+Absconditella annexa



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§+§Sporodictyon cruentum (Körb.) Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 332, 1863 - Segestrella cruenta Körb., Denkschr. Schles. Ges. vaterl. Cultur: 237, 1853.

Syn.: Polyblastia cruenta (Körb.) P.James & Swinscow, Polyblastia henscheliana (Körb.) Lönnr., Sphaeromphale henscheliana Körb.?, Sporodictyon henschelianum (Körb.) Körb.?, Verrucaria subumbrina Nyl.

N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: periodically submerged in montane to Alpine creeks, poorly collected, perhaps more widespread in the Alps. For further details see Savic & Tibell (2007*).


§+§Sporodictyon schaererianum A.Massal.

Flora, 35: 326, 1852.

Syn.: Polyblastia schaereriana (A.Massal.) Müll.Arg., Polyblastia subpyrenophora (Leight.) Zschacke, Polyblastia theleodes (Sommerf.) Th.Fr., Sporodictyon schaererianum A.Massal., Verrucaria subpyrenophora Leight., Verrucaria theleodes Sommerf. var. contigua Sommerf.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly circum-arctic to boreal-montane lichen, found on hard calciferous rocks, often on dolomite, but also on calcareous sandstone and schist in cold-humid situations. For further details see Savic & Tibell (2007*).


§+§Sporodictyon terrestris (Th.Fr.) S.Savic & Tibell

[in S.Savic] Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 370: 18, 2007 - Polyblastia terrestris Th.Fr. N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 365, 1860.

Syn.: Polyblastia fartilis (Nyl.) Boistel, Polyblastia inumbrata (Nyl.) Arnold, Polyblastia sommerfeltii Lynge, Polyblastia subviridicans (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Polyblastia tarvesedis (Anzi) Bagl. & Carestia, Sporodictyon turicensis Winter, Thelotrema tarvesedis Anzi, Verrucaria fartilis Nyl., Verrucaria inumbrata Nyl.

NTAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: an arctic-alpine, polymorphic species, found on calciferous to neutral or slightly acidic rocks by streams, often in the splash zone, more rarely on base-rich soil (but spreading from small pebbles), both on bare ground and amongst bryophytes. For further details see Savic & Tibell (2007*).


+Squamarina cartilaginea (With.) P.James

[in D.Hawksw. & al.] Lichenologist, 12: 107, 1980 - Lichen cartilagineus With., Bot. Arrang. Brit. Plants, 2: 708, 1776.

Syn.: Lecanora cartilaginea (With.) A.L.Sm., Lecanora crassa (Huds.) Ach., Lecanora crassa v. caespitosa (Vill.) Rabenh., Lecanora lentigera f. pseudocrassa Mattick, Parmelia dufourei Fr. ?, Placodium crassum (Huds.) Th.Fr., Psoroma benacense A.Massal., Psoroma crassum (Huds.) Gray, Squamaria crassa (Huds.) DC., Squamarina crassa (Huds.) Poelt, Squamarina cartilaginea f. iberica (Mattick) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Squamarina cartilaginea f. pseudocrassa (Mattick) D.Hawksw.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a, Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Lich. Graec. 297: Obermayer 2006), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: vr, C: rc, D: ec, E: vr, F: ec, G: ec, H: vc/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly southern, chemically variable species, found on calcareous rocks and soil, mostly in dry grasslands, the most common of the genus in Italy.


+Squamarina concrescens (Müll.Arg.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 532, 1958 - Placodium concrescens Müll.Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier, 1: 130, 1893.

Syn.: Lecanora sublentigera Jatta, Squamarina concrescens ssp. cravensis (Clauzade & Cl.Roux) Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?, Squamarina concrescens v. cravensis Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?

N - Lig. C - Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Nimis & Puntillo 2003), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ A.i/ Terr/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: an often misunderstood species, with a southern distribution centered in dry areas, found on base-rich clay soil in clearings of grasslands and garrigues, mostly Tyrrhenian, but also found in the dry Alpine valleys.


+Squamarina gypsacea (Sm.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 539, 1958 - Lichen gypsaceus Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 1: 81, 1791.

Syn.: Lecanora crassa v. gypsacea (Sm.) Schaer., Lecanora fragilis (Scop.) Zahlbr., Lecanora gypsacea (Sm.) Müll.Arg., Lecanora smithii Ach., Placodium gypsaceum (Sm.) Trevis., Psoroma gypsaceum (Sm.) A.Massal., Squamaria gypsacea (Sm.) Nyl., Squamarina gypsacea v. subcetrarioides (Zahbr.) Pišút ?

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & Lastrucci 2007), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-6/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rr, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ subc/ paras Mycobilimbia lurida when young/ Note: in fissures of calcareous boulders, with optima both in the mediterranean-submediterranean belts and in dry-continental parts of the Alps. The var. subcetrarioides, found in upland areas and not uncommon in the Alps, is worthy of further study.


+Squamarina lamarckii (DC.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 538, 1958 - Urceolaria lamarckii DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., 3 éd., 2: 372, 1805.

Syn.: Lecanora lagascae Ach., Lecanora lamarckii (DC.) Rabenh., Parmelia lagascae (Ach.) Fr., Placodium lamarckii (DC.) Th.Fr., Psoroma lagascae (Ach.) Körb., Squamaria lagascae (Ach.) Duby

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Sar.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined calcareous rocks, rarer in the Apennines, but to be looked for in the south.


+Squamarina lentigera (Weber) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 536, 1958 - Lichen lentigerus Weber, Spicil. Fl. Goett.: 192, 1778.

Syn.: Lecanora crassa v. lentigera (Weber) St. Amans, Lecanora lentigera (Weber) Ach., Placodium lentigerum (Weber) Gray, Psoroma lentigerum (Weber) A.Massal., Squamaria lentigera (Weber) DC.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.pl/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: rr/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a species of dry-continental areas, with a wide altitudinal range, only locally common, esp. on gypsaceous or clayey soil in dry grasslands, also present in dry-warm Alpine valleys.


+Squamarina nivalis Frey & Poelt

[in Poelt] Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 353, 1958.



N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 5-6/ A: er, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on wind-exposed outcrops of calcareous schists, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Squamarina oleosa (Zahlbr.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 353, 1958 - Lecanora oleosa Zahlbr. [in Hand.- Mazz.] Symb. Sin., 3: 175, 1930.



N - VG, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007b), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003),Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a typically submediterranean lichen, found in fissures of calcareous rocks. Never common, but certainly more widespread.


+Squamarina periculosa (Schaer.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 534, 1958 - Lecanora crassa v. periculosa [Dufour ex] Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 58, 1850.

Syn.: Placolecanora crassa v. tricolor de Lesd.

N - VG, Frl (Martellos 2005), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ Note: in fissures of steeply inclined calciferous rocks.


+Squamarina stella-petraea Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 2: 540, 1958.



N - Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (TSB).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: rc, H: c/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species, with outposts in dry-warm areas of the submediterranean belt, found on rock or thin soil layers in dry grasslands, overlooked, or confused with S. cartilaginea in the past, locally abundant, esp. in the south.


+Staurolemma omphalarioides (Anzi) M.Jørg. & Henssen

Graphis Scripta, 5: 13: 1993 - Collema omphalarioides Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1: 131, 1862.

Syn.: Lempholemma hispanicum (Samp.) Zahlbr., Lempholemma omphalarioides (Anzi) Zahlbr., Physma hispanicum Samp., Physma omphalarioides (Anzi) Arnold, Staurolemma dalmaticum Körb.

N - VG, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Massari & Ravera 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).

Fol.n/ Cy.h/ A.i/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4, 2, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate, mediterranean-atlantic lichen, only locally common, e.g. on Olea in parts of Tyrrhenian Italy. For further information see Jørgensen & Henssen (1993, with map).


+Staurothele ambrosiana (A.Massal.) Zschacke

Zeitschr. f. Naturw., 80: 251, 1908 - Paraphysorma ambrosianum A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 136, n. 319, fig. 162, t. 24, 1853.

Syn.: Dermatocarpon ambrosianum (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Dermatocarpon ambrosianum v. effusum A.Massal., Dermatocarpon ambrosianum v. orbiculare A.Massal., Staurothele catalepta auct. p.p. non (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Ven, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 3, 3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: rr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on sheltered calcareous rocks in the mountains. Related to S. frustulenta and S. areolata, and probably a synonym of one of these two species. Further study is needed here.


+Staurothele areolata (Ach.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 84, 1912 - Pyrenula areolata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 122, 1814.

Syn.: Staurothele clopima auct. p.p. non (Wahlenb.) Th.Fr., Staurothele turgidella Vain. ?

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 3, 3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: vr, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on calcareous to basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain in open habitats (e.g. on boulders in Alpine and subalpine grasslands), very common throughout the Alps. According to Wirth (1995) this is a possible synonym of S. frustulenta, specimens from upland areas, however, clearly differ from those collected at lower altitudes (treated here as S. frustulenta).


+Staurothele bacilligera (Arnold) Arnold

Flecht. Frank. Jura: 256, 1885 - Polyblastia bacilligera Arnold, Flora, 52: 516, 1869.



N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2005).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on calcareous rocks, a taxon which needs revision.


+Staurothele caesia (Arnold) Arnold

Flecht. Frank. Jura: 246, 1885 - Polyblastia caesia Arnold, Flora, 41: 251, 1858.



N - Ven, TAA.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note on limestone and dolomite in exposed situations.


+Staurothele clopimoides (Arnold) J.Steiner

[in Penther & Zederbauer] Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 20, 1905: 383, 1907 - Sphaeromphale clopimoides [Anzi ex] Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 24: 250, 1874.

Syn.: Polyblastia clopimoides Anzi ex Rabenh. nom. nud., Sphaeromphale areolata v. clopimoides (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a probably circumboreal-montane freshwater species, amphibious in montane creeks, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Staurothele fissa (Taylor) Zwackh

Flora, 14: 552, 1862 - Verrucaria fissa Taylor [in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern., 2: 95, 1836.

Syn.: Sphaeromphale fissa (Taylor) Körb., Sphaeromphale silesiaca A.Massal., Staurothele hazslinskyi (Körb.) Blomb. & Forssell, Staurothele inconversa (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell, Staurothele lithina sensu Zahlbr., Staurothele silesiaca (A.Massal.) Zschacke, Staurothele umbrina (Wahlenb.) Tuck., Staurothele viridis Zschacke, Thelotrema fissum (Taylor) Hepp

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Marc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: rr, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a probably circumpolar lichen, found amphibious in montane creeks, or on moist siliceous rocks, much rarer in the Mediterranean mountains than in the Alps.


+Staurothele frustulenta Vain.

Acta Soc. Faun. Flor. Fenn., 49, 2: 93, 1921.

Syn.: Stautothele catalepta auct. p.p. non (Ach.) Blomb. & Fossell, Staurothele elegans (Wallr.) Zwackh ?

N - Lig (TSB). S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks in open habitats. See note on S. areolata.


*FINQUI+Staurothele fuscocuprea (Nyl.) Zschacke

Hedwigia, 54, 187, 1913 - Verrucaria cuprea v. fuscocuprea Nyl., Flora, 57: 318, 1874.

Syn.: Staurothele clopima (Wahlenb.) Th.Fr. non auct.

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: amphibious in montane to Alpine creeks, probably restricted to the Alps in Italy, and more widespread there.


+Staurothele geoica Zschacke

Hedwigia, 60: 5, 1918.



N - Frl. S - Cal (Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ §/ Alt: 2-5/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on soil amongst bryophytes and on plant debris. This taxon deserves further study.


+Staurothele guestphalica (Körb.) Arnold

Flora, 68: 154, 1885 - Polyblastia guestphalica [J.Lahm ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 339, 1863.

Syn.: Porphyriospora guestphalica (Körb.) Servít, Staurothele orbicularis auct. p.p.

N - VG (TSB), Lig.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: er, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on calcareous boulders near the ground, and on large pebbles in dry grasslands, related to S. orbicularis, and in need of further study.


+Staurothele hymenogonia (Nyl.) Th.Fr.

Bot. Notiser, 1865: 40, 1865 - Verrucaria hymenogonia Nyl., Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 430, 1856.

Syn.: Polyblastia spurcella (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Polyblastia ventosa A.Massal. non Arnold, Polyblastia ventosa v. dispersa A.Massal., Staurothele arenarum de Lesd., Staurothele mediterranea de Lesd., Staurothele ventosa (A.Massal.) P.Syd.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: r, C: r, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: on soft calciferous rocks, incl. calcareous sandstone and dolomite, sometimes also on mortar walls.


+Staurothele immersa (A.Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

Die Flechten von Tirol: 553, 1902 - Porphyriospora immersa [Bagl. ex] A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 102, 1855.



N - TAA, Lig. C - Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on limestone and dolomite, this is one of the few species of the genus with optimum below the montane belt.


+Staurothele orbicularis (A.Massal.) Th.Fr.

Öfv. K. Vetensk.-Acad. Förh., 21, 1864: 275, 1865 - Porphyriospora orbicularis A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 154, n. 280, fig. 300, 1852.

Syn.: Porphyriospora orbicularis v. geographica A.Massal., Staurothele nigella (Kremp.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - TAA, Ven, Lig. C - Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: r, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: related to S. guestphalica.


+Staurothele rufa (A.Massal.) Zschacke

Hedwigia, 54: 190, 1913 - Polyblastia rufa A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 147, n. 266, fig. 287, 1852.

Syn.: Polyblastia scabrida (Anzi) Jatta ?, Staurothele rufa f. albescens Servít, Stigmatomma rufum (A.Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Stigmatomma rufum v. subathallinum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Thelotrema scabridum Anzi ?

N - TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Abr.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calcareous rocks in the mountains.


+Staurothele rugulosa (A.Massal.) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 47: 389, 1897 - Polyblastia rugulosa A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 139, n. 326, fig. 171, t. 26, 1853.

Syn.: Staurothele amphiboloides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Thelidium hammoniense Erichsen

N - Ven, TAA, Piem. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3, 3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on limestone, dolomite, calcareous sandstone, often on walls, roofing tiles etc. Probably more widespread in the Alps, the record from Marche is the southernmost in Italy.


+Staurothele rupifraga (A.Massal.) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 30: 149, 1880 - Polyblastia rupifraga A.Massal., Geneac. Lich.: 24, n. 70, 1854.



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