: Rhizocarpon crystalligenum Lynge, Rhizocarpon scabridum Räsänen, Rhizocarpon splendidum Malme

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 4, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine species, found on steeply inclined, exposed siliceous rocks with a short snow-lie.


+Rhizocarpon tavaresii Räsänen

Arch. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo, 2: 85, 1949.

Syn.: Diplotomma geographicum f. tenellum (Müll.Arg.) Jatta?, Rhizocarpon geographicum f. tenellum (Müll.Arg.) Jatta ?

C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, a south European, poorly known taxon.


+Rhizocarpon tetrasporum Runemark

Opera Bot., 2, 1: 86, 1956.



N - VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on siliceous rocks in the mountains. Closely related to Rh. viridiatrum and Rh. oportense, this taxon is worthy of further study.


+Rhizocarpon tinei (Tornab.) Runemark

Opera Bot., 2, 1: 118, 1956 - Lecidea tinei Tornab., Lichenogr. Sicula: 17, 1848.

Syn.: Diplotomma geographicum f. contiguum (Schaer.) Jatta, Rhizocarpon anzianum Räsänen, Rhizocarpon geographicum f. contiguum (Schaer.) A.Massal., Rhizocarpon geographicum ssp. tinei (Tornab.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Camp, Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Aprile & al. 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: rc, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks, most common in the Mediterranean mountains, but also found in the Alps, in dry-warm areas, closely related to Rh. geographicum.


+Rhizocarpon umbilicatum (Ramond) Flagey

Mém. Soc. Emulat. Doubs., sér. 6, 8: 98, 1894 - Lecidea umbilicata Ramond, Mém. Acad. R. Sc. Inst. France, 6: 128, 1827.

Syn.: Diplotomma calcareum (Ach.) Flot., Diplotomma calcareum v. reagens de Lesd., Diplotomma weissii (Schaer.) A.Massal., Lecidea calcarea (Ach.) Schaer., Lecidea petraea v. umbilicata (Ramond) Nyl., Rhizocarpon calcareum (Ach.) Anzi, Rhizocarpon calcareum v. weissii (Schaer.) Th.Fr., Rhizocarpon pseudospeireum (Th.Fr.) Lynge, Rhizocarpon umbilicatum f. pseudospeireum (Th.Fr.) Szatala, Rhizocarpon umbilicatum v. reagens (de Lesd.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Siegertia calcarea (Ach.) Körb., Siegertia pseudospeirea (Th.Fr.) V.Wirth. comb. inval., Siegertia calcarea (Ach.) V.Wirth comb. inval., Siegertia umbilicata (Ramond) V.Wirth

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 3-6/ A: vc, A1: c, B: rr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on steeply inclined, often N-facing calcareous, more rarely base-rich or slightly calciferous siliceous rocks, most common in the Alps, but occurring throughout the Apennines, esp. along the E side of the peninsula.


+Rhizocarpon viridiatrum (Wulfen) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 262, 1855 - Lichen viridiatrum Wulfen [in Jacq.] Coll. Bot., 2: 186, 1788.

Syn.: Buellia viridiatra (Wulfen) H.Olivier, Diplotomma viridiatrum (Wulfen) Jatta, Lecidea viridiatra (Wulfen) Ach., Rhizocarpon atrovirellum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Rhizocarpon subtile Runemark

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ paras Aspicilia, Lecidea and Tremolecia spp./ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, optimum in dry-warm areas, sometimes on roofing tiles.


+Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca (Sm.) Zopf

Ann. Chemie, 340: 291, 1905 - Lichen chrysoleucus Sm., Transact. Linn. Soc., 1: 82, 1791.

Syn.: Lecanora chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach., Lecanora chrysoleuca v. pallida Sambo ?, Lecanora rubina ("Vill.") Ach., Omphalodina rubina ("Vill.") M.Choisy, Placodium rubinum ("Vill.") Müll. Arg., Squamaria chrysoleuca (Sm.) Nyl., Squamaria rubina ("Vill.") Hoffm.

N - Ven (TSB), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil, Lig (TSB). C - Sar.

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 3-5/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, found on bird's perching siliceous rocks and boulders, esp.in the mountains.


+Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (DC.) Leuckert & Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 28: 72, 1977 - Lichen melanophthalmus DC.[in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., 3 éd., 2: 377, 1805.

Syn.: Lecanora liparia Ach., Lecanora melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond, Lecanora subpeltata Lynge, Squamaria chrysoleuca v. melanophthalma (DC.) Anzi, Squamaria melanophthalma (DC.) DC.

N - Ven (TSB), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Lig (TSB). S - Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichem found on bird's perching siliceous rocks, esp. in the mountains.


+Rhizoplaca peltata (Ramond) Leuckert & Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 28: 73, 1977 - Lichen peltatus Ramond [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 377, 1805.

Syn.: Lecanora peltata (Ramond) Steud., Lecanora rubina v. heteromorpha Ach., Psoroma concinnum Bagl. & Carestia

N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 4, 3-5/ Alt: 5/ A: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on siliceous rocks, chemically variable. Known from Africa, Asia, N America.


+Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans (Nyl.) R.Sant.

The Lichens of Sweden and Norway: 278, 1984 - Squamaria chrysoleuca v. subdiscrepans Nyl., Flora, 44: 718, 1861.

Syn.: Lecanora subdiscrepans (Nyl.) Stizenb., Squamaria chrysoleuca v. lecanorea Anzi ?

N - Lomb.

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4, 4-5, 3-5/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: at the top of calciferous or basic siliceous boulders, a poorly understood taxon, which needs revision.


+Rimularia badioatra (Kremp.) Hertel & Rambold

Bibl. Lichenol., 38: 164, 1990 - Aspicilia badioatra [Hepp ex] Kremp., Denkschr. Kgl. bayer. bot. Ges., 4, 2 Abt.: 285, 1861.

Syn.: Aspicilia corrugatula (Arnold) Hue, Lecanora badioatra (Kremp.) Hepp, Lecanora bockii f. contracta Th.Fr., Lecanora contracta (Th.Fr.) Zahlbr., Lecanora corrugatula (Arnold) Nyl., Lecanora intercedens H.Magn. ?, Lecanora umbriformis (Nyl.) Grummann, Lecidea badioatra (Kremp.) Arnold, Lecidea corrugatula Arnold, Lecidea illita Nyl., Lecidea insulatula Nyl., Lecidea umbonatula Nyl., Lecidea umbriformis Nyl., Mosigia intercedens (H.Magn.) R.Sant., Mosigia illita (Nyl.) R.Sant.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, hard, base-rich or weakly calciferous siliceous rocks.


+Rimularia gibbosa (Ach.) Coppins, Hertel & Rambold

[in Hertel & Rambold] Bibl. Lichenol., 38: 171, 1990 - Pyrenula gibbosa Ach., Lich. Univ.: 317, 1810.

Syn.: Aspicilia bockii (Rodig ex Fr.) Boistel, Lecanora bockii Rodig ex Fr., Lecanora grimseleana A.Massal., Mosigia gibbosa (Ach.) A.Massal.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, mineral-rich to basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain, often found in seepage tracks, it often produces both apothecia and soredia.


+Rimularia insularis (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel

[in Hertel] Sched. ad Lecideaceae Exsiccatae, 8: 159, 1985 - Lecidea insularis Nyl., Bot. Not.: 177, 1852.

Syn.: Biatora intumescens (Flörke) Hepp, Lecidea intumescens (Flörke) Nyl., Lecidea petraea v. intumescens Flörke in Flot., Lecidella intumescens (Flörke) Arnold, Nesolechia intumescens (Flörke) Sacc., Toninia intumescens (Flörke) Boistel

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Lecid. Exs. 279: Hertel 1992b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Laz, Sar. S - Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3-4, 2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: rr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecanora rupicola s.lat./ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, contrary to the host, absent from disturbed habitats.


+Rinodina alba Arnold

[Metzler ex] Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 22: 35, 1872.

Syn.: Lecanora albidorimulosa Harm., Lecanora michaudiana Harm., Rinodina albidorimulosa (Harm.) Zahlbr., Rinodina michaudiana (Harm.) Croz., Rinodina subcanella Zahlbr.

C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: on hard siliceous rocks near the shoreline, but sometimes also found at some distance from the coast in Mediterranean Tyrrhenian Italy, such as as in Sardegna.


+Rinodina albana (A.Massal.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 15, 1952 - Hagenia albana A.Massal., Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1: 222, fig. 6, 1853.

Syn.: Berengeria albana (A.Massal.) Trevis., Psora horiza sensu Hepp, Rinodina sophodes v. albana (A.Massal.) Bagl. & Carestia

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Pugl.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a temperate species, found on isolated trees with smooth bark. Often confused with similar species.


+Rinodina anomala (Zahlbr.) H.Mayrhofer & Giralt

[in Kalb & Hafellner] Herzogia, 9: 88, 1992 - Buellia anomala Zahlbr., Ann. Mycol., 12: 343, 1914.



C - Sar (Giralt & Matzer 1994, Zedda 2002). S - Pugl.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 4, 2, 2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species, restricted to coastal stands with frequent humid, maritime winds, e.g. on Juniperus on dunes.


+Rinodina archaea (Ach.) Arnold

Flora, 64: 195, 1881 - Parmelia sophodes v. archaea Ach., Meth. Lich: 156, 1803.

Syn.: Diploicia trevisanii (Hepp) A.Massal. non auct., Lecanora archaea (Ach.) Harm., Rinodina lecideoides (Nyl.) Kernst., Rinodina sophodes v. lecideina Nyl., Lecanora sophodes v. laevigata Ach., Rinodina exigua v. lecideoides (Nyl.) Arnold, Rinodina laevigata (Ach.) Malme, Rinodina trevisani (Hepp) Körb. non auct.


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