+Absconditella annexa



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N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: rc, C: rc, D: rr, E:a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, with southern outposts in steppic-continental regions, found in fissures of the rock, when young often overgrowing cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial lichens.


+Toninia aromatica (Sm.) A.Massal.

Framm. Lichenogr.: 24, 1855 - Lichen aromaticus Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 25: tab. 1777, 1807.

Syn.: Bacidia sardoa (Körb.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia acervulata (Nyl.) Kremp., Bilimbia aromatica (Sm.) Jatta, Bilimbia sanguinaria (Bagl.) Jatta, Bilimbia sardoa Körb., Bilimbia turneri (Leight.) A.L.Sm., Lecidea acervulata Nyl., Lecidea austerula Nyl., Lecidea geoleuca Nyl., Lecidea heterophora Nyl., Lecidea hypsophila Nyl., Lecidea subaromatica Nyl., Lecidea turneri Leight., Raphiospora fusispora Körb., Toninia acervulata (Nyl.) Kremp., Toninia affinis Vězda, Toninia aromatica v. virescens Bagl., Toninia fusispora (Hepp ex Körb.) Th.Fr., Toninia geoleuca (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Toninia heterophora (Nyl.) Arnold, Toninia hypsophila (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Toninia meridionalis de Lesd., Toninia pelophila Poelt & Vězda, Toninia sanguinaria Bagl., Toninia sinensis Zahlbr., Toninia squamulosa Deakin, Toninia turneri (Leight.) H.Olivier

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Marc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Sar (Vězda Lich.Rar.Exs.90). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 2-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: rc, E: vr, F: c, G: rc, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ paras crustose lichens when young/ Note: a holarctic species with a wide latitudinal range, found on horizontal to weakly inclined surfaces of calcareous to basic siliceous substrata, incl. brick and roofing tiles in urban areas.


+Toninia athallina (Hepp) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 42, 1991 - Biatora athallina Hepp, Flecht. Eur., 9: n. 499, 1860.

Syn.: Catillaria acrustacea Arnold, Catillaria athallina (Hepp) Hellb., Catillaria dvorakii Servít, Catillaria mongolica H.Magn., Catinaria acrustacea (Arnold) Vain., Catinaria athallina (Hepp) Lynge, Kiliasia athallina (Hepp) Hafellner

N - VG, TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-6/ A: vr, A1: r, B: r, C: rr, D: rc, E: er, F: rc, G: rr, H: r/ PF: 1/ p/ u/ Note: a temperate to arctic specis of calcareous rocks, mostly on steeply inclined or underhanging faces in open, dry situations, certainly widespread throughout Italy, but overlooked.


+Toninia candida (Weber) Th.Fr.

K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 7, 2: 33, 1867 - Lichen candidus Weber, Spicil. Fl. Goett.: 193, 1778.

Syn.: Biatorina candida (Weber) Jatta, Lecidea candida (Weber) Ach., Thalloidima candidum (Weber) A.Massal.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4-5, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rr, C: r, D: rr, E: a, F: rr, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ subc/ w/ Note: a mainly southern, incompletely holarctic species, found on steeply inclined calcareous rocks, and in fissures, often on cyanobacteria or cyanobacterial lichens when young.


+Toninia cinereovirens (Schaer.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 107, 1852 - Lecidea cinereovirens Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 3: 109, 1828.

Syn.: Bilimbia cinereovirens (Schaer.) Jatta, Bilimbia fallasca (A.Massal.) Jatta, Bilimbia nigrescens (Anzi) Jatta, Toninia fallasca A.Massal., Toninia nigrescens Anzi, Toninia olivaceoatra H.Magn., Toninia potieri Maheu & Werner, Toninia sbarbaronis de Lesd.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: rr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1/ subc/ w/ Note: a mainly southern, perhaps incompletely holarctic species, found on calciferous and basic siliceous rocks with some seepage of water after rain, on steeply inclined, somehow wheathered faces, in rock fissures and on colonies of cyanobacteria.


+Toninia coelestina (Anzi) Vězda

Cas. Slezsk. Mus. Oprave, ser. A, 10: 105, 1961 - Bacidia coelestina Anzi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 9: 251, 1866.

Syn.: Bacidia atrosanguinea ssp. oribata (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Lecidea oribata (Nyl.) Leight., Lecidea subincompta ssp. oribata Nyl., Toninia aggregata Vězda, Toninia oribata (Nyl.) P.James

N - Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 4, 2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a rare species, found on cyanobacterial lichens or cyanobacterial colonies developing on wheathered calciferous schist.


+Toninia collematicola Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 57-58, 1991.



N - Frl, Lomb.

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3-4, 2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Collema multipartitum/ Note: an obligately lichenicolous fungus, described from the Italian Alps, on limestone, in exposed, south-facing situations.


+Toninia diffracta (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

Österr. bot. Z., 51: 284, 1901 - Thalloidima vesiculare v. diffractum A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 95, n. 178, 1852.

Syn.: Biatorina diffracta (A.Massal.) Jatta, Thalloidima diffractum (A.Massal.) A.Massal.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Piem (Hafellner & al. 2004, Isocrono & al. 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: rc, C: rc, D: c, E: a, F: c, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a mainly southern-eurasiatic species, found in small fissures of steeply inclined faces of calcareous rocks, often on cyanobacteria or cyanobacterial lichens when young, sometimes on soil, optimum at low altitudes, but reaching the Alpine belt.


+Toninia episema (Nyl.) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 62, 1991 - Lecidea episema Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1853: 161, 1853.

Syn.: Biatorina episema (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Catillaria athallina f. parasitica Bagl. ?, Catillaria episema (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Kiliasia episema (Nyl.) Hafellner, Lecidea supernula Nyl., Scutula episema (Nyl.) Zopf

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emi, Lig (Hafellner 2006). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Hafellner 2006), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Hafellner 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: r, C: rc, D: c, E: er, F: c, G: rc, H: r/ PF: 1/ paras Aspicilia calcarea/ Note: a mainly mediterranean(-atlantic) lichenicolus fungus, found on hard limestones.


+Toninia leptogii Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 68, 1991.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 5, 3-4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Leptogium and Collema spp./ Note: on Leptogium lichenoides, L. diffractum, and Collema sp., on steeply inclined to slightly underhanging, weathered limestones wetted by rain in mediterranean habitats.


+Toninia lutosa (Ach.) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 69, 1991 - Lecidea lutosa Ach., Lich. Univ.: 182, 1810.

Syn.: Biatorina verrucosa (A.Massal.) Jatta, Thalloidima verrucosum A.Massal., Toninia verrucosa (A.Massal.) Flagey, Toninia violacea de Lesd.

N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2005). C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). C - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: a probably incompletely holarctic species of continental areas, found on soil and calciferous rocks, often in association with cyanobacteria or cyanobacterial lichens when young. An earlier record from Venezia Giulia (see Nimis 1993: 702) being actually from Slovenia, is not accepted here.


+Toninia massata (Tuck.) Herre

Proc. Wash. Acad. Sc., 12, 2: 103, 1910 - Lecidea massata Tuck., Lich. Calif.: 25, 1866.

Syn.: Biatorina glaucomela (Nyl.) Jatta, Lecidea glaucomela Nyl., Thalloidima glaucomelum (Nyl.) Jatta, Thalloidima kelleri Elenkin, Toninia glaucomela (Nyl.) Boistel, Toninia kelleri (Elenkin) H.Olivier

N - Lig. C - Sar.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 4-5, 2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: an incompletely holarctic, mainly southern species of continental areas, found on soil and in fissures of calciferous rocks with seepage of water after rain, often in association with cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial lichens.


+Toninia mesoidea (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 4: 289, 1926 - Lecidea mesoidea Nyl., Flora, 51: 457, 1868.

Syn.: Bilimbia mesoidea (Nyl.) A.L.Sm.

C - Sar. S - Si (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ coast/ suboc/ #/ Note: a very poorly known, perhaps mediterranean-atlantic species of maritime rocks.


+Toninia nordlandica Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 339, 1874.

Syn.: Lecidea subrimulosa Nyl., Toninia steineri Poelt & Vězda, Toninia subrimulosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: an arctic-alpine, European species, found on steeply inclined to slightly underhanging seepage tracks of calciferous or basic siliceous rocks, almost always on cyanobacterial colonies, or on thalli of Placynthium, at least when young.


+Toninia opuntioides (Vill.) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 76, 1991 - Lichen opuntioides Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné, 3: 967, tab. 55, 1789.

Syn.: Thalloidima bormuelleri Stein ?, Toninia bornmuelleri (Stein) Zahlbr. ?

N - VG (TSB), Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem (TSB), Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc (Benesperi 2007b), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 3-5, 3-4, 3, 2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A: r, B: r, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread, arctic to temperate, circumpolar lichen, found often amongst bryophytes, and always associated to cyanobacterial lichens when young.


+Toninia pennina (Schaer.) Gyeln.

Lilloa, 3: 52, 1938 - Lecidea pennina Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spicil., 3: 120, 1828.

Syn.: Biatora pennina (Schaer.) Hepp, Catillaria scotina (Körb.) Hertel & H.Kilias, Lecidea aeneaeformis (Anzi) Jatta, Lecidea scotina (Körb.) Arnold, Lecidella scotina Körb., Psora aenaeformis Anzi

N - Ven, TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb. C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a rarely colelcted lichen of continental-dry areas, found on steeply inclined seepage tracks of dolomite, rarely of compact limestone, when young, almost always on cyanobacterial colonies.


+Toninia philippea (Mont.) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 79, 1991 - Lecidea philippea Mont., Ann. Sc. Nat., Bot. ser. 3, 12: 291, 1849.

Syn.: Catillaria arctica Lynge, Catillaria areolata H.Magn., Catillaria cirtensis (Stizenb.) Flagey, Catillaria holtedalii Lynge, Catillaria kansuensis H.Magn., Catillaria ligustica de Lesd., Catillaria lutosa (Schaer.) A.Massal., Catillaria philippea (Mont.) A.Massal., Catillaria riparia (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Catillaria subgrisea (Nyl.) Flagey, Kiliasia philippea (Mont.) Hafellner, Kiliasia riparia (Müll.Arg.) Hafellner, Lecidea capitata Anzi, Lecidea cirtensis Stizenb., Lecidea lutosa Mont. ex Schaer., Lecidea subgrisea Nyl., Patellaria riparia Müll.Arg.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4, 3-4, 2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: an incompletely holarctic lichen of dry areas, found on limestone, dolomite, calciferous sandstone and schists in open situations, most common in dry grasslands.


+Toninia physaroides (Opiz) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 4: 275, 1926 - Lecidea physaroides Opiz, Lotos, 6: 158, 1856.

Syn.: Bacillina antipolitana Nyl., Biatorina lurida (Arnold) Jatta, Thalloidima luridum Bagl. ex Arnold, Toninia alluviicola M.Choisy, Toninia lurida (Arnold) H.Olivier

N - Ven, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ Note: a mainly temperate species, most common on soil developing from calciferous sandstone, often found amongst mosses and associated to cyanobacterial lichens when young, rare in limestone areas.


+Toninia plumbina (Anzi) Hafellner & Timdal

[in Timdal] Opera Bot., 110: 85, 1991 - Leciographa plumbina Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 3: 158, 1862.

Syn.: Bacidia plumbina (Anzi) R.Sant.

N - Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Degelia spp./ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic, mainly western species, most probably restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Toninia rosulata (Anzi) H.Olivier

Bull. Géogr. Bot., 21: 197, 1911 - Thalloidima rosulatum Anzi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Milano, 11: 166, 1868.

Syn.: Biatorina rosulata (Anzi) Jatta, Toninia melanocarpizans Zahlbr.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 4-5, 3-5, 3-4, 2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, mainly European species, found on soil and in fissures and crevices of calciferous rocks, often on cyanobacteria or cyanobacterial lichens when young.


+Toninia sedifolia (Scop.) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 93, 1991 - Lichen sedifolius Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 395, 1772.

Syn.: Biatorina vesicularis (Hoffm.) Jatta, Lecidea glebosa Ach., Lecidea subtabacina Nyl., Lecidea vesicularis (Hoffm.) Ach., Lichen radicatus Vill., Lichen squamatus Dicks., Patellaria vesicularis Hoffm., Psora paradoxa (Ehrh.) Hoffm., Thalloidima caeruleonigricans auct., Thalloidima caeruleonigricans v. carolitanum Bagl. ex Arnold, Thalloidima vesiculare (Hoffm.) Boistel, Thalloidima vesiculosum M.Choisy, Toninia arenaria Räsänen, Toninia caeruleonigricans auct. non (Lightf.) Th.Fr., Toninia carolitana (Arnold) Nimis & Poelt, Toninia muricola de Lesd., Toninia ochracea Werner ?, Toninia subtabacina (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Toninia vesicularis (Hoffm.) Boistel, Verrucaria grisea Willd, Römer & Usteri

N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 3-5, 4-5, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vc, C: vc, D: vc, E: er, F: vc, G: c, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, with a broad altitudinal and latitudinal range, found on soil and wheathered calciferous, more rarely basic siliceous rocks, often overgrowing mosses and associated with cyanobacteria or cyanobacterial lichens when young, most common in dry, open grasslands.


+Toninia squalida (Ach.) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 108, fig. 213, 1852 - Lecidea squalida Ach., Lich. Univ.: 169, 1810.

Syn.: Bilimbia caulescens (Anzi) Jatta, Bilimbia multiseptata (Anzi) Jatta, Bilimbia squalida (Ach.) Jatta, Lecidea acervulans Nyl., Lecidea atrorufa v. squarrosa Ach., Lecidea norvegica Sommerf., Toninia acervulans (Nyl.) H.Olivier, Toninia catalaunica V.Wirth & Llimona nom. inval., Toninia caulescens Anzi, Toninia cinereovirens v. verruculosa Th.Fr., Toninia havaasii H.Magn., Toninia multiseptata Anzi, Toninia squarrosa (Ach.) Th.Fr., Toninia squarrosa v. pruinosa Werner, Toninia verruculosa (Th.Fr.) Vain.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 2-3, 4, 3, 2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: rr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an incompletely holarctic lichen with a bery broad latitudinal range, found on soil, more rarely on weathered base-rich or weakly calciferous siliceous rocks in dry-warm areas, often associated to cyanobacteria or cyanobacterial lichen when young.


+Toninia subfuscae (Arnold) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 101, 1991 - Celidium subfuscae Arnold [in Zwackh] Flora, 47: 87, 1864.

Syn.: Bacidia subfuscae (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Bilimbia subfuscae (Arnold) Arnold, Lecidea subfuscaria Nyl., Mycobilimbia subfuscae (Arnold) Rehm

N - VG (TSB), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996). C - Tosc (TSB), Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3-4, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ paras Lecanora and Lecidella spp./ Note: a lichenicolus fungus, found in the thallus of different epilithic (e.g. Lecanora campestris, Lecanora muralis, Lecidella scabra) and also epiphytic (Lecanora subfusca s.lat.) crustose lichens.


+ Toninia subnitida (Hellb.) Hafellner & Türk

Preslia, 76: 157, 2001 - Catillaria subnitida Hellb., Nerikes Lafflora: 92, 1871.

Syn: Catillaria tristis (Müll.Arg.) Arnold, Kiliasia tristis (Müll.Arg.) Hafellner, Lecidea platycarpiza Nyl., Patellaria tristis Müll.Arg.


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