+Absconditella annexa



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C - Tosc (Mayrhofer & al. 1993), Laz (Mayrhofer & al. 1993), Sar (Mayrhofer & al. 1993). S - Camp (Mayrhofer & al. 1993), Si (Mayrhofer & al. 1993).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1/ paras crustose lichens/ coast/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species, found on different types of base-rich, esp. volcanic rocks, in areas under maritime influence in Tyrrhenian in Italy, related to R. beccariana.


+Rinodina septentrionalis Malme

Sv. Bot. Tidskr., 6, 4: 921, 1913.

Syn.: Rinodina dispersella (Vain.) Vain., Rinodina freyi H.Magn., Rinodina glauca Ropin, Rinodina ramulicola Kernst. ex Arnold nom. illegit.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), Emil (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995). C - Sar (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995, Zedda 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ p/ PF: 1/ Note: a subarctic-subalpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar lichen, found on shrubs in open situations, certainly more widespread in the Alps, esp. on Rhododendron, most frequent on muribund plants, esp. in basal parts, rarely found on lignum. The dubious record by Grillo (1996) from Sicilia is not accepted here.


+Rinodina sicula H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Bibl. Lichenol., 12: 143, 1979.

Syn.: Rinodina orculariopsis H.Mayrhofer

C - Tosc, Sar. S - Si (Giralt & Llimona 1997).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ p/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate species, an early colonizer of siliceous rocks, forming inconspicuous patches amongst other crustose lichens, certainly overlooked, and more widespread, esp. in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 14, 1852 - Lichen sophodes Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 67, 1799.

Syn.: Berengeria sophodes (Ach.) Trevis., Dimelaena sophodes (Ach.) Norman, Gasparrinia sophodes (Ach.) Tornab., Lecanora sophodes (Ach.) Ach., Parmelia sophodes (Ach.) Ach., Rinodina sophodes v. lusitanica H.Magn.

N - VG (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995), Frl (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995, Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997b, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995, Zedda 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995 (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995, Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Lich. Graec. 15: Obermayer 1995, Giralt & Mayrhofer 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: ec, D: rr, E: vr, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a widespread temperate lichen, an early colonizer of smooth bark, with a wide ecological amplitude.


+Rinodina teichophila (Nyl.) Arnold

Flora, 46: 329, 1863 - Lecanora teichophila Nyl., Flora, 46: 78, 1863.

Syn.: Rinodina arenaria auct. non (Hepp) Arnold, Rinodina calcarea v. obscurata Arnold, Rinodina collectica (Flörke) Arnold, Rinodina suberumpens (Nyl.) H.Olivier

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar (Matzer & Mayrhofer 1994). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretuiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: c, E: vr, F: c, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen, often found in small urban settlements, on walls (esp.of calciferous sandstone, or of brick), and roofing tiles.


+Rinodina trachytica (A.Massal.) Bagl. & Carestia

Atti Soc. Critt. Ital., 2: 209, 1880 - Mischoblastia lecanorina v. trachytica A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 41, n. 64, f. 71, 1852.

Syn.: Lecanora confragosa v. immersoareolata Harm., Mischoblastia lecanorina v. lavanea A.Massal., Rinodina confragosa v. immersoareolata (Harm.) Zahlbr., Rinodina iberica H.Mayrhofer, Rinodina lecanorina v. lavanea (A.Massal.) Bagl., Rinodina subtrachytica J.Steiner

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Scheidegger & al. 2001), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002), Si (Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen, found on base-rich, mostly volcanic rocks, and on serpentinite.


+Rinodina tunicata H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Bibl. Lichenol., 12: 153, 1979.



C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Rambold & al. 1994), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Giralt & Llimona 1997).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen found on pure limestone, probably more widespread in the south.


+Rinodina turfacea (Wahlenb.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 123, 1855 - Lichen turfaceus Wahlenb., Fl. Lappon.: 408, 1812.

Syn.: Berengeria turfacea (Wahlenb.) Trevis., Psora turfacea (Wahlenb.) Hepp, Rinodina orbata (Ach.) Vain., Rinodina turfacea v. orbata (Ach.) Jatta

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 4-5, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: c, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on soil rich in humus and plant remains in tundra-like habitats.


+Rinodina venostana Buschardt & H.Mayrhofer

[in H.Mayrhofer & Poelt] Bibl. Lichenol., 12: 155, 1979.

Syn.: Rinodina exigua v. saxicola Anzi

N - TAA (Giralt & Llimona 1997), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on slightly calcareous schists. The old records from Toscana and Sardegna (Nimis 1993: 639) require confirmation, and are not accepted here.


+Rinodina vezdae H.Mayrhofer

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 55: 473, 1984.



N - Lig. C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: esp. on basic siliceous rocks, such as magmatite. Closely related to Rinodina oxydata.


+Rinodina zwackhiana (Kremp.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 126, 1855 - Lecanora zwackhiana Kremp., Flora, 37: 145, 1854.

Syn.: Rinodina murorum de Lesd., Rinodina transsylvanica (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Rinodina violascens H.Magn.

N - Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen, found on steeply inclined to slightly underhanging calcareous rocks, on walls, and sometimes a juvenile parasite on other lichens, probably more widespread, and much overlooked.


+Rinodinella controversa (A.Massal.) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Hoppea, 37: 92, 1978 - Rinodina controversa A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 16, n. 22, fig. 23, 1852.

Syn.: Berengeria controversa (A.Massal.) Trevis., Berengeria fusca (A.Massal.) Trevis., Buellia dubyana (Hepp) Rabenh. v. nigrescens Müll.Arg., Catolechia fusca (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Lecanora budensis Nyl., Lecanora sophodes (Ach.) A.Massal. f. controversa (A.Massal.) Nyl., Rinodina budensis (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Rinodina controversa f. crustulata A.Massal., Rinodina crustulata (A.Massal.) Arnold, Rinodina crustulata f. sublobata Arnold, Rinodina fusca A.Massal., Rinodina sublobata (Arnold) H.Olivier

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (TSB), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly southern species in Europe, with optimum in the temperate belts, on limestone and dolomite.


+Rinodinella dubyanoides (Hepp) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt

Hoppea, 37: 98, 1978 - Lecidea dubyanoides Hepp, Flecht. Eur.: n. 323, 1857.

Syn.: Buellia dubyanoides (Hepp) Müll.Arg., Buellia dubyanoides v. evoluta Zahlbr., Lecanora aequatula Nyl., Rinodina aequatula (Nyl.) de Lesd., Rinodina dubyanoides (Hepp) Arnold, Rinodina dubyanoides v. evoluta Zahlbr., Rinodina minuta de Lesd., Rinodina subgranulata Müll.Arg.

N - VG, TAA, Lomb. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean species, found on hard, compact calcareous rocks, mostly on steeply inclined faces wetted by rain.


+Roccella fuciformis (L.) DC.

[in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 335, 1805 - Lichen fuciformis L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1147, 1753.



N - Lig. C - Tosc, Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si. (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & al. 2006a).

Frut/ Tr/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-5, 2-3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ coast/ suboc/ Note: a supralittoral mediterranean-macaronesian species found on a wide variety of rocks (mainly calcareous), much rarer and less heliophytic than R. phycopsis, absent from the Adriatic coast north of Puglia.


+Roccella phycopsis Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 440, 1810.

Syn.: Roccella fucoides Vain., Roccella phycopsis v. cecilia-metella Beltr.

N - Lig (Giordani 2006b). C - Tosc, Marc, Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Camp, Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & al. 2006a).

Frut/ Tr/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-5, 2-3, 1-2, 1-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ coast/ suboc/ Note: on a very wide variety of rocks, incl. brick walls, sometimes on littoral shrubs, in rather sheltered situations, and in habitats subject to frequent, salt-loaden, maritime winds, very rare north of Gargano Peninsula (Puglia), but extending northwards to Liguria along the Tyrrhenian coast.


+Roccella tuberculata v. vincentina Vain.

Cat. Welw. Afr. Plants, 2: 433, 1901.



C - Tosc, Sar. S - Si (Ottonello & al. 2006a).

Frut/ Tr/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ suboc/ #/ Note: this taxon is worthy of further study, it is found on steeply inclined siliceous rocks subject to humid, salt-loaden maritime winds in a few sites of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Ropalospora lugubris (Sommerf.) Poelt

[in Hertel] Sched. ad Lecid. Exs., fasc. 2, 1980 - Lecidea lugubris Sommerf., Flor. Lappon.: 143, 1826.

Syn.: Bacidia lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia lugubris (Sommerf.) Th.Fr., Fuscidea lugubris (Sommerf.) P.James & Purvis, Lecidea caudata Nyl., Lecidea funera Sommerf., Ropalospora cafra A.Massal., Ropalospora caudata (Nyl.) A.Massal., Schaereria lugubris (Sommerf.) Körb., Toninia caudata (Nyl.) Arnold, Toninia lugubris (Sommerf.) Th.Fr.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen, found on steeply inclined, hard siliceous rocks in cold-humid areas.


+Ropalospora viridis (Tønsberg) Tønsberg

Sommerfeltia, 14: 293, 1992 - Fuscidea viridis Tønsberg [in C.F. Culberson et al.] Mycologia, 76: 156, 1984.



N - Frl (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on smooth bark of deciduous trees in cold-humid, open woodlands, perhaps more widespread, but certainly not common.


+Sagiolechia protuberans (Ach.) A.Massal.

Geneac. Lich.: 11, 1854 - Sagedia protuberans Ach., Lich. Univ.: 328, 1810.

Syn.: Bilimbia protuberans (Ach.) A.Massal., Gyalecta cimbrica (A.Massal.) Jatta, Gyalecta protuberans (Ach.) Anzi, Gyalecta protuberans v. mammillata (Hepp) Anzi, Lecidea protuberans (Ach.) Schaer., Sagiolechia cimbrica A.Massal., Sagiolechia leioplacoides (Vain.) Vain., Verrucaria leioplacoides Vain.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on dolomite and hard calciferous rocks, probably more widespread, and locally even common, in the Apennines.


+Sarcogyne algoviae H.Magn.

Rabenhosts’ Krypotgamenfl., 9, 5, 1: 57, 1935.

Syn.: Biatorella algoviae (H.Magn.) Zahlbr.

N - Piem (TSB).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ 4, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 5-6/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on dolomitic rocks.


+Sarcogyne clavus (DC.) Kremp.

Lich. Fl. Bayerns: 212, 1861 - Lichen clavus DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 348, 1805.

Syn.: Biatorella clavus (DC.) Th.Fr., Lecanora eurycarpa Nyl., Patellaria clava DC., Sarcogyne eucarpa Hellb., Stereopeltis carestiae De Not., Stereopeltis macrocarpa Franzoni & De Not.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Camp.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on hard, mineral-rich siliceous rocks, esp. granite, on steeply inclined faces, mostly in fissures of the rock.


+Sarcogyne fallax H.Magn.

Rabenhorst's Krypt.-Fl., 9, 5, 1: 98, 1936.



N - Emil, Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3-5, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ u/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen, found on steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of base-rich siliceous rocks, which is worthy of further study. The records by Valcuvia (2000, 2002b) from Lombardy and Piedmont need confirmation.


+Sarcogyne privigna (Ach.) A.Massal.

Geneac. Lich.: 10, 1854 - Lecanora milvina v. privigna Ach., Lich. Univ.: 359, 1810.

Syn.: Biatorella hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell, Biatorella immersa v. atrosanguinea (Sommerf.) A.Massal., Biatorella privigna (Ach.) Sandst., Lecidea immersa v. atrosanguinea Sommerf., Sarcogyne privigna v. calcicola H.Magn.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Favero-Longo & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-4, 4-5, 4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: rr, C: rc, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, with optimum on steeply inclined faces, and in fissures of the rock, mainly on base-rich siliceous substrata, but frequent also on limestone along the E side of the peninsula (v. calcicola).


+Sarcogyne regularis Körb. v. regularis

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 267, 1855.

Syn.: Biatorella embergeri M.Choisy & Werner, Biatorella immersa v. pruinosa ("Ach.") A.Massal., Biatorella pruinosa auct., Biatorella pruinosa v. illuta (Ach.) Stein, Biatorella regularis (Körb.) Lettau, Gonohymenia monicae Werner, Lecidea immersa v. pruinosa ("Ach.") Schaer., Lecidea pruinosa ("Ach.") Nyl., Lecidea pruinosa v. immersa (Sommerf.) Rabenh., Sarcogyne henrici de Lesd., Sarcogyne pruinosa auct. non (Ach.) Mudd nom. illeg., Sarcogyne pruinosa v. illuta (Ach.) Stein, Sarcogyne pruinosa v. minuta A.Massal., Sarcogyne regularis v. decipiens (A.Massal.) N.S. Golubk. ?, Sarcogyne regularis v. intermedia (Körb.) N. S. Golubk. ?, Sarcogyne regularis v. macroloma (Körb.) N. S. Golubk. ?, Sarcogyne regularis v. minuta (A.Massal.) N. S. Golubk.

N - VG (Pinna & al. 1998, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rigamonti & al. 2007), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Garofalo & al. 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-6/ A: rr, A1: rc B: r, C: c, D: ec, E: rc, F: ec, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-3/ #/ p/ Note: a vary variable holarctic-subcosmopolitan species which needs revision based on molecular data. It is common both in urban areas (e.g. on mortar walls) and in natural situations, mostly in lichen-poor stands.


+Sarcogyne regularis v. platycarpoides (Anzi) N. S. Golubk.

Nov. Syst. Plant. non Vasc., 14: 187, 1977 - Sarcogyne platycarpoides Anzi, Comm. Soc. Crittogamol.Ital., 2, 1: 19, 1861.



Syn.: Biatorella platycarpoides (Anzi) Th.Fr., Sarcogyne pruinosa v. platycar

oides (Anzi) H.Magn., Sarcogyne platycarpoides v. flexuosa Bagl. & Carestia ?

N - Ven (Nimis 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: this is one of the several morphs of S. regularis s.latiss., worthy of a molecular study. It is an interesting taxon, most common on dolomite above treeline. It might be more widespread in the Alps.


+Sarcosagium campestre (Fr.) Poetsch & Schied.

Syst. Aufzähl. samenl. Pflanzen: 189, 1872 - Biatora campestris Fr., Sv. K. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 273, 1822.

Syn.: Biatorella campestris (Fr.) Almq., Biatorella sarcosagium Anzi, Sarcosagium biatorellum A.Massal.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nimis 1994), Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: an early colonizer of calciferous soil, muribund bryophytes, plant debris, sometimes on decaying wood, mostly in disturbed habitats.


+Schadonia alpina Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 93-94, 1859.

Syn.: Bombyliospora gemella Anzi, Lopadium gemellum (Anzi) Jatta

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine species, found on soil and muribund bryophytes on siliceous substrata. Probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Schadonia fecunda (Th.Fr.) Vězda & Poelt

[in D. Hawksksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 107, 1980 - Lopadium fecundum Th.Fr., N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 302, 1861.

Syn.: Biatora socialis Hepp, Diplotomma sociale (Hepp) Jatta, Lopadium sociale (Hepp) Körb.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine species, found on mosses and plant remains on acid siliceous substrata. Probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Schaereria cinereorufa (Schaer.) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 175, 1861 - Lecidea cinereorufa Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 3: 122, 1828.

Syn.: Lecidea subfurva Nyl., Psora cinereorufa (Schaer.) Hellb., Schaereria lugubris (Fr.) Körb.

N - Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on inclined to vertical faces of mineral-rich rocks wetted by rain, often near the ground, associated to species of Pertusaria. Probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Schaereria fuscocinerea (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre Ouest, n. sér., n. spéc. 7: 829, 1985 - Lecidea fuscocinerea Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1852: 177, 1852.

Syn.: Aspicilia cambusiana Walt.Watson, Aspicilia complanatoides (A.L.Sm.) Walt.Watson, Aspicilia tenebrosa (Flot.) Körb., Aspicilia tenebrosa v. lecidina Körb., Lecanora calvosina Samp., Lecanora cambusiana (Walt.Watson) Cretz., Lecanora complanatoides A.L.Sm., Lecanora coracina (Ach.) Hepp, Lecidea atrocinerea (Schaer.) Vain., Lecidea coracina Ach. non Sommerf., Lecidea endocyanea Stirt., Lecidea epiiodiza Nyl., Lecidea griseoatra auct. non (Flot.) Schaer., Lecidea tenebrosa Flot., Lecidella tenebrosa (Flot.) Körb., Schaereria endocyanea (Stirt.) Hertel & Gotth.Schneid., Schaereria tenebrosa (Flot.) Hertel & Poelt

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-6/ A: c, A1: rr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on hard siliceous rocks in exposed situations, common only in the Alps, much rarer in the Apennines.


+Schismatomma albocinctum (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 2: 553, 1924 - Opegrapha albocincta Nyl., Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 2: 408, 1855.

Syn.: Opegrapha pitardii de Lesd., Schismatomma pitardii (de Lesd.) Torrente & Egea

C - Sar (Tehler 1993, Zedda 2002).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found on bark of Pinus, Juniperus, Pistacia and other shrubs in maritime, very humid situations.


+Schismatomma cretaceum (Hue) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 1: 56, 1984 - Crocynia cretacea Hue, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 73: 347, 1924.



C - Sar (Zedda 2002).

Cr/ Tr/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a western species, never found fertile, which most probably does not belong to Schismatomma.


+Schismatomma decolorans (Sm.) Clauzade & Vězda

[in Vězda] Sched. ad Lich. Sel. Exs., 13: 304, 1965 - Spiloma decolorans [Turner & Borrer ex] Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot.: 34, tab. 2399, 1812.

Syn.: Arthonia decolorans (Sm.) Erichsen, Lepraria decolorans (Sm.) Almb.

N - VG, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Tehler 1993, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1999a, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Senese & Critelli 2000), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Tehler 1993, Ravera & al. 1999, 2003, Massari & Ravera 2003, Munzi & al. 2007), Sar (Zedda 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (TSB).

Cr/ Tr/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 1-3, 1-2, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: er, F: rc, G: c, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate, mostly western species, found on ancient oaks in the North, but most abundant in Tyrrhenian Italy (e.g. on orange-trees).


+Schismatomma dirinellum (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 2: 555, 1924 - Platygrapha dirinella Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 4: 95, 1856.

Syn.: Lecanactis saltelii de Lesd., Lecanactis saltelii f. ecrustacea de Lesd., Lecania diplotommoides Bagl., Lecania picconiana Bagl., Platygrapha diplotommoides (Bagl.) Jatta, Schismatomma diplotommoides (Bagl.) Samp., Schismatomma diplotommoides v. crenulatum de Lesd., Schismatomma picconianum (Bagl.) J.Steiner, Schismatomma picconianum v. microcarpum (Bagl. ex Arnold) J.Steiner

N - Lig (Tehler 1993). C - Tosc (Tehler 1993), Umbr (Tehler 1993, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Tehler 1993), Sar (Tehler 1993, Zedda 2001). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Lich. Graec. 57: Obermayer 1996, Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 1-3, 1-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vc, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species, most abundant on evergreen trees in Tyrrhenian Italy, esp.on Quercus ilex, in humid mediterranean woodlands.


+Schismatomma graphidioides (Leight.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 2: 557, 1924 - Chiodecton graphidioides Leight., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Zool. Bot. Geol., 13: 1854.

Syn.: Chiodecton italicum (de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Chiodecton italicum f. roseum de Lesd., Enterographa flotowii A.Massal., Enterographa graphidioides (Leight.) Almb., Enterographa hutchinsiae v. zwackii A.Massal., Enterographa italica de Lesd., Enterographa pseudorufescens (de Lesd.) Redinger, Enterographa rimata (Nyl.) Zwackh, Enterographa rimata f. contigua Redinger nom inval., Enterographa rimata f. conspersula Redinger nom. inval., Enterographa zwackii (Zwack) A.Massal., Lecanactis ricasolii A.Massal., Opegrapha ricasolii (A.Massal.) Jatta, Opegrapha pseudorufescens de Lesd., Platygrapha rimata Flot. ex Nyl., Schismatomma ricasolii (A.Massal.) Egea & Torrente, Schismatomma rimatum (Nyl.) Almq.

N - Lomb, Lig (Tehler 1993, Benco & al. 2004, Sparrius 2004). C - Tosc (Tehler 1994, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a cool-temperate, mainly western species, with optimum in humid Abies-Fagus forests of the Apennines, but also occuring in humid sites of Mediterranean Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Schismatomma niveum D.Hawksw. & P.James

[in P.James] Lichenologist, 5: 145, 1971.



C - Sar (Zedda 2002).

Cr/ Tr/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ Note: a western species, never found fertile, which most probably does not belong to Schismatomma.


+Schismatomma pericleum (Ach.) Branth & Rostr.

Bot. Tidskr., 3: 244, 1869 - Lichen pericleus Ach., Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr.: 78, 1799.

Syn.: Lecanora periclea (Ach.) Ach., Lecanactis periclea (Ach.) M.Choisy, Platygrapha dolosa (Ach.) Anzi, Platygrapha periclea (Ach.) Nyl., Pyrenothea incrustans (Ach.) Fr., Schismatomma abietinum (Humb.) Almq. non (Ach.) A.Massal., Schismatomma dolosum (Ach.) Flot.& Körb., Schismatomma pericleum v. farinosum (Stenh.) Lettau, Verrucaria abietina Humb.

N - Ven (Nascimbene 2003b), TAA (Tehler 1993, Nacimbene 2006b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a temperate, mainly western species, with optimum in humid beech forests, mostly on conifers (Abies, Picea), much rarer on oaks.


+Sclerophora nivea (Hoffm.) Tibell

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 679, 1984 - Trichia nivea Hoffm., Vegetab. Crypt., 2: 14, 1790.

Syn.: Coniocybe curta H.Magn., Coniocybe nivea (Hoffm.) Arnold non Tuck. & Mont. nom. illegit., Coniocybe nivea v. pallida (Pers.) Arnold, Coniocybe pallida (Pers.) Fr., Conyocybe pallida v. leucocephala (Wallr.) Schaer., Coniocybe pallida v. nivea (Hoffm.) Arnold, Coniocybe subpallida Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Mol (Vězda Lich. Rar. Exs. 356, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996) , Si (Otttonello & Isocrono 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a temperate species found on old trees, such as Acer, Ulmus and Fraxinus in dry crevices of the bark, certainly strongly declining, esp. in the north.


+Sclerophora peronella (Ach.) Tibell

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 679, 1984 - Lichen peronellus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 84, 1799.

Syn.: Coniocybe hyalinella Nyl., Coniocybe peronella (Ach.) Tibell, Roesleria hyalinella (Nyl.) Sacc.

C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b ), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996, Amo & Burgaz 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: on bark and lignum of mature broad-leaved trees. Italian records are recent, but the species is probably declining.


+Sclerophytomyces circumscriptus (Taylor) Sparrius & P.James

[in Sparrius] Bibl. Lichenol., 89: 85, 2004 - Verrucaria circumscripta Taylor [in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern., 2: 96, 1836.

Syn.: Chiodecton leucinum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Chiodecton pruinosum (de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Enterographa leucina (Nyl.) A.Massal., Sagedia circumscripta (Taylor) Leight., Sclerophyton circumscriptum (Taylor) Zahlbr., Sclerophyton circumscriptum f. dendrizum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Sclerophyton circumscriptum f. leucinum (Nyl.) Redinger, Sclerophyton circumscriptum f. pruinosum (de Lesd.) Redinger, Stigmatella circumscripta (Taylor) Mudd nom. illegit., Stigmatidium circumscriptum (Taylor) Leight., Stigmatidium circumscriptum f. dendrizum Nyl., Stigmatidium crassum v. leucinum (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Stigmatidium leucinum Nyl., Stigmatidium pruinosum de Lesd.

C - Sar. S - Si.

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ coast/ Note: a tropical to subtropical-temperate species of oceanic, coastal areas with a subcosmopolitan distribution (see Sparrius 2004), found on very hard siliceous rocks subject to humid maritime winds, mostly in underhangs. Extremely rare and worthy of protection in Italy.


+Scoliciosporum chlorococcum (Stenh.) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon., 13: 414, 1978 - Biatora hypnophila v. chlorococca [Graewe ex] Stenh., Öfv. K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Förh., 19: 473, 1863.

Syn.: Bacidia chlorococca (Stenh.) Lettau, Bacidia cholorococca v. hilarior (Th.Fr.) Zahlbr., Bacidia interspersula (Nyl. in Brenner) Zahlbr., Bacidia salicicola Wheldon & Travis, Bilimbia chlorococca (Stenh.) Th.Fr.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 2000), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006, 2006b, Valcuvia 2002, 2002b, Castino 2004), Emil (Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Tosc (Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & al. 1996c, 1997b, 1997e, Benesperi 2000a, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Munzi & al. 2007). S - Bas.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Sax/ 1-3, 2-3, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: rc, D: rr, E: vr, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic, ecologically wide-ranging species, found on bark (esp. of Fagus), lignum and siliceous rocks, tolerant to air pollution. Several earlier and also some recent records, however, need confirmation.


+Scoliciosporum gallurae Vězda & Poelt

[in Nimis & Poelt] Studia Geobot., 7, suppl. 1: 221, 1987.



C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Fornasier & al. 2005), Sar (Zedda 2002).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-3, 3-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: er, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: one of the most common lichens in southern Europe, being often sterile, it is difficult to identify. It is probably much more widespread, esp. in Tyrrhenian Italy, but has been very much overlooked.


+Scoliciosporum intrusum (Th.Fr.) Hafellner

Fritschiana, 49, 31, 2004 - Lecidea intrusa Th.Fr., Bot. Notiser 1867: 152, 1868?

Syn.: Carbonea intrusa (Th.Fr.) Rambold & Triebel, Catillaria intrusa (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr., Conida intrusa (Th.Fr.) Sacc. & D.Sacc., Lecidea aphanoides Nyl., Lecideopsis intrusa (Th.Fr.) Zopf, Lecidea contrusa Vain. nom. illegit., Lecidea melaphana Nyl., Micarea intrusa (Th.Fr.) Coppins & H.Kilias

N - TAA (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras silicicolous crustose lichens/ Note: a probably circumpolar, arctic-alpine species. For further details see Hafellner (2004).


+Scoliciosporum perpusillum Körb.

[J.Lahm ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 241, 1861.

Syn.: Bacidia perpusilla (Körb.) Th.Fr.

S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Foliic/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate, probably western species, generally found on acid bark, esp. of conifers, but also on needles of Abies in damp forests.


+Scoliciosporum pruinosum (P.James) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon. 13: 414, 1978 - Bacidia pruinosa P.James, Lichenologist, 5: 117, 1971.



N - VG. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ u/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on bark, esp.of old oaks, in underhangs. Optimum in humid deciduous, more rarely evergreen forests, often along rivers. Perhaps it does not belong into Scoliciosporum.


+Scoliciosporum sarothamni (Vain.) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon., 13: 411, 1978 - Bacidia sarothamni Vain., Acta Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 53: 214, 1922.



N - Ven (Nascimbene 2003b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007). Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2-3, 2-3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a mainly mild-temperate early colonizer of smooth bark, rarely growing on siliceous rocks. Probably overlooked, being mostly sterile.


+Scoliciosporum umbrinum (Ach.) Arnold

Flora, 54: 50, 1871 - Lecanora hagenii v. umbrina Ach., Lich. Univ.: 368, 1810.

Syn.: Bacidia compacta (Körb.) Jatta, Bacidia corticicola (Anzi) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Bacidia holomelaena (Ach.) Anzi, Bacidia holomelaena v. corticicola Anzi, Bacidia turgida (Körb.) Hellb., Bacidia umbrina (Ach.) Bausch, Bacidia umbrina v. compacta (Körb.) Th.Fr., Bacidia umbrina v. “corticola” (Anzi) Bausch, Bacidia umbrina v. psotina (Fr.) Th.Fr., Bacidia umbrina v. turgida (Körb.) Th.Fr., Scoliciosporum compactum Körb., Scoliciosporum compactum v. saxicolum Körb., Scoliciosporum “corticolum” (Anzi) Arnold, Scoliciosporum holomelaenum (Flörke) A.Massal., Scoliciosporum turgidum Körb., Scoliciosporum umbrinum v. asserculorum Stizenb., Scoliciosporum umbrinum v. compactum (Körb.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Scoliciosporum umbrinum v. “corticolum” (Anzi) Bagl. & Carestia

N - VG (Carvalho 1997, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Lazzarin 1997), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb (Hinteregger 1994), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Favero-Longo & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1999a, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Sax-Lign/ 1-3, 3, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: c, D: rc, E: vr, F: rc, G: rc, H: vr/ PF: 1-3/ Note: an ecologically wide-ranging, probably holarctic species, also present in urban areas, sometimes parasitic on other lichens (esp. when on siliceous rocks).

+Seirophora contortuplicata (Ach.) Frödén

[in Frödén & Lassen] Lichenologist, 36, 5: 29, 2004 - Parmelia contortuplicata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 210, 1814.

Syn.: Caloplaca elegans v. caespitosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Teloschistes contortuplicatus (Ach.) Clauzade & Rondon, Xanthoria contortuplicata (Ach.) Boistel

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, Nascimbene 2004), TAA (Nascimbene 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2004, 2004b), Lomb, Piem, VA (TSB), Emil (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2003), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-4/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ u/ Note: in south-facing niches and underhangs of calciferous rocks in the mountains. Not uncommon in the W Alps and locally frequent in the Estearn C Apennines.


+Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén

[in Frödén & Lassen] Lichenologist, 36,5 :297, 2004 - Parmelia villosa Ach., Meth. Lich.: 254, 1803.

Syn.: Physcia magara Kremp., Physcia villosa v. calvescens De Not., Physcia villosa f. brevior Nyl, Seirophora magara (Kremp.) Poelt, Teloschistes brevior (Nyl.) Hillmann, Teloschistes villosus (Ach.) Norman

C - Tosc (Putortì & Loppi 1999), Laz (Lich. Graec. 40: Obermayer 1995b), Sar. S - Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 2-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: on twigs of shrubs and small trees subject to spells of dry situations and frequent humid maritime winds. Presently restricted to a few sites of Tyrrhenian Italy, on almost undisturbed sand dunes.


+Solenopsora candicans (Dicks.) J.Steiner

Österr. bot. Z., 65: 288, 1915 - Lichen candicans Dicks., Fasc. Plant. Crypt. Brit., 3: 15, 1793.

Syn.: Diphratora candicans (Dicks.) Jatta, Lecania candicans (Dicks.) Stizenb., Placolecania candicans (Dicks.) Zahlbr., Ricasolia candicans (Dicks.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Pišút 1997), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate species, found on calcareous boulders, more heliophytic in the north than in the south, where it often occurs also in sheltered situations.


+Solenopsora carpathica Pišút & Vězda

Acta Mus. Sil., ser. A, 19: 25, 1972.



N - Lomb.

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 4, 3/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: this taxon needs further study: at least the material collected in Lombardia seems to be very different from typical S. candicans, to which this species is anyhow related.


+Solenopsora cesatii (A.Massal.) Zahlbr. v. cesatii

Österr. bot. Z., 68: 303, 191 - Ricasolia cesatii A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 47, n. 101, fig. 46, t. 8, 1853.

Syn.: Berengeria cesatii (A.Massal.) Trevis., Diphratora cesatii (A.Massal.) Jatta, Placolecania cesatii (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

N - VG, Ven, Lomb, Piem, Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a southern lichen, with optimum in the mediterranean and mild-temperate belts, found in fissures of calcareous boulders. This and the following variety may be difficult to distinguish, intermediate forms being frequent.


+Solenopsora cesatii v. grisea (Bagl.) Nimis

The Lichens of Italy: 654, 1993 - Ricasolia cesatii v. grisea Bagl., Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 3: 121, 1862.

Syn.: Lecanora liparina Nyl., Solenopsora bagliettoana Tav. ined., Solenopsora cesatii f. liparina (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Solenopsora liparina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

N - Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: er/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: closely related to the typical variety, and perhaps not distinct from it.


+Solenopsora holophaea (Mont.) Samp.

Broteria, ser. bot., 19: 26, 1921 - Parmelia holophaea Mont. [in Webb & Berthel.] Hist. des Iles Canaries, 3, 2, 4, 51: 113, 1840.

Syn.: Lecania holophaea (Mont.) A.L.Sm., Lecanora holophaea (Mont.) Nyl., Lecidea sublurida Carroll in Nyl ?. Massalongia requienii (A.Massal.) Jatta, Solenopsora requienii A.Massal., Thalloidima holophaeum (Mont.) Arnold, Thalloidima subluridum (Carroll) Mudd ?

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Sar (Kantvilas 2004). S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ coast/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found in sheltered crevices of basic siliceous rocks and on soil, esp. along the coast, exclusively Tyrrhenian in Italy. Certainly not related to e.g. Solenopsora candicans, but this is the type species of the genus!


+Solenopsora olivacea (Fr.) H.Kilias ssp. olivacea

Herzogia, 5, 3-4: 399, 1981 - Biatora olivacea [Dufour ex] Fr. Syst. Orb. Veget., 1: 285, 1825.

Syn.: Biatorina michelettiana A.Massal., Biatorina olivacea (Fr.) Anzi, Catillaria olivacea (Fr.) Zahlbr., Placodiella olivacea (Fr.) Szatala, Ricasolia olivacea (Fr.) Bagl., Toninia olivacea (Fr.) Clauzade

N - Lig (Alonso & Egea 1994). C - Tosc, Laz, Sar (Alonso & Egea 1994), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: rc, G: c, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate to mediterranean-atlantic species, found on large boulders near the ground, or on seepage tracks, esp. in open woodlands of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Solenopsora olivacea ssp. olbiensis (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

[in Cl.Roux] Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n. sér., 13: 226, 1982 - Lecanora olbiensis Nyl. Flora, 59: 306, 1876.

Syn.: Catillaria olivacea v. soredifera Zahlbr., Toninia olivacea v. olbiensis (Nyl.) Clauzade

S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1996b).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 5, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ PF: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ suboc/ Note: often associated with the typical subspecies, but rarer, and bound to more humid-shaded situations. A varietal rank is perhaps more appropriate.


+Solenopsora vulturiensis A.Massal.

[Bagl. ex] A.Massal., Lotos, 6: 75, 1856.

Syn.: Lecania holophaea v. glaucospora (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Lecania leucospeirea (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Lecanora holophaea v. glaucospora Nyl., Lecanora leucospeirea Nyl., Solenopsora leucospeirea (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Thalloidima leucospeireum (Nyl.) Arnold

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found on basic siliceous substrata, incl. brick walls, in sheltered situations, exclusively Tyrrhenian in Italy.


+Solorina bispora Nyl. ssp. bispora

Syn. Lich., 1: 331, 1860.

Incl: Solorina bispora v. monospora (Gyeln.) Frey, Solorina monospora Gyeln.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vc, A1: rc, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on humid soil rich in humus with a long snow-lie, common only in the Alps. Some records could refer to S. bispora ssp. macrospora.


+Solorina bispora ssp. macrospora (Harm.) Burgaz & I. Martínez

Ann. Bot. Fenn., 35: 140, 1998 - Solorina macrospora Harm., Lich. de France, 4: 661, "1909" (1910).

Syn.: Solorina bispora v. macrospora (Harm.) H.Olivier

N - Frl (TSB), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: distinguished by the larger spores, probably more widespread in the Alps. See also note on ssp. bispora.


+Solorina crocea (L.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 149, tab. 1, fig. 5, 1810 - Lichen croceus L., Sp. Pl.: 1149, 1753.

Syn.: Peltidea crocea (L.) Ach., Peltigera crocea (L.) Hoffm., Solorina crocea v. complicata Anzi

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Tomaselli 1991, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig.

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: c, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on acid mineral soil with a long snow-lie, restricted to the Alps and the N Apennines in Italy.


+Solorina octospora (Arnold) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 26: 371, 1876 - Solorina saccata v. octospora Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 23: 103, 1873.



N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar lichen, found on soil rich in humus and on terricolous mosses, often in rock fissures. Probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Solorina saccata (L.) Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 149, 1810 - Lichen saccatus L., Sp. Pl., 1: 1149, 1753.



N - Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc, Laz (Ravera 2002b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: ec, A1: c, B: vr, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on calciferous soil rich in humus and terricolous mosses, often in cracks of the rock, most common in the Alps, rarer in the Apennines, but descending to the submediterranean belt in Tyrrhenian Italy. The record from VG by Nimis (1993: 657), being from Slovenia, is excluded here.


+Solorina spongiosa (Ach.) Anzi

Comment. Soc. Crittogam. Ital., 1: 136, 1862 - §

Syn.: Collema spongiosum (Sm.) Ach., Solorina saccata v. limbata (Sommerf.) Torss., Solorina saccata v. spongiosa (Sm.) Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: c, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on moist calciferous soil, to be looked for also on the highest peaks of the Apennines.


+Solorinella asteriscus Anzi

Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 37, 1860.



N - TAA (Farkas & Lökos 1994), Lomb (Farkas & Lokos 1994), Piem (TSB), VA (Farkas & Lökos 1994, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a typical lichen of steppe grasslands on loess, whose distribution extends widely into C Asia, found or on soil deriving from calcareous schists, restricted to strongly continental Alpine valleys in Italy.


+Sphaerophorus fragilis (L.) Pers.

Usteri's N. Ann. Bot., 7: 23, 1794 - Lichen fragilis L., Sp. Pl.: 1154, 1753.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 2, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen of siliceous rocks and mineral soil in very rainy areas, probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Sphaerophorus globosus (Huds.) Vain.

Res. Voy. S. Y. Belgica, Bot.: 35, 1903 - Lichen globosus Huds., Fl. Angl.: 460, 1762.

Syn.: Sphaerophorus coralloides Pers.

N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA, Emil (Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996), Si.

Frut/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: restricted to cold-humid areas, mostly on rocks, very rarely (in Italy) at the base of old boles in natural forests, probably extinct in several regions.


+Spilonema paradoxum Bornet

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 4: 226, 1856.

Syn.: Spilonema pannosum Hy, Spilonema tenellum Vain.

N - TAA, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar (TSB).

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ w/ Note: a widespread lichen found on sun-exposed, inclined to vertical seepage tracks of basic siliceous rocks, perhaps overlooked, but certainly not common in Italy.


+Sporastatia polyspora (Nyl.) Grummann

Cat. Lich. Germ.: 23, 1963 - Gyrothecium polysporum Nyl., Essai Nouv. Classif. Lich.: 186, 1854.

Syn.: Biatorella cinerea (Schaer.) Th.Fr., Lecidea morio v. cinerea Schaer., Lecidea nigrocinerea Nyl., Sporastatia cinerea (Schaer.) Körb., Sporastatia morio v. cinerea (Schaer.) Körb.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (TSB), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & al. 1998, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vc, A1: c, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ u/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on steeply inclined to underhanging, hard siliceous rocks, restricted to the Alps.


+Sporastatia testudinea (Ach.) A.Massal.

Geneac. Lich.: 9, 1854 - Lecidea cechumena v. testudinea Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 232, 1808.

Syn.: Acarospora testudinea (Ach.) A.Massal., Biatorella morio auct., Biatorella testudinea (Ach.) A.Massal., Biatorella testudinea v. coracina (Sommerf.) Th.Fr., Lecidea coracina Sommerf. non Ach., Lecidea morio auct., Lecidea morio v. coracina (Sommerf.) Schaer., Sporastatia morio auct., Sporastatia morio v. testudinea (Ach.) Körb., Sporastatia testudinea v. coracina (Sommerf.) Stein, Sporastatia testudinea v. pallens (Fr.) Stein

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Allisiardi 2001, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, 2004), Emil, Lig (TSB). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 3-6/ A: ec, A1: vc, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on hard siliceous rocks, incl. pure quartz, in wind-exposed sites.



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