+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: rc, B: r, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species of calcareous rocks, incl. large pebbles, in rather sheltered situations.


+Thelidium dionantense (Hue) Zschacke

Hedwigia, 62: 130, 1920 - Verrucaria dionantensis Hue [in Tonglet] Bull. Soc. Bot. Belgique, 37: 41, 1898.



C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: to be looked for in the Alps.


+Thelidium impressum (Müll.Arg.) Zschacke

Hedwigia, 62: 124, 1920 - Sagedia impressa Müll.Arg., Flora, 55: 504, 1872.



C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: probably present also in the Alps, but overlooked.


+Thelidium incavatum Mudd

[Nyl. ex] Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 295, 1861.

Syn.: Amphoridium umbrosum A.Massal., Amphoroblastia incavata (Mudd) Servít, Thelidium umbrosum (A.Massal.) A.Massal. non Arnold, Verrucaria cryptarum v. asperata Garov.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Piem (TSB), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on small calcareous pebbles close to the ground, probably more widespread, but overlooked. The relationships with Polyblastia sepulta do await clarification.


+Thelidium minutulum Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 351, 1863.

Syn.: Involucrothele margacea (Leight.) Servít, Thelidium acrotellum Arnold, Thelidium aethioboloides (Nyl.) Vain. non Zschacke, Thelidium exile Arnold, Thelidium hospitum Arnold, Thelidium margaceum (Leight.) Zschacke, Thelidium mesotropum (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ #/ Note: a widespread, cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar pioneer lichen, found on calcareous pebbles close to the ground, on roofing tiles and on brick walls, probaby more widespread in the Alps.


+Thelidium obscurum (Garov.) Zschacke

Hedwigia, 62: 133, 1921 - Verrucaria olivacea v. obscura Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob.: 64, 1865.

Syn.: Involucrothele obscura (Garov.) Servít

N - Lomb, Emil. S - Cal.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a poorly known species of sheltered calcareous rocks.


+Thelidium olivaceum (Fr.) Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 382, 1863 - Verrucaria olivacea Fr., Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 438, 1831.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia olivacea (Fr.) A.Massal., Involucrothele olivacea (Fr.) Servít, Verrucaria pseudolivacea Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Emil, Lig. C - Abr. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species of calcareous rocks, most common in the Alps.


+Thelidium papulare (Fr.) Arnold

Flora, 68: 147, 1855 - Verrucaria papularis Fr., Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 434, 1831.

Syn.: Polyblastia papularis (Fr.) Servít, Sagedia lariana (A.Massal.) Anzi, Sagedia sprucei v. crassiseda Anzi, Thelidium larianum A.Massal., Thelidium pyrenophorum sensu A.Massal. non (Ach.) Mudd, Thelidium rubellum A.Massal., Thelidium sprucei Lönnr., Thelidium ungeri Flot. ?, Thelidium umbilicatum Th.Fr., Thelidium variabile de Lesd. ?, Verrucaria cryptarum Garov., Verrucaria leonina Anzi, Thelidium pyrenophorum f. ungeri (Flot.) Asta, Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?, Thelidium ungeri Flot. ?, Verrucaria sprucei (Lönnr.) Bab.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: r, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on calcareous rocks, with optimum on limestone and dolomite, but also on calciferous schist and sandstone.


+Thelidium pertusatii (Garov.) Jatta

Sylloge: 541, 1900 - Verrucaria pertusatii Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob.: 61, tab. 4, fig. 4, 1865.



N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005), Piem, VA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 5/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ #/ Note: known only from two localities in the W Alps. The type material is on granite, and was collected near a creek.


+Thelidium pyrenophorum (Ach.) Mudd

Man. Brit. Lich.: 294, 1861 - Verrucaria pyrenophora Ach., Lich. Univ.: 285, 1810.

Syn.: Involucrothele auruntii (A.Massal.) Servít, Involucrothele pyrenophora (Ach.) Servít, Involucrothele subincincta Servít, Paraphysothele viridis (Deakin) Zschacke, Thelidium auruntii (A.Massal.) Kremp., Thelidium borreri Arnold, Thelidium incinctum (Vain.) Vain., Thelidium nylanderi (Hepp) Lönnr., Thelidium viride (Deakin) Zahlbr., Verrucaria auruntii A.Massal.

N - VG, Fr, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread lichen, with optimum on limestone and dolomite, but also found on calciferous sandstone, most common in the Alps, rarer, but perhaps more widespread, in the Apennines.


+Thelidium zwackhii (Hepp) A.Massal.

Framm. Lichenogr.: 16, 1855 - Sagedia zwackhii Hepp, Lich. Eur.: n. 96, 1853.

Syn.: Leiophloea bubulcae (A.Massal.) Trevis., Lithoicea bubulcae A.Massal., Sagedia bubulcae (A.Massal.) Anzi, Thelidium bubulcae (A.Massal.) Arnold, Thelidium fueistingii auct., Thelidium microcarpum (Davies ex Leight.) A.L.Sm., Thelidium montinii Beltr., Thelidium sparsulum (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Thelidium subgelatinosum (Sm.) Zschacke, Thelidium velutinum auct. p.p. non (Bernh.) Körb., Thelidium xylospilum (Nyl.) Nyl., Verrucaria xylospila Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 3-5, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a mainly temperate species found on calcareous and basic siliceous rocks and thin layers of soil, e.g. on walls, pebbles, etc., one of the few species of the genus which occur at low altitudes in Italy. Certainly overlooked, and to be searched for more intensively throughout the country.


+Thelignya lignyota (Wahlenb.) M.Jørg. & Henssen

[in Henssen & M. Jørg.] Lichenologist, 22: 145, 1990 - Verrucaria lignyota Wahlenb. [in Ach.] Meth. Lich.: 20, 1803.

Syn.: Porocyphus dispersus A.E.Dahl, Porocyphus ocellatus (Th.Fr.) Henssen, Psorotichia ocellata (Th.Fr.) Forssell, Pyrenopsis ocellata Th.Fr., Verrucaria fuliginea Ach.

C - Sar.

Cr/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on base- or lime-rich siliceous substrata, periodically submerged in cold creeks, or in seepage tracks. To be looked for in the Alps.


+Thelocarpon citrum (Wallr.) Rossman

Stud. Mycol., 42: 221, 1999 - Sphaeria citrum Wallr., Fl. Crypt. Germ., 2: 788, 1833.

Syn.: Thelocarpon arenicola Vain., Thelocarpon herteri J.Lahm, Thelocarpon vicinellum Nyl.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ #/ Note: an ephemeral species of disturbed habitats. Th. vicinellum was described from Italy, on decaying algae on porphyritic stones in a damp, shaded place. The relationships with Th. superellum Nyl. need to be clarified.


+Thelocarpon epibolum Nyl.

Not. Sällsk. F. Fl. Fenn. Förh., 5: 188, 1866.

Syn.: Thelocarpon conoidellum Nyl. Thelocarpon epibolum v. epithallinum (Nyl.) G. Salisb., Thelocarpon epithallinum Leight. ex Nyl.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Lazzarin 2000), TAA.

F/ §/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Peltigera, Solorina spp. and other lichens/ Note: an ephemeral species, found on foliose lichens, rotting wood, decaying bryophytes, peaty soil, overlooked, and more widespread in the Alps.


+Thelocarpon intermediellum Nyl.

Flora, 48: 261, 1865.

Syn.: Thelocarpon intermixtulum Nyl.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Lign/ 1-2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a rarely-collected, but apparently widespread ephemeral species of siliceous rocks and, occasionally, rotten wood.


+Thelocarpon laureri (Flot.) Nyl.

Mém. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 3: 191, 1855 - Sphaeropsis laureri Flot., Bot. Z., 5: 65, 1847.

Syn.: Thelocarpon epithellum Nyl., Thelocarpon epilithellum Nyl., Thelocarpon interceptum (Nyl.) Mig., Thelocarpon prasinellum Nyl.

N - TAA (Hafellner 1995). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Terr-Sax/ 2-3, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: an ephemeral early colonizer of different substrata, incl. roofing tiles, rotten wood, soil, perhaps more widespread, but very much overlooked.


+Thelocarpon lichenicola (Fuckel) Poelt & Hafellner

Phyton, 17: 70, 1975 - Ahlesia lichenicola Fuckel, Jahrb. nassauisch. Ver. f. Naturkunde, 23/24: 281, 1870.

Syn.: Ahlesia strasseri (Zahlbr.) Keissl. ex H.Magn., Thelocarpon ahlesii Fuckel, Thelocarpon applanatum H.Magn., Thelocarpon strasseri Zahlbr.

N - TAA (Hafellner 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Baeomyces spp./ Note: on clay soil in disturbed sites, often in Calluna-heaths, mostly on Baeomyces rufus, probably a commensalistic lichen, to be searched for further in the Alps.


+Thelocarpon macchiae Nimis, Poelt & Puntillo

[in Nimis & al.] Bull.Soc. linn. Provence, 45: 259, 1994.



S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Nimis & al. 1994, Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a recently-described species, easy to overlook, perhaps more widespread in humid Mediterranean Italy, in opening of garrigue vegetation.


+Thelochroa montinii A.Massal.

Symmicta Lich.: 86, 1855.

Syn.: Porocyphus montinii (A.Massal.) Arnold, Psorotichia acrustacea Harm., Psorotichia montinii (A.Massal.) Forssell

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lig. C - Abr, Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch.c/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mainly southern species, found on steeply inclined, south-exposed seepage tracks of calcareous rocks, certainly more widespread.


+Thelomma ocellatum (Körb.) Tibell

Bot. Notiser, 129: 240, 1976 - Acolium ocellatum Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 285, 1861.

Syn.: Cyphelium caliciforme (Flot.) Zahlbr., Cyphelium ocellatum (Körb.) Trevis.

N - TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: rr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a circumboreal-montane species found on hard rotting wood, e.g. on poles and fences, more rarely on Larix and Pinus cembra, certainly more widespread in the Alps, esp. in subcontinental areas, but overlooked, being mostly sterile.


+Thelomma siliceum (Fée) Tibell

Bot. Notiser, 129: 243, 1976 - Gassicurtia silicea Fée [in Mérat] Nouv. Fl. Envir. Paris: 252, 1831.

Syn.: Carlosia lusitanica Samp.

C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on hard siliceous rocks in open sites exposed to humid, maritime winds, probably restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Thelopsis flaveola Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 23: 505, 1873.



S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ Note: a mainly temperate species, found on bark of ancient deciduous trees, but also, in the subalpine belt, on bases of old Rhododendron shrubs, to be looked for further in the Alps.


+Thelopsis isiaca Stizenb.

Ber. St. Gall. naturw. Ges.: 262, 1895.

Syn.: Thelopsis isiaca f. saxicola Poelt

N - Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (TSB), Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Ptenza 2006), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph-Terr-Sax/ 3-4, 2-3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ coast/ Note: a mediterranean-macaronesian species, also knwon from W N America, found on base-rich rocks, soil, mosses, tree bark, mostly Tyrrhenian, locally abundant in coastal situations (e.g. in some islands of the south).


+Thelopsis melathelia Nyl.

Flora, 47: 358, 1864.

Syn.: Sagedia rugosa Anzi, Sagedia melathelia (Nyl.) Jatta, Thelopsis rugosa (Anzi) Jatta, Thelopsis umbratula Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 2-3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on muribund bryophytes, humic soil and plant remains over calcareous substrata.


+Thelopsis rubella Nyl.

Mém. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 3: 200, 1855.

Syn.: Pyrenula bayrhofferi (Zwackh ex Körb.) Hepp, Sagedia rubella (Nyl.) Jatta

N - VG (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995, Carvalho 1997), Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995), Lomb. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on old deciduous trees, esp.near the base of the boles, in areas with high rainfall.


+Thelotrema lepadinum (Ach.) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 132, 1803 - Lichen lepadinus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 30, 1799.

Syn.: Volvaria lepadina (Ach.) A.Massal.

N - Frl, Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil. C - Tosc, Marc, Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen, found on bark of Fagus and Abies, more rarely of other broad-leaved trees in humid forests with frequent fog or near rivers, exceptionally occurring in evergreen mediterranean, coastal-humid forests.


+Thelotrema suecicum (H.Magn.) P.James

Lichenologist, 9: 186, 1977 - Ocellularia suecica H. magn., Bot. Not.: 125, 1937.



N - Frl (Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a rarely collected species found on bark in humid forests.


+Thermutis velutina (Ach.) Flot.

Linnaea, 23: 170, 1850 - Lichen velutinus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 329, 1799.

Syn.: Collema pannosum Hoffm., Collema velutinum (Ach.) Ach., Collema velutinum v. pannosum (Hoffm.) Rabenh., Gonionema velutinum (Ach.) Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut.f/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on base-or mineral-rich siliceous rocks, in seepage tracks.


+Thrombium epigaeum (Pers.) Wallr.

Fl. Krypt. Germ., 3: 294, 1831 - Sphaeria epigaea Pers., Syn. Meth. Fung., addenda: 27, 1801.

Syn.: Thrombium aoristoides I.M. Lamb, Verrucaria epigaea (Pers.) Ach.

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: an ephemeral, probably holarctic colonizer of calciferous, clayey soil in rather disturbed habitats, such as track sides, very easy to overlook, and probably undercollected in Italy.


+Thrombium thelostomum (Harriman) A.L.Sm.

Monogr. Brit. Lich., 2: 307, 1911 - Verrucaria thelostoma [Ach. ex] Harriman [in Winch & al.] Bot. Guide, 2: 44, 1807.

Syn.: Pyrenocarpon flotowianum (Hepp) Trevis. ?, Pyrenopsis flotowiana (Hepp) Nyl. ?, Pyrenula umbonata Ach., Verrucaria flotowiana Hepp ?.

N - VG, TAA.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a very poorly known lichen, found on steeply inclined seepage tracks of calcareous rocks. Certainly it does not belong to Thrombium.


+Thyrea confusa Henssen

[in Henssen & M.Jørg.] Lichenologist, 22: 146, 1990.

Syn.: Omphalaria pulvinata auct., Thyrea pulvinata auct. non (Schaer.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Frut/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: er, D: rr, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined, sunny calcareous faces, certainly more widespread.


+Thyrea girardii (Durieu & Mont.) Bagl. & Carestia

Atti Soc. Critt. Ital., 2: 349, 1881 - Collema girardii Durieu & Mont. [in Durieu] Flore Algérie Crypt., 1: 1999, 1846-1849.

Syn.: Omphalaria helvelloidea (Ach.) Schaer.

N - VG (TSB), Frl, Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Cy.c/ A.i/ Sax/ 4-5, 5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mediterranean to mild-temperate species, found on calcareous rocks, ecology and distribution resembling those of Th. confusa.


+Thyrea plectopsora A.Massal.

Sched. Crit., 4: 75, n 110, 1856.

Syn.: Omphalaria camaromorpha A.Massal. ?, Thyrea phylliscoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

N - VG, Ven, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar (TSB). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Sq/ Cy.c/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on steeply inclined seepage tracks of calcareous rocks. The taxonomic position of this taxon is still not clear (see Nimis 1993: 696).


+Timdalia intricata (H. Magn.) Hafellner

Stapfia 76: 159 (2001) - Acarospora intricata H.Magn., Rabenhorsts' Kryptogamenfl., 9, 5,1: 142, 1935.



N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich siliceous rocks, perhaps more widespread in the Alps.


+Toninia albilabra (Dufour) H.Olivier

Bull. Géogr. Bot., 21: 196, 1911 - Biatora albilabra Dufour [in Fr.] Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 251, 1831

Syn.: Psora albilabra (Dufour) Körb. non auct., Toninia albomarginata de Lesd.

N - TAA, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr: D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species, found on calciferous ground, and in fissures of rocks and walls, often on cyanobacteria or cyanobacterial lichens when young, common only in dry areas, incl. continental Alpine valleys.


+Toninia alutacea (Anzi) Jatta

Fl. Ital. Crypt., 3: 655, 1911 - Thalloidima alutaceum Anzi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 9: 249, 1866.

Syn.: Biatorina alutacea (Anzi) Jatta, Thalloidima intermedium A.Massal. ex Arnold, Toninia intermedia (Arnold) H.Olivier, Toninia subcandida de Lesd. ?


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