+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (TSB) Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3-4, 2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: c, C: rc, D: er, E: a, F: rr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecanora rupicola s. lat./ Note: a holarctic lichenicolus fungus with a wide altitudinal and latitudinal range, occurring throughout the country wherever the host is present.


+Arthonia vinosa Leight.

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 18: 331, 1856.

Syn.: Arthonia lurida auct. ital. p.p. non Ach., Coniangium luridum auct. non (Ach.) Fr., Coniangium vinosum (Leight.) A.Massal.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 1-2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen found near the base of old trees, esp.oaks, more rarely on lignum, in very humid and closed-canopied forests. Related to A. spadicea.


+Arthonia zwackhii Sandst.

Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen, 17: 604, 1903.



C - Tosc, Laz.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species of smooth bark, esp. of Fraxinus and Carpinus, in humid deciduous woodlands. In Italy it was overlooked or confused with other species and is perhaps more widespread, but never common.


+Arthopyrenia analepta (Ach.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 165, 1852 - Lichen analeptus Ach., Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr.: 15, 1798.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia analepta v. mespili A.Massal., Arthopyrenia analeptella Arnold, Arthopyrenia arnoldii Zahlbr. ?, Arthopyrenia fallax (Nyl.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia lapponina Anzi, Didymella fallax (Nyl.) Vain., Leiophloea fallax (Nyl.) H. Riedl, Pseudosagedia fallax (Nyl.) Oksner, Sphaerella lapponum De Not., Verrucaria epidermidis v. fallax Nyl.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb (Brusoni & al. 1997, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Valcuvia & Grieco 1995), Lig. C - Marc, Laz. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: er, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF:1/ p/ Note: a mainly temperate, perhaps holarctic early colonizer of smooth bark, found on twigs of deciduous trees, esp. Carpinus and Corylus, but also on Quercus and Sorbus, facultatively, or perhaps non-lichenised. For nomenclatural matters see Harris (1995).


+Arthopyrenia cerasi (Schrad.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 167, fig. 332, 1852 - Verrucaria cerasi Schrad., Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 22: 86, 1797.



Syn.: Arthopyrenia crombei A.L.Sm., Metasphaeria cerasi (Schrad.) Vain., Pseudosagedia cerasi (Schrad.) Oksner, Pyrenula cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Spermatodium cerasi (Schrad.) Trevis., Verrucaria epidermidis v. cerasi (Schrad.) Ach.

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Marc, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a temperate early colonizer of smooth bark, mostly of Prunus, most probably non-lichenised.


+Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) A.Massal.

Symmicta Lich.: 177, 1855 - Verrucaria cinereopruinosa Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., sect. 6: 343, 1833.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia fallax v. conspurcata J.Steiner, Arthopyrenia pinicola (Hepp) A.Massal., Arthopyrenia stigmatella v. elabens A.Massal., Leiophloea punctiformis v. cinereopruinosa Trevis., Pyrenula punctiformis v. cinereopruinosa f. pinicola Hepp

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Emil, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: er, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ p/ Note: a temperate early colonizer of smooth bark, found esp. in clearings of long-established woodlands near rivers, on young twigs of e.g. Fraxinus, perhaps non-lichenised.


+Arthopyrenia coppinsii S.Ravera

Lichenologist, 38,1: 22, 2006.



N - Lig (Ravera 2006b). C - Tosc (Ravera 2006b).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ p/ Note: A recently-described, probably non-lichenised species, apparently elated to A. salicis, with which, according to Ravera (2006b) it was confused by Putortì & Loppi (1999) and Brunialti & al. (2001). It occurs on rough bark, especially of Fraxinus excelsior, in species-rich communities of well-preserved woodlands.


+Arthopyrenia grisea (Schaer.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 369, 1855 - Verrucaria epidermidis v. grisea [Schleich. ex] Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 2: 56, 1826.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia betulae A.Massal. ?, Arthopyrenia persoonii v. episcia A.Massal., Arthopyrenia pluriseptata auct. p.p., Sagedia grisea (Schaer.) Anzi

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Marc (Frati & al. 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: an early colonizer of smooth and acid bark, esp. of Betula, facultatively lichenised. *The type of A. betulae should be checked: if identical with that of the basionym, the Massalongian name would have priority.


+Arthopyrenia platypyrenia (Nyl.) Arnold

Flora, 53: 485, 1870 - Verrucaria platypyrenia Nyl., Flora, 48: 358, 1865.

Syn.: Verrucaria epidermidis v. platypyrenia (Nyl.) Carroll

S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a non-lichenised fungus of uncertain affinity, known from Ireland, on Hedera. The Italian record, confirmed by B. Coppins, is the first in this century.


+Arthopyrenia pluriseptata (Nyl.) Arnold

Ber. bayer. bot. Ges., 1, Anh.: 118, 1891 - Verrucaria pluriseptata Nyl., Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 436, 1856.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia persoonii v. juglandis A.Massal., Arthopyrenia punctiformis v. juglandis (A.Massal.) Jatta, Mycarthopyrenia juglandis (A.Massal.) Keissl., Sagedia heppii (Körb.) Anzi, Spermatodium juglandis (A.Massal.) Trevis., Verrucaria heppii (Körb.) Garov.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: §.


+Arthopyrenia salicis A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 169, n. 316, fig. 336, 1852.

Syn.: Leiophloea salicis (A.Massal.) Trevis., Pyrenula salicis (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - Ven, TAA (Hinteregger 1994), Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, 2000, Munzi & al. 2007). S - Bas (Potenza 2006).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ p/ Note: a temperate colonizer of the smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs, esp. Carpinus and Corylus, most frequent in upland areas. Doubtfully lichenised, probably mistaken for A. punctiformis and related species in the past. See also note on A. coppinsii and A. tuscanensis.


+Arthopyrenia tuscanensis Coppins & S. Ravera

[in Ravera] Lichenologist, 38,1: 22, 2006.



C - Tosc (Ravera 2006b).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ p/ Note: A recently-described, most probably non-lichenised species, which grows as a pioneer on the smooth bark of twigs, especially of Castanea. Hitherto known only from Tuscany, but in past perhaps confused with A. salicis.


+Arthothelium ruanum (A.Massal.) Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 263, 1861 - Arthonia ruana A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 49, n. 77, fig. 88, 1852.

Syn.: Arthonia beltraminiana (A.Massal.) Anzi, Arthonia rosacea Anzi ?, Arthoniopsis ruana (A.Massal.) Trevis., Arthothelium anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold, Arthothelium beltraminianum A.Massal., Arthothelium dispersum auct. non (DC.) Mudd, Arthothelium rosaceum (Anzi) Zahlbr. ?, Arthothelium ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold

N - Frl (Grube & Giralt 1996), Ven (Sundin & Tehler 1998), TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007), Piem. C - Tosc. S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a temperate-suboceanic lichen, found on smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs (e.g. Alnus, Fagus, Fraxinus, Corylus, etc.) in humid forests, often on the basal parts of trunks.


+Arthothelium spectabile A.Massal.

[Flot. ex] A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 54, n. 90, fig. 101, 1852.



N - Ven (Grube & Giralt 1996), Lomb (Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007). C - Abr, Laz. S - Pugl, Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a temperate-suboceanic lichen of smooth bark of deciduous trees in ancient forests.


+Arthrorhaphis alpina (Schaer.) R.Sant.

[in D.Hawksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 106, 1980 - Lecidea flavovirescens v. alpina Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil.: 162, 1833.

Syn.: Arthrorhaphis citrinella v. alpina (Schaer.) Poelt, Bacidia alpina (Schaer.) Vain., Bacidia citrinella ssp. alpina (Schaer.) J.R.Laundon, Bacidia flavovirescens v. alpina (Schaer.) A.L.Sm., Rhaphiospora flavovirescens f. alpina (Schaer.) Arnold

N - Frl (TSB), TAA (Obermayer 1994), Lomb (Anzi Lich. Ital. 262 as Bacidia flavovirescens: Obermayer 1994, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Benesperi & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 2-4, 4-5, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Baeomyces spp./ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on weakly calciferous soil rich in humus, first parasymbiontic on Baeomyces, later an autonomous lichen. Restricted to the Alps and the N Apennines in Italy.


+Arthrorhaphis citrinella (Ach.) Poelt

Bestimmungsschl. Eur. Flechten: 126, 1969 - Lichen citrinellus Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 135, 1795.

Syn.: Arthrorhaphis flavovirescens (Dicks.) Th.Fr., Bacidia citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Bacidia flavovirescens (Dicks.) Anzi, Bacidia flavovirescens v. citrinella (Ach.) Vain., Lecanactis citrinella (Ach.) H.Olivier, Lecidea citrinella (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea flavovirescens (Dicks.) Vain., Lichen flavovirescens Dicks. non Wulfen, Mycobacidia flavovirescens (Dicks.) Rehm, Raphiospora flavovirescens (Dicks.) A.Massal., Scoliciosporum flavovirescens (Dicks.) Jatta, Skolekites citrinellus (Ach.) Norman

N - Frl (Obermayer 1994, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Obermayer 1994), Ven (Obermayer 1994), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & al. 2001). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Obermayer 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr/ 1-3, 4-5, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: c, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Baeomyces rufus/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on mosses and soil rich in humus in sheltered situations. Older thalli are lichenised, younger ones are lichenicolous. Most frequent in the Alps, but also present in the mountains of Calabria and Sicilia. To be looked for throughout the Apennines.


+Arthrorhaphis grisea Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 304, 1861.

Syn.: Bacidia arenicola (Nyl. ex Mudd) H.Olivier, Bacidia flavovirescens v. arenicola (Nyl. ex Mudd) A.L.Sm., Gongylia glareosa Körb., Gongylia sabuletorum (Fr.) Stein, Gongylia viridis A.L.Sm., Lahmia fueistingii Körb., Mycobacidia arenicola (Nyl. ex Mudd) Sacc. & D. Sacc., Raphiospora arenicola Nyl. ex Mudd, Sagedia sabuletorum (Fr.) A.Massal.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-3, 4-5, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Baeomyces carneus, B. rufus and, more rarely, B. placophyllus/ Note: an arctic-alpine species, found on soil and weathered siliceous rocks, first parasymbiontic on Baeomyces, later an autonomous lichen. Probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Arthrorhaphis vacillans Th.Fr.

[Th.Fr. & Almq. ex] Th.Fr., Bot. Notiser, 1867: 107, 1867.

Syn.: Arthrorhaphis anziana (Lynge) Poelt, Bacidia anziana Lynge, Bacidia vacillans (Th.Fr.) Rostr.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4-5, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Baeomyces placophyllus/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found in humid soil in subalpine-Alpine situations. It starts the life-cycle as a parasite of Baeomyces placophyllus, later becoming autotrophic. Probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Arthrosporum populorum A.Massal.

Mem. Lichenogr.: 128, n. 297, fig. 199, tav. 29, 1853.

Syn.: Arthrosporum accline (Flot.) A.Massal., Bacidia acclinis (Flot.) Zahlbr., Bacidia populorum (A.Massal.) Trevis., Bilimbia acclinis (Flot.) Trevis., Bilimbia populorum (A.Massal.) Vain., Lecidea acclinis Flot.

N - Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Bassi 1995, Nimis & al. 1996). C - Abr, Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Sar. S - Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs, esp. Fraxinus, Populus and Salix, probably declining, esp. in the North.


+Aspicilia aquatica Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 165, 1855.

Syn.: Aspicilia eluta (Nyl.) Hue, Aspicilia flageyi Hue, Lecanora amphibola sensu Vain., Lecanora aquatica (Körb.) Hepp, Lecanora flageyi (Hue) Zahlbr., Lecanora mazarina (Wahlenb.) H.Magn., Lecanora rivulorum H.Magn., Zeora cinerea v. aquatica (Körb.) Flot.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Marc, Abr, Tosc, Sar. S - Camp, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: rc, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a probably holarctic species of periodically submerged rocks, also present in montane mediterranean rivulets which are dry during summer.


+Aspicilia caesiocinerea (Malbr.) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 34: 67, 1886 - Lecanora caesiocinerea [Nyl. ex] Malbr., Lich. Normandie: 320, 1870.

Syn.: Aspicilia caesiocinerea v. planior (J.Steiner) Szatala ?, Aspicilia caesiocinerea v. subdepressa (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?, Aspicilia gibbosa auct. non (Ach.) Körb, Aspicilia gibbosa v. lignicola Anzi, Aspicilia gibbosa v. subdepressa (Nyl.) Arnold ?, Aspicilia lignicola Anzi ex Hue, Aspicilia polygonia (Vill.) A.Massal., Aspicilia proluta (Nyl.) Hue, Aspicilia rolleana Hue, Aspicilia submersa (Lamy) Hue, Aspicilia subdepressa (Nyl.) Arnold ?, Aspicilia waldrastensis (H.Magn.) Clauzade & Rondon ?, Lecanora amphibola sensu H.Magn. non sensu Vain., Lecanora bunodea (A.Massal.) Jatta ?, Lecanora gibbosa auct. non (Ach.) Nyl. p.p., Lecanora lignicola (Anzi ex Hue) Zahlbr., Lecanora malmeana H.Magn., Lecanora obscurascens H.Magn., Lecanora rolleana (Hue) Zahlbr., Lecanora subdepressa Nyl. ?, Lecanora waldrastensis H.Magn. ?, Pachyospora bunodea A.Massal. ?

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004, Rico & al. 2007), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004, Favero-Longo 2006), Emil, Lig. C - Marc, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi 2003b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 2-4, 2-5/ Alt: 1-5/ A: ec, A1: ec, B: vc, C: c, D: rr, E: vr, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: on siliceous rocks wetted by rain. Very heterogeneous both morphologically and ecologically, and in need of revision.


+Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Mudd

Man. Brit. Lich.: 161, tab. 3, fig. 55, 1861 - Lichen calcareus L., Sp. Pl.: 1140, 1753.

Syn.: Aspicilia calcarea f. opegraphoides DC., Aspicilia calcarea v. concreta (Schaer.) Körb., Aspicilia calcarea f. tessellata Hoffm., Aspicilia contorta v. calcarea (L.) Körb., Aspicilia lundensis (Fr.) Uloth, Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora calcarea v. chalybaeoides J.Steiner, Lecanora calcarea v. concreta Schaer., Lecanora lundensis (Fr.) Zahlbr., Pachyospora calcarea (L.) A.Massal., Parmelia calcarea (L.) Michx., Patellaria calcarea (L.) Trevis., Urceolaria calcarea (L.) Ach.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Genco & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: rc, C: vc, D: ec, E: r, F: ec, G: ec, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly mediterranean to mild-temperate species, found on limestone and dolomite, sometimes also on other calciferous substrata, much rarer in heavily disturbed habitats (stunted specimens, however, may grow on ancient monuments in the center of Rome), sometimes reaching beyond treeline, esp. in the Apennines.


+Aspicilia calcarea v. reagens (Zahlbr.) Szatala

[in Rechinger] Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math. -naturw. Kl., CV, 1: 36, 1943 - Lecanora calcarea f. reagens Zahlbr., Österr. bot. Z., 59: 501, 1909.

Syn.: Pachyospora viridescens v. calcarea A.Massal.

N - Ven. C - Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a chemical strain with norstictic acid, apparently most frequent in the mountains of C-S Italy.


+Aspicilia candida (Anzi) Hue

Lich. Morph. Anat.: 643, 1860 - Aspicilia polychroma v. candida Anzi, Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 59, 1860.

Syn.: Aspicilia candida v. flavoreagens Asta & Cl.Roux nom. inval., Aspicilia marcii de Lesd., Aspicilia rosacea Hue, Lecanora calcarea v. alba Th.Fr., Lecanora candida (Anzi) Anzi

N - Frl (TSB), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: known from Europe and N America, this lichen occurs in the Alps on weakly calciferous rocks, esp. calcareous schists. Earlier records from S Italy (see Nimis 1993: 98), being dubious, are not accepted here.


+Aspicilia cheresina (Müll.Arg.) Hue

Nouv. Archiv. Mus., sér. 5, 2: 9, 1910 (1912) - Lecanora cheresina Müll.Arg., Rev. Mycol., 2: 75, 1880.

Syn.: Aspicilia cheresina v. granulifera (J.Steiner) Szatala ?


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